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Frontiers in Physiology

Wenxu Pan, Chuan Liu, Jihang Zhang, Xubin Gao, Shiyong Yu, Hu Tan, Jie Yu, Dehui Qian, Jiabei Li, Shizhu Bian, Jie Yang, Chen Zhang, Lan Huang, Jun Jin
Appetite loss is a common symptom that occurs in high altitude (HA) for lowlanders. Previous studies indicated that hypoxia is the initiating vital factor of HA appetite loss. PPARA, EPAS1, EGLN1, HIF1A, HIF1AN , and NFE2L2 play important roles in hypoxic responses. We aimed to explore the association of these hypoxia-related gene polymorphisms with HA appetite loss. In this study, we enrolled 416 young men who rapidly ascended to Lhasa (3700 m) from Chengdu (<500m) by plane. PPARA, EPAS1, EGLN1, HIF1A, HIF1AN , and NFE2L2 were genotyped by MassARRAY...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Alexander Steger, Alexander Müller, Petra Barthel, Michael Dommasch, Katharina Maria Huster, Katerina Hnatkova, Daniel Sinnecker, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Marek Malik, Georg Schmidt
Non-invasive risk stratification of cardiac patients has been the subject of numerous studies. Most of these investigations either researched unique risk predictors or compared the predictive power of different predictors. Fewer studies suggested a combination of a small number of non-invasive indices to increase the accuracy of high-risk group selection. To advance non-invasive risk assessment of cardiac patients, we propose a combination score (termed the Polyscore) of seven different cardiac risk stratifiers that predominantly quantify autonomic cardiovascular control and regulation, namely the slope of heart rate turbulence, deceleration capacity of heart rate, non-invasively assessed baroreflex sensitivity, resting respiration frequency, expiration triggered sinus arrhythmia, post-ectopic potentiation of systolic blood pressure, and frequency of supraventricular and ventricular ectopic beats...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Suraj Kukadia, Hakim-Moulay Dehbi, Therese Tillin, Emma Coady, Nish Chaturvedi, Alun D Hughes
Dietary inorganic nitrate in beetroot can act as a source of nitric oxide and has been reported to lower brachial blood pressure (BP). This study examined the effect of inorganic nitrate in beetroot juice on aortic (central) BP acutely and over the subsequent 24-h period. A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial was performed in fifteen healthy, normotensive men and women (age 22-40 years). Participants were randomized to receive beetroot juice containing nitrate (6.5-7.3 mmol) or placebo beetroot juice from which nitrate had been removed (<0...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Dionysia Dimitrakopoulou, Dieter Tulkens, Pieter Van Vlieberghe, Kris Vleminckx
Aquatic vertebrate organisms such as zebrafish have been used for over a decade to model different types of human cancer, including hematologic malignancies. However, the introduction of gene editing techniques such as CRISPR/Cas9 and TALEN, have now opened the road for other organisms featuring large externally developing embryos that are easily accessible. Thanks to its unique diploid genome that shows a high degree of synteny to the human, combined with its relatively short live cycle, Xenopus tropicalis has now emerged as an additional powerful aquatic model for studying human disease genes...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Eric Lichtenstein, Oliver Faude, Aline Zubler, Ralf Roth, Lukas Zahner, Roland Rössler, Timo Hinrichs, Jaap H van Dieën, Lars Donath
Background: Assessing traditional neuromuscular fall risk factors (i.e., balance, gait, strength) in the elderly has so far mainly been done independently. Functional and integrative testing approaches are scarce. The present study proposes an agility course for an integrative assessment of neuromuscular and also cardiocirculatory capacity in seniors - and tests its criterion validity and reliability. Methods: Thirty-six seniors (age: 69.0 ± 2.8 years; BMI: 25.4 ± 3.5 kg/m2 ; sex: 19 males/17 females; weekly physical activity: 9...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Katharina Endes, Sabrina Köchli, Lukas Zahner, Henner Hanssen
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains to be one of the most frequent causes of death worldwide. Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors such as hypertension and obesity often manifest in childhood. The study examines the associations of blood pressure, body mass index and physical activity with cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and psychosocial health of children in a systems physiology approach. Methods/Design: This cross-sectional study will be performed in a cohort of 6 to 8 year old school children ( n = 1000)...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Johanna K Ihalainen, Alistair Inglis, Tuomas Mäkinen, Robert U Newton, Heikki Kainulainen, Heikki Kyröläinen, Simon Walker
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of frequency, thereby increasing training volume, of resistance training on body composition, inflammation markers, lipid and glycemic profile in healthy older individuals (age range 65-75 year). Ninety-two healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups; performing strength training one- (EX1), two- (EX2), or three- (EX3) times-per-week and a non-training control (CON) group. Whole-body strength training was performed using 2-5 sets and 4-12 repetitions per exercise and 7-9 exercises per session...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Muhammad Zeeshan Shabbir, Tiantao Zhang, Zhenying Wang, Kanglai He
Background: Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis can develop resistance to transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize expressing Cry1Ah-toxin. However, the mechanisms that regulate the resistance of ACB to Cry1Ah-toxin are unknown. Objective: In order to understand the molecular basis of the Cry1Ah-toxin resistance in ACB, "omics" analyses were performed to examine the difference between Cry1Ah-resistant (ACB-AhR) and susceptible (ACB-BtS) strains of ACB at both transcriptional and translational levels...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Erik Willemen, Rick Schreurs, Peter R Huntjens, Marc Strik, Gernot Plank, Edward Vigmond, John Walmsley, Kevin Vernooy, Tammo Delhaas, Frits W Prinzen, Joost Lumens
Introduction: Timing of atrial, right (RV), and left ventricular (LV) stimulation in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is known to affect electrical activation and pump function of the LV. In this study, we used computer simulations, with input from animal experiments, to investigate the effect of varying pacing delays on both LV and RV electrical dyssynchrony and contractile function. Methods: A pacing protocol was performed in dogs with atrioventricular block ( N = 6), using 100 different combinations of atrial (A)-LV and A-RV pacing delays...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Ferran Comas, Cristina Martínez, Mònica Sabater, Francisco Ortega, Jessica Latorre, Francisco Díaz-Sáez, Julian Aragonés, Marta Camps, Anna Gumà, Wifredo Ricart, José Manuel Fernández-Real, José María Moreno-Navarrete
Background: Nrg4 expression has been linked to brown adipose tissue activity and browning of white adipocytes in mice. Here, we aimed to investigate whether these observations could be translated to humans by investigating NRG4 mRNA and markers of brown/beige adipocytes in human visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). We also studied the possible association of NRG4 with insulin action. Methods: SAT and VAT NRG4 and markers of brown/beige ( UCP1, UCP3, and TMEM26 )-related gene expression were analyzed in two independent cohorts ( n = 331 and n = 59)...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Elizabeth M Annoni, Dusty Van Helden, Yugene Guo, Brett Levac, Imad Libbus, Bruce H KenKnight, John W Osborn, Elena G Tolkacheva
Chronic hypertension (HTN) affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Despite decades of promising research, effective treatment of HTN remains challenging. This work investigates vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) as a novel, device-based therapy for HTN treatment, and specifically evaluates its effects on long-term survival and HTN-associated adverse effects. HTN was induced in Dahl salt-sensitive rats using a high-salt diet, and the rats were randomly divided into two groups: VNS ( n = 9) and Sham ( n = 8), which were implanted with functional or non-functional VNS stimulators, respectively...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Jong Han Lee, Hee-Sook Jun
Loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength has recently become a hot research topic with the extension of life span and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle in modern society. Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is considered an essential determinant of muscle strength and function. Myokines are cytokines synthesized and released by myocytes during muscular contractions. They are implicated in autocrine regulation of metabolism in the muscle as well as in the paracrine/endocrine regulation of other tissues and organs including adipose tissue, the liver, and the brain through their receptors...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Shireesh Srivastava, Richard L Veech
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is proposed to maintain thermal homeostasis through dissipation of chemical energy as heat by the uncoupling proteins (UCPs) present in their mitochondria. The recent demonstration of the presence of BAT in humans has invigorated research in this area. The research has provided many new insights into the biology and functioning of this tissue and the biological implications of its altered activities. Another finding of interest is browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) resulting in what is known as beige/brite cells, which have increased mitochondrial proteins and UCPs...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Michael John Hamlin, Danielle Wilkes, Catherine A Elliot, Catherine A Lizamore, Yaso Kathiravel
With increased professionalism in sport there has been a greater interest in the scientific approach to training and recovery of athletes. Applying appropriate training loads along with adequate recovery, is essential in gaining maximal adaptation in athletes, while minimizing harm such as overreaching, overtraining, injury and illness. Although appropriate physical stress is essential, stress for many athletes may come from areas other than training. Stress from may arise from social or environmental pressure, and for many athletes who combine elite athletic training with university study, academic workloads create significant stress which adds to the constant pressure to perform athletically...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Lisa Hobuß, Christian Bär, Thomas Thum
During the past decade numerous studies highlighted the importance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in orchestrating cardiovascular cell signaling. Classified only by a transcript size of more than 200 nucleotides and their inability to code for proteins, lncRNAs constitute a heterogeneous group of RNA molecules with versatile functions and interaction partners, thus interfering with numerous endogenous signaling pathways. Intrinsic transcriptional regulation of lncRNAs is not only specific for different cell types or developmental stages, but may also change in response to stress factors or under pathological conditions...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Shen Zhang, Shaohua Gu, Xinzhi Ni, Xianchun Li
In organisms with very low percentages of transposable elements (TEs), genome size may positively or negatively correlate with host range, depending on whether host adaptation or host modification is the main route to host generalism. To test if this holds true for insect herbivores with greater percentages of TEs, we conducted flow cytometry to measure the endopolyploidy levels and C-values of the host modification (salivary gland and mandibular gland in head), host adaptation (midgut), and host use-independent tissues (male gonad, hemolymph, and Malpighian tubules) of the generalist Helicoverpa armigera and the head of its older specialist sister H...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Veronika Golubinskaya, Regina Vontell, Veena Supramaniam, Josephine Wyatt-Ashmead, Helena Gustafsson, Carina Mallard, Holger Nilsson
Bestrophin-3, a potential candidate for a calcium-activated chloride channel, recently was suggested to have cell-protective functions. We studied the expression and alternative splicing of bestrophin-3 in neonatal mouse brain and after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury and in human neonatal brain samples. HI brain injury was induced in 9-day old mice by unilateral permanent common carotid artery occlusion in combination with exposure to 10% oxygen for 50 min. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was induced by thapsigargin treatment in primary culture of mouse brain astrocytes...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Paolo T Pianosi, Joshua R Smith
Purpose: Attribution of ventilatory limitation to exercise when the ratio of ventilation ( <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:msub> <mml:mover> <mml:mi>V</mml:mi> <mml:mo>˙</mml:mo> </mml:mover> <mml:mi>E</mml:mi> </mml:msub> </mml:mrow> </mml:math> ) at peak work to maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) exceeds 0.80 is problematic in pediatrics. Instead, expiratory flow limitation (EFL) measured by tidal flow-volume loop (FVL) analysis - the method of choice - was compared with directly measured MVV or proxies to determine ventilatory limitation...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Juan C Capaz, Louise Tunnah, Tyson J MacCormack, Simon G Lamarre, Antonio V Sykes, William R Driedzic
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00344.].
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Yun-Long Zhang, Guang-Yi Wang, Zi-Han Zhang, Yun-Yi Xie, Hui Jin, Zhao-Ran Dong
The Paramisgurnus dabryanus was exposed to air to assess the changes in plasma, liver and muscle free amino acid (FAA) contents. The FAA concentrations in plasma, liver and muscle of P. dabryanus were significantly affected by aerial exposure ( P < 0.05). After 12 h of aerial exposure, the plasma glutamate contents increased significantly ( P < 0.05) and reached peak value at 24 h of air exposure. With increasing air exposure time, the plasma alanine contents increased significantly and more dramatically than the control values ( P < 0...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
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