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Brain Connectivity

Rola Farah, Tzipi Horowitz-Kraus
The cingulo-opercular (CO) and fronto-parietal (FP) networks are parts of the cognitive-control system of the brain. Evidence suggests that over the course of development, brain regions supporting cognitive-control functions become more integrated within their networks (i.e., have increased within-network connectivity), more separated from other networks and, due to increased maturation along development, are more functionally connected between the networks. The focus of this study was to characterize the developmental trajectory of the CO and FP networks from early infancy (17 months) to 9 years of age in typically developing children while listening to stories, using functional connectivity analyses...
February 19, 2019: Brain Connectivity
Merideth Addicott, Bruce Luber, Duy Nguyen, Hannah Palmer, Sarah Lisanby, Lawrence Appelbaum
The insular cortex supports the conscious awareness of physical and emotional sensations, and the ability to modulate the insula could have important clinical applications in psychiatry. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) uses transient magnetic fields to induce electrical currents in the superficial cortex. Given its deep location in the brain, the insula may not be directly stimulated by rTMS; however, rTMS may modulate the insula via its functional connections with superficial cortical regions...
February 16, 2019: Brain Connectivity
Elahe' Yargholi, Ali Hossein-Zadeh, Reza Rajimehr
Neuroimaging studies have shown that discrete regions in ventral visual pathway respond selectively to specific object categories. For example, the fusiform face area (FFA) in humans is consistently more responsive to face than non-face images. However, it is not clear how other cortical regions contribute to this preferential response in FFA. To address this question, we performed an fMRI study on human subjects watching naturalistic movie clips from human actions. We then used correlation and multivariate regression (partial least squares regression) analyses to estimate/predict the mean BOLD activity in FFA, from the mean and pattern of responses in 24 visual cortical areas...
February 4, 2019: Brain Connectivity
Swati Agrawal, Vijayakumar Chinnadurai, Ardaman Kaur, Pawan Kumar, Prabhjot Kaur, Rinku Sharma, Ajay Kumar
The present study proposes an approach to understand the effect of task engagement through integrated analysis of modulations in functional networks and associated changes in their neurovascular underpinnings at every voxel. For this purpose, a novel approach which brings re-organization in acquired task-fMRI information based on hemodynamic characteristics of every task stimulus is proposed and validated. At first, modulations in functional networks of visual target detection task were estimated at every voxel through proposed methodology...
January 28, 2019: Brain Connectivity
Seyedmehdi Payabvash, Eva Palacios, Julia P Owen, Maxwell B Wang, Teresa Tavassoli, Molly R Gerdes, Anne Brandes Aitken, Daniel Cuneo, Elysa Marco, Pratik Mukherjee
Prior neuroimaging studies have reported white matter network underconnectivity as a potential mechanism for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this study, we examined the structural connectome of children with ASD using Edge Density Imaging (EDI); and then applied machine leaning algorithms to identify children with ASD based on tract-based connectivity metrics. Boys aged 8 to 12 years were included: 14 with ASD and 33 typically developing children (TDC). The Edge Density (ED) maps were computed from probabilistic streamline tractography applied to high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI)...
January 19, 2019: Brain Connectivity
Lori Sanfratello, Jon Houck, Vince D Calhoun
The importance of how brain networks function together to create brain states has become increasingly recognized. Therefore, an investigation of eyes-open resting state dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) of healthy controls (HC) versus that of schizophrenia patients (SP) via both fMRI and a novel MEG pipeline was completed. The fMRI analysis used a spatial independent component analysis (ICA) to determine the networks on which the dFNC was based. The MEG analysis utilized a source-space activity estimate (MNE/dSPM) whose result was the input to a spatial ICA, on which the networks of the MEG dFNC was based...
January 11, 2019: Brain Connectivity
Kiran Dhakal, Martin Norgaard, Bhim Mani Adhikari, Kristy S Yun, Mukesh Dhamala
Musical improvisation is one of the most complex forms of creative behavior, which offers a realistic task paradigm for the investigation of real-time creativity where revision is not possible. Despite some previous studies on musical improvisation and brain activity, what and how brain areas are involved during musical improvisation are not clearly understood. Here, we designed a new functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, in which, while being in the MRI scanner, advanced jazz improvisers performed improvisatory vocalization and imagery as main tasks and performed a pre-learned melody as a control task...
January 8, 2019: Brain Connectivity
Russell G Port, Jeffrey Berman, Song Liu, Robert E Featherstone, Timothy P L Roberts, Steven J Siegel
Altered gamma-band electrophysiological activity in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is well documented, and analogous gamma-band alterations are recapitulated in several preclinical murine models relevant to ASD. Such gamma-band activity is hypothesized to underlie local circuit processes. Gamma-band cross-frequency coupling (CFC), a related though distinct metric, interrogates local neural circuit signal integration. Several recent studies have observed perturbed gamma-band CFC in individuals with ASD, though the direction of change remains unresolved...
December 27, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Delong Zhang, Zhenni Gao, Bishan Liang, Junchao Li, Yuxuan Cai, Zengjian Wang, Mengxia Gao, Bingqing Jiao, Ruiwang Huang, Ming Liu
Brain neocortex is usually dominated by visual input (with eyes-open, EO), while this visual predominance could be reduced by closing eyes. Cutting off visual input from the eyes (with eyes-closed, EC) would also benefit other sensory performance, however, the neural basis underlying the state-switching remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the brain intrinsic activity of either the EO or EC states by using the resting-state fMRI data from 22 healthy participants. The 10 resting-state networks (RSNs) of these participants were explored by the independent component analysis (ICA) method...
December 18, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Shruti Agarwal, Haris I Sair, Sachin K Gujar, Jun Hua, Hanzhang Lu, Jay J Pillai
AIM: To demonstrate that a novel resting state BOLD ALFF (the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation)-based correction method can substantially enhance the detectability of motor task activation in the presence of tumor-induced neurovascular uncoupling (NVU). METHODS: Twelve de novo brain tumor patients who underwent comprehensive clinical BOLD fMRI exams including task fMRI and resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) were evaluated. Each patient displayed decreased/absent task fMRI activation in the primary ipsilesional primary motor cortex in the absence of corresponding motor deficit or suboptimal task performance, consistent with NVU...
December 14, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Sourabh Pradeep Palande, Vipin Jose, Brandon A Zielinski, Jeffrey S Anderson, P Thomas Fletcher, Bei Wang
A large body of evidence relates autism with abnormal structural and functional brain connectivity. Structural covariance MRI (scMRI) is a technique that maps brain regions with covarying gray matter density across subjects. It provides a way to probe the anatomical structure underlying intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) through the analysis of gray matter signal covariance. In this paper, we apply topological data analysis in conjunction with scMRI to explore network-specific differences in the gray matter structure in subjects with autism versus age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls...
December 13, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Nitin Williams, Gabriele Arnulfo, Sheng Wang, Lino Nobili, Satu Palva, Matias Palva
Community structure, or "modularity", is a fundamentally important aspect in the organisation of structural and functional brain networks, but their identification with community detection methods is confounded by noisy or missing connections. While several methods have been used to account for missing data, the performance of these methods has not been compared quantitatively so far. In this study, we compared four different approaches to account for missing connections when identifying modules in binary and weighted networks using both Louvain and Infomap community detection algorithms...
December 13, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Maryam Falahpour, Alican Nalci, Thomas Liu
Global signal regression (GSR) is a commonly used albeit controversial preprocessing approach in the analysis of resting-state BOLD fMRI data. While the effects of GSR on resting-state functional connectiv- ity measures have received much attention, there has been relatively little attention devoted to its effects on studies looking at the relation between resting-state BOLD measures and independent measures of brain activity. In this study we used simultaneously acquired EEG-fMRI data in humans to examine the effects of GSR on the correlation between resting-state BOLD fluctuations and EEG vigilance measures...
December 7, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Mehrnoush Zobeiri, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Thomas Budde, Ilya Vyacheslavovich Sysoev
Sensory information processing and higher cognitive functions rely on the interactions between thalamus and cortex. Many types of neurological and psychiatric disorders are accompanied or driven by alterations in the brain connectivity. In the present study putative changes in functional and effective cortico-cortical (CC), thalamo-cortical (TC) and cortico-thalamic (CT) connectivity during wakefulness and slow-wave sleep in a model of thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia (TCD), TRIP8b-/- mice and in control (WT) mice are described...
December 6, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Jacob Levman, Zihang Fang, Katarina Zumwalt, Lana Vasung, Patrick MacDonald, Ashley Ruyan Lim, Emi Takahashi
The insula has been implicated in playing important roles in various brain functions including consciousness, homeostasis, perception, self-awareness, language processing, and interpersonal experience. Abnormalities of the insula have been observed in patients suffering from addiction, deteriorating language function, anorexia, and emotional dysregulation. We analyzed typical development of insular connections in a large-scale pediatric population using 642 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. Interpreting the large quantities of acquired data is one of the major challenges in connectomics...
December 1, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Chendi Wang, Bernard Ng, Rafeef Garbi
Brain parcellation is often a prerequisite for network analysis due to the statistical challenges, computational burdens, and interpretation difficulties arising from the high dimensionality of neuroimaging data. Predominant approaches are largely unimodal with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) being the primary modality used. These approaches thus neglect other brain attributes that relate to brain organization. In this paper, we propose an approach for integrating fMRI and diffusion MRI (dMRI) data...
November 30, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Jane E Joseph, Davy Vanderweyen, Joshua Swearingen, Brandon Vaughan, Derek Novo, Xun Zhu, Mulugeta Gebreghzhabier, Leonardo Bonilha, Ramesh Bhatt, Thomas Naselaris, Brian Dean
Face processing capacities become more specialized and advanced during development but neural underpinnings of these processes are not fully understood. The present study applied graph-theory based network analysis to task-negative (resting blocks) and task-positive (viewing faces) fMRI data in children (5-17 years) and adults (18-42 years) to test the hypothesis that development of a specialized network for face processing is driven by task-positive processing (face viewing) more than by task-negative processing (visual fixation) and by both progressive and regressive changes in network properties...
November 29, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Lianne Heleen Scholtens, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Martijn P van den Heuvel
The mammalian brain describes a multi-scale system. At the microscale, axonal, dendritic and synaptic elements ensure neuron-to-neuron communication, and at the macroscale, large-scale projections form the anatomical wiring for communication between cortical areas. While it is clear that both levels of neural organization play a crucial role in brain functioning, their interaction is not extensively studied. Connectome studies of the mammalian brain in cat, macaque and human have recently shown regions with larger and more complex pyramidal cells to have more macroscale corticocortical connections...
November 27, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Bharat Biswal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Brain Connectivity
Sara Larivière, Reinder Vos de Wael, Casey Paquola, Seok-Jun Hong, Bratislav Mišić, Neda Bernasconi, Andrea Bernasconi, Leonardo Bonilha, Boris C Bernhardt
Rapid advances in neuroimaging and network science have produced powerful tools and measures to appreciate human brain organization at multiple spatial and temporal scales. It is now possible to obtain increasingly meaningful representations of whole-brain structural and functional brain networks and to formally assess macroscale principles of network topology. In addition to its utility in characterizing healthy brain organization, individual variability, and life span-related changes, there is high promise of network neuroscience for the conceptualization and, ultimately, management of brain disorders...
November 16, 2018: Brain Connectivity
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