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Frontiers of Medicine

Yumeng Wang, Guiling Li
Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth most commonly diagnosed female malignancy and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. Despite the use of advanced screening and preventive vaccines, more than half of all CC cases are diagnosed at advanced stages, when therapeutic options are extremely limited and side effects are severe. Given these circumstances, new and effective treatments are needed. In recent years, exciting progress has been made in immunotherapies, including the rapid development of immune checkpoint inhibitors...
March 2, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Zhinan Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Ruoxi Zhang, Jing Chen, Diangang Liu, Yu Wang
Increased serum urotensin II (UII) levels in human cirrhotic populations have been recently shown, but the long-term effects of UII receptor antagonist on the cirrhosis have not been investigated. To investigate the therapeutic effects of urotensin II receptor (UT) antagonist palosuran on rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced cirrhosis, the hepatic and systemic hemodynamics, liver fibrosis, the metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13)/ tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) ratio, hepatic Rho-kinase activity, and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity are measured in CCl4 -cirrhotic rats treated with palosuran or vehicle for 4 weeks...
February 28, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Wenjing Zhang, Caijun Zha, Xiumin Lu, Ruichun Jia, Fei Gao, Qi Sun, Meili Jin, Yanhong Liu
Anti-β2 glycoprotein I (anti-β2 GPI) antibodies are important contributors to the development of thrombosis. Anti-β2 GPI antibody complexes with β2 GPI are well known to activate monocytes and endothelial cells via the intracellular NF-kB pathway with prothrombotic implications. By contrast, the interaction of anti- β2 GPI/β2 GPI complexes with platelets has not been extensively studied. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway has been recognized to be an important intracellular signaling pathway in the coagulation cascade and an integral component of arterial and venous thrombosis...
February 28, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Zhen Wang, Jianhui Wu, Xiuyun Tian, Chunyi Hao
Desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) is a rare monoclonal fibroblastic proliferation that is characterized by locally infiltrative but rarely metastatic lesions. Tyrosine kinase and γ-secretase inhibitors are primarily used in the targeted therapy of DF. The use of these drugs, however, is mainly based on the recommendations of retrospective studies with small sample sizes. Previous studies that focused on the mechanism, efficacy, and safety of targeted therapy for DF were reviewed to provide references for clinical applications and research...
February 22, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Chenfei Zhou, Jun Zhang
Strategies in comprehensive therapy for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer have been optimized in the last decades to improve patients' outcomes. However, treatment options remain limited for late-stage or refractory diseases. The efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for treatment of refractory GI cancer has been confirmed by randomized clinical trials. In 2017, pembrolizumab was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as the first agent for treatment of metastatic solid tumors with mismatch repair deficiency, especially for colorectal cancer...
February 22, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Synat Kang, Yanyan Li, Yifeng Bao, Yi Li
Cytokine-activated T cells (CATs) can be easily expanded and are widely applied to cancer immunotherapy. However, the good efficacy of CATs is rarely reported in clinical applications because CATs have no or very low antigen specificity. The low-efficacy problem can be resolved using T cell antigen receptor-engineered CAT (TCR-CAT). Herein, we demonstrate that NY-ESO-1157-165 HLA-A*02:01-specific high-affinity TCR (HAT)-transduced CATs can specifically kill cancer cells with good efficacy. With low micromolar range dissociation equilibrium constants, HAT-transduced CATs showed good specificity with no off-target killing...
February 5, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Zhao Zhang, Jun Jiang, Xiaodong Wu, Mengyao Zhang, Dan Luo, Renyu Zhang, Shiyou Li, Youwen He, Huijie Bian, Zhinan Chen
Lung cancer is the most common incident cancer and the leading cause of cancer death. In recent years, the development of tumor immunotherapy especially chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell has shown a promising future. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is a tumor-specific mutation expressed in various types of tumors and has been detected in non-small cell lung cancer with a mutation rate of 10%. Thus, EGFRvIII is a potential antigen for targeted lung cancer therapy. In this study, CAR vectors were constructed and transfected into virus-packaging cells...
February 5, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Yiwen Cao, Zhenhua Liu, Wen Wu, Ying Qian, Qin Shi, Rong Shen, Binshen Ouyang, Pengpeng Xu, Shu Cheng, Jin Ye, Yiming Lu, Chaofu Wang, Chengde Yang, Li Wang, Weili Zhao
Autoimmune diseases (ADs) increase the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and contribute to poor prognosis of patients. However, the association between immunologic markers and clinical outcome has rarely been investigated. This study aims to analyze the prognostic value of pretreatment immunologic markers in newly diagnosed patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We retrospectively reviewed the data on 502 patients with DLBCL treated in our institution from January 2013 to March 2018. Survival functions were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model...
January 31, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Min Zhang, Jingwen Yang, Wenjing Hua, Zhong Li, Zenghui Xu, Qijun Qian
Immunotherapy has become the fourth cancer therapy after surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. In particular, immune checkpoint inhibitors are proved to be unprecedentedly in increasing the overall survival rates of patients with refractory cancers, such as advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. However, inhibitor therapies are only effective in a small proportion of patients with problems, such as side effects and high costs. Therefore, doctors urgently need reliable predictive biomarkers for checkpoint inhibitor therapies to choose the optimal therapies...
January 24, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Xiaodong Mo, Xiaohui Zhang, Lanping Xu, Yu Wang, Chenhua Yan, Huan Chen, Yuhong Chen, Wei Han, Fengrong Wang, Jingzhi Wang, Kaiyan Liu, Xiaojun Huang
The efficacy of minimal residual disease (MRD)-directed immunotherapy, including interferon-α (IFN- α) treatment and chemotherapy plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-primed donor leukocyte infusion (chemo-DLI), was investigated in patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who were MRDpositive after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). High-risk MDS patients who received non-T-cell-depleted allo-HSCT at the Peking University Institute of Hematology and were MRD-positive after allo-HSCT were studied (n = 47)...
January 24, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Qiongna Dong, Bizhi Shi, Min Zhou, Huiping Gao, Xiaoying Luo, Zonghai Li, Hua Jiang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignant tumor in the digestive tract, and 30%-85% of CRCs express epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). Recently, treatments using cetuximab, also named C225, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, for CRC have been demonstrated to cause an S492R mutation in EGFR. However, little is known about the biological function of S492R EGFR. Therefore, we attempted to elucidate its biological function in CRC cells and explore new treatment strategies for this mutant form. Our study indicated that EGFR and S492R EGFR accelerate the growth of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo and monoclonal antibody CH12, which specifically recognizes an EGFR tumor-specific epitope, can bind efficiently to S492R EGFR...
January 22, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Zhen Xiang, Yingyan Yu
Immune checkpoint inhibitors are a promising strategy in the treatment of cancer, especially advanced types. However, not all patients are responsive to immune checkpoint inhibitors. The response rate depends on the immune microenvironment, tumor mutational burden (TMB), expression level of immune checkpoint proteins, and molecular subtypes of cancers. Along with the Cancer Genome Project, various open access databases, including The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus, provide large volumes of data, which allow researchers to explore responsive or resistant biomarkers of immune checkpoint inhibitors...
January 18, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Renyu Zhang, Zhao Zhang, Zekun Liu, Ding Wei, Xiaodong Wu, Huijie Bian, Zhinan Chen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. This malignancy is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality. Novel approaches for prolonging the overall survival of patients with advanced HCC are urgently needed. The antitumor activities of adoptive cell transfer therapy (ACT), such as strategies based on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and cytokine-induced killer cells, are more effective than those of traditional strategies. Currently, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) immunotherapy has achieved numerous breakthroughs in the treatment of hematological malignancies, including relapsed or refractory lymphoblastic leukemia and refractory large B-cell lymphoma...
January 18, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Xiaoxiao Chen, Yanjing Tang, Jing Chen, Ru Chen, Longjun Gu, Huiliang Xue, Ci Pan, Jingyan Tang, Shuhong Shen
Homoharringtonine (HHT), a plant alkaloid from Cephalotaxus harringtonia, exhibits a unique anticancer mechanism and has been widely used in China to treat patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) since the 1970s. Trial SCMC-AML-2009 presented herein was a randomized clinical study designed based on our previous findings that pediatric AML patients younger than two years old may benefit from HHT-containing chemotherapy regimens. Patients randomized to arm A were treated with a standard chemotherapy regimen comprising mainly of anthracyclines and cytarabine (Ara-C), whereas patients in arm B were treated with HHT-containing regimens in which anthracyclines in all but the initial induction therapy were replaced by HHT...
January 12, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Xin Wu, Xiaobao Sheng, Rong Sheng, Hongjuan Lu, Huji Xu
Although many drugs and therapeutic strategies have been developed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment, numerous patients with RA fail to respond to currently available agents. In this review, we provide an overview of the complexity of this autoimmune disease by showing the rapidly increasing number of genes associated with RA.We then systematically review various factors that have a predictive value (predictors) for the response to different drugs in RA treatment, especially recent advances. These predictors include but are certainly not limited to genetic variations, clinical factors, and demographic factors...
January 12, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Dan Luo, Zhengyun Zuo, Hongyan Zhao, Yong Tan, Cheng Xiao
Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) and its extracts have long been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune diseases, and kidney disease due to their anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, and other pharmacological effects. However, the clinical immunoregulatory effects of TwHF and its extracts remain unclear, so we reviewed their effects for use in clinical practice. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the recent literature on the immunoregulatory effects of TwHF and its extracts in clinical studies...
January 2, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Ling Wang, Ying Wang, Jiong Hu, Yuqian Sun, He Huang, Jing Chen, Jianyong Li, Jun Ma, Juan Li, Yingmin Liang, Jianmin Wang, Yan Li, Kang Yu, Jianda Hu, Jie Jin, Chun Wang, Depei Wu, Yang Xiao, Xiaojun Huang
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a major infectious complication in patients with hematological malignancies. In this study, we examined 4889 courses of chemotherapy in patients with hematological diseases to establish a training dataset (n = 3500) by simple random sampling to develop a weighted risk score for proven or probable IFD through multivariate regression, which included the following variables: male patients, induction chemotherapy for newly diagnosed or relapsed disease, neutropenia, neutropenia longer than 10 days, hypoalbuminemia, central-venous catheter, and history of IFD...
January 2, 2019: Frontiers of Medicine
Qun Luo, Wanglong Deng, Haiwei Wang, Huiyong Fan, Ji Zhang
Bromodomain-containing 4 (BRD4) has been considered as an important requirement for disease maintenance and an attractive therapeutic target for cancer therapy. This protein can be targeted by JQ1, a selective small-molecule inhibitor. However, few studies have investigated whether BRD4 influenced acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and whether BRD4 had interaction with promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor α (PML/RARα) fusion protein to some extent. Results from cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis, and Annexin-V/PI analysis indicated that JQ1 inhibited the growth of NB4 cells, an APL-derived cell line, and induced NB4 cell cycle arrest at G1 and apoptosis...
December 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Xiaoqing Li, Xinxin Li, Genbei Wang, Yan Xu, Yuanyuan Wang, Ruijia Hao, Xiaohui Ma
Xiao Ke Qing (XKQ) granule has been clinically used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for 10 years in Chinese traditional medication. However, its mechanisms against hyperglycemia remain poorly understood. This study aims to investigate XKQ mechanisms on diabetes and diabetic liver disease by using the KKAy mice model. Our results indicate that XKQ can significantly reduce food and water intake. XKQ treatment also remarkably decreases both the fasting blood glucose and blood glucose in the oral glucose tolerance test...
December 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
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