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Food & Function

N Rafiee Tari, E Arranz, M Corredig
An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that differences in protein composition in the food matrix can significantly affect its biological functionality. The present research hypothesized that a matrix containing the same level of dairy protein, but with different composition, even when showing similar properties during digestion, may have a different biological functionality. To test this hypothesis, three matrices, containing 2.8% protein and similar amounts of fat and solid were prepared, either with 100% whey proteins, or with a ratio of caseins to whey protein of 40 : 60, but differing in β-casein ratio...
February 15, 2019: Food & Function
Qixiao Zhai, Yang Liu, Chen Wang, Dingwu Qu, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Fengwei Tian, Wei Chen
The management of lead (Pb) exposure and toxicity remains a major public health priority worldwide. In our previous study, the probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM8661 prevented Pb absorption in mice via intestinal sequestration. This follow-up study aimed to evaluate the additional protective mechanism of L. plantarum CCFM8661 with a focus on its regulation of enterohepatic circulation. We first confirmed the relationship between the enterohepatic circulations of Pb and bile acid (BA) by administering a BA sequestrant, cholestyramine, to mice with a high Pb burden...
February 15, 2019: Food & Function
Lei Zhao, Kai Wang, Weichao Li, Thanapop Soteyome, Hang Xiao, Zhuoyan Hu
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a polyphenolic extract from longan seeds as a wound-healing material for deep second-degree burn wounds. The total phenol content of the extract reached 45.28 ± 1.22 mg GAE per g DW when 70% ethanol was used as the extraction solvent, and then AB-8 resin was used for purification. Results from the antioxidant assay in vitro (DPPH˙ and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity) and antimicrobial activity assay (ZOI, MIC and MBC) showed that the fractions eluted by 30% ethanol tend to have greater antioxidant ability, as well as higher bactericidal and antibacterial activities, than the other elution fractions...
February 15, 2019: Food & Function
Susana Chamorro, Carlos Romero, Agustín Brenes, Fernando Sánchez-Patán, Begoña Bartolomé, Agustín Viveros, Ignacio Arija
The effect of dietary supplementation with grape extract (GE) at 2.5 and 5.0 g kg-1 of feed on intestinal utilization of polyphenols and gut health of broiler chickens was determined. The ileal digestibility of grape polyphenols was higher for flavan-3-ol monomers [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin] than for dimers (Procyanidins B1 and B2) and galloylated compounds [(-)-epicatechingallate] and no differences among 2.5 and 5.0 g GE per kg dietary treatments were observed. The excreta concentration of benzoic, phenylacetic, phenylpropionic, and cinnamic acids and phenyl-γ-valerolactone phenolic metabolites was higher in birds fed GE, confirming hence the microbial metabolism of grape polyphenols to a relevant extent...
February 15, 2019: Food & Function
Liang Hu, Baojun Zhang, Daishe Wu, Houbao Fan, Jie Tu, Wenfei Liu, Rongzhen Huang, Xueping Huang
Consumption of arsenic (As)-contaminated vegetables is a major As exposure pathway for humans. However, little is known about plant As uptake characteristics and the bioaccessibility of As after ingestion of As-contaminated radish. The present study investigated As concentrations and species in As-contaminated radish and assessed the effects of steamed, griddled and boiled cooking on the bioaccessibility of As in radish using in vitro digestion. The results showed that the radish accumulated 46.3 ± 2.3, 79...
February 14, 2019: Food & Function
Anestis C Karkanis, Ângela Fernandes, Josiana Vaz, Spyridon Petropoulos, Eleftheria Georgiou, Ana Ciric, Marina Sokovic, Taofiq Oludemi, Lillian Barros, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Sanguisorba minor Scop. is a perennial plant native to the Mediterranean region which exhibits several medicinal activities. In the present study, plant growth, chemical composition, and antitumor and antimicrobial properties of S. minor plants were evaluated under different growing conditions. In particular, plants were grown on different substrates, namely (A) peat, (B) peat : perlite (1 : 1) and (C) peat : perlite (2 : 1). The dry weight of the aerial parts and roots was higher for the peat treatment (A), whereas plant growth was severely affected in the peat : perlite (1 : 1) treatment (B)...
February 14, 2019: Food & Function
Yuncong Xu, Yuhui Yang, Jin Sun, Yuanyuan Zhang, Tingyu Luo, Bowen Li, Yuge Jiang, Yonghui Shi, Guowei Le
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) has been reported to extend lifespan, improve insulin sensitivity, reduce adiposity and inflammation response, and in particular, increase endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production. H2S is a critical anti-inflammatory molecule in the central nervous system and a gaseous signal molecule that mediates learning and memory function. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate whether MR can ameliorate the impairment of learning and memory function induced by obesity, and to clarify its possible mechanisms...
February 13, 2019: Food & Function
Chunxiu Lin, Xiaoying Zhang, Jie Xiao, Qiqi Zhong, Yong Kuang, Yong Cao, Yunjiao Chen
The beneficial effects of carnosic acid (CA) on health in terms of antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-cancer and neuroprotective properties have long been recognized. However, the role of CA in aging remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects on longevity extension, as well as the mechanism of action, of CA in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). The results suggest that CA increased the lifespan of C. elegans. Meanwhile, CA was absorbed by the worms and promoted the healthspan of C...
February 13, 2019: Food & Function
Lei Guan, Junli Liu, Hanjieyu Yu, Huiqin Tian, Guanglu Wu, Boyu Liu, Ping Dong, Jing Li, Xingguo Liang
In this research, astaxanthin-rich nanopowder was prepared by nanoencapsulation and freeze-drying techniques with enhanced bioavailability and antioxidant activities. The nanopowder showed a maximum solubility of 230 mg mL-1 with an astaxanthin content as high as 2.9%. Compared with free astaxanthin, the astaxanthin-loaded nanopowder exhibited a more efficient antioxidant effect: an oral dose of 0.9 mg per kg BW significantly reduced the malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, and increased the glutathione content as well as the superoxide dismutase activities in alcohol-induced acute hepatic injured mice, and maintained these oxidative stress indicators at a normal level for a longer period when treated with nanoencapsulated-astaxanthin than free astaxanthin...
February 12, 2019: Food & Function
Caimei He, Jun Deng, Xin Hu, Sichun Zhou, Jingtao Wu, Di Xiao, Kwame Oteng Darko, Yanjun Huang, Ting Tao, Mei Peng, Zhiren Wang, Xiaoping Yang
Inflammation caused by either intrinsic or extrinsic toxins results in intestinal barrier dysfunction, contributing to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other diseases. Vitamin A is a widely used food supplement although its mechanistic effect on intestinal structures is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to explore the mechanism by investigating the influence of vitamin A on the intestinal barrier function, represented by tight junctions. IPEC-J2 cells were differentiated on transwell inserts and used as a model of intestinal barrier permeability...
February 12, 2019: Food & Function
Jong Deok Na, Yeo Jin Choi, Doo Sung Jun, Young Chul Kim
Betaine is a methyl donor utilized in regeneration of methionine from homocysteine in a metabolic reaction catalyzed by betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT), an enzyme mostly localized in the liver. However, we recently showed that the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in the kidney was also influenced by betaine, which is attributable to elevation of renal methionine availability resulting from an increase in its supply through blood. In this study we investigated the change in pulmonary sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism by betaine and its potential beneficial effect on paraquat (PQ)-induced lung injury...
February 12, 2019: Food & Function
César G Fraga, Kevin D Croft, David O Kennedy, Francisco A Tomás-Barberán
Although deficiencies in polyphenol intake do not result in specific deficiency diseases, adequate intake of polyphenols could confer health benefits, especially with regard to chronic diseases. Tea, cocoa, fruits, and berries, as well as vegetables, are rich in polyphenols. Flavan-3-ols from cocoa have been found to be associated with a reduced risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and diabetes, as well as improvements in lipids, endothelial-dependent blood flow and blood pressure, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation...
February 12, 2019: Food & Function
Qixiao Zhai, Xue Gong, Chen Wang, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Fengwei Tian, Wei Chen
Patulin (PAT) is a mycotoxin widely found in fruits and vegetables. Several reviews and studies have hypothesized that in vivo PAT toxicity is related to gut barrier dysfunction, but evidence for this is not substantial. The goal of the present study was to further demonstrate the role of the gut barrier in food-borne PAT toxicity. In vitro assays showed that PAT exposure induced significant cell death, inhibited the mRNA expressions of tight junction proteins and increased gut permeability in Caco-2 cell monolayers...
February 11, 2019: Food & Function
Xiaoli Wu, Benqin Tang, Xian Liao, Ziren Su, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Yefeng Cai, Chuwen Li
The aim of the present study was to explore whether the supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract from flowers and buds of Chrysanthemum indicum (SEC) exhibits antidepressant-like effects in a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced mice model. Firstly, SEC was found to reverse a CUMS-induced decrease in the body weight gain in mice. Next, SEC was found to alleviate CUMS-induced depressive-like behavior, evidenced by the reversal of the decrease in the sucrose consumption in the sucrose preference test (SPT), the increase in the locomotor activity in the open field test (OPF), and the alleviation of immobility duration in both the forced swimming test (FST), and tail-suspension test (TST)...
February 11, 2019: Food & Function
Dabo Pan, Chen Zeng, Weiyang Zhang, Ting Li, Zifei Qin, Xiaojun Yao, Yi Dai, Zhihong Yao, Yang Yu, Xinsheng Yao
In this study, an efficient strategy developed by integrating UPLC-Q/TOF-MS, network pharmacology, and molecular simulation, was proposed and applied for rapidly screening bioactive candidates from ginger. A UPLC-Q/TOF MS-guided isolation targeting non-volatile pungent compounds resulted in the isolation and identification of 19 compounds in the rhizome of Zingiber officinale, including six new compounds (1-6). Based on target prediction and Gene Ontology (GO), the primary biological function of compounds was predicted to be associated with cancer and the key target was VEGFR2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2)...
February 11, 2019: Food & Function
Yang Liu, Xiaoling Lin, Qingyong Li, Min Wang, Mao Zhou, Zhi Wang, Shuling Peng, Ruiwen Ren, Erdong Yuan, Jiaoyan Ren
Two novel peptides WW4 and WW7 were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, membrane penetrance and inhibiting activity of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) aggregation. The results showed that both WW7 (10.38 ± 0.22 μmol TE per μmol) and WW4 (6.32 ± 0.77 μmol TE per μmol) possessed a significant oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) and strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) scavenging capacity (WW7, IC50 0.05 ± 0.002; WW4, 1.06 ± 0.07). Interestingly, WW7 exhibited relatively higher antioxidant activity than WW4...
February 11, 2019: Food & Function
Siyu Wang, Min-Hsiung Pan, Wei-Lun Hung, Yen-Chen Tung, Chi-Tang Ho
The global incidence of obesity and its complications continue to rise along with a demand for novel therapeutic approaches. In addition to classic brown adipose tissue (BAT), the formation of brown-like adipocytes called beige adipocytes, within white adipose tissue (WAT), has attracted much attention as a therapeutic target due to its inducible features when stimulated, resulting in the dissipation of extra energy as heat. There are various dietary agents that are able to modulate the beige-development process by interacting with critical molecular signaling cascades, leading to the enhancement of thermogenesis...
February 8, 2019: Food & Function
Carla Nunes, Víctor Freitas, Leonor Almeida, João Laranjinha
The altered expression and subcellular distribution of tight junction (TJ) proteins, leading to a dysfunctional intestinal barrier, is a key mechanistic feature of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, increasing the integrity of the intestinal barrier by manipulating the TJ may constitute an innovative and effective therapeutic strategy in IBD. In this context, recent studies showed that dietary polyphenols are able to protect the intestinal TJ barrier integrity. Here, using a cellular model of intestinal inflammation, consisting of cytokine-stimulated HT-29 colon epithelial cells, we show that a polyphenolic extract obtained from Portuguese red wine (RWE) decreased the paracellular permeability across the cell monolayer compared with the control cells, even in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
February 8, 2019: Food & Function
Jia Wang, Wei Shen, Jun-Yan Zhang, Chang-Hao Jia, Mei-Lin Xie
Stevioside, a natural glycoside compound, has many beneficial biological activities, but its protective effect on myocardial fibrosis has not been reported yet. This study aimed to investigate the effect of stevioside. The isoproterenol-induced model mice were orally given stevioside 75-300 mg kg-1 for 40 days. The results showed that after the administration of stevioside, the myocardial hydroxyproline, collagen accumulation, and protein expressions of collagen I/III, α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65), Smad2/3, and P-Smad2/3 were decreased, while the glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels in serum and myocardial tissues and protein expressions of myocardial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and Smad7 were increased...
February 8, 2019: Food & Function
Tao Tong, Minji Kim, Taesun Park
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common and debilitating condition that lacks a pharmacological therapy. Our aim was to investigate the potential of α-ionone, a naturally occurring flavoring agent, in preventing muscle atrophy and to delineate the mechanisms involved. We found that α-ionone not only stimulated myogenesis but also attenuated palmitic-acid-induced atrophy of cultured skeletal myotubes, as evidenced by an increased myotube diameter and length, fusion index, and cellular protein content. These beneficial actions of α-ionone were abrogated by cAMP inhibitor...
February 8, 2019: Food & Function
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