Ryan T McCallum, Rachel-Karson Thériault, Joshua D Manduca, Isaac S B Russell, Angel M Culmer, Janan Shoja Doost, Tami A Martino, Melissa L Perreault
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurring affective disorder that is two times more prevalent in females than males. Evidence supports immune system dysfunction as a major contributing factor to MDD, notably in a sexually dimorphic manner. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a regulator of antioxidant signalling during inflammation, is dysregulated in many chronic inflammatory disorders; however, its role in depression and the associated sex differences have yet to be explored...
February 13, 2024: Biology of Sex Differences
Lise Eliot
Human brain sex differences have fascinated scholars for centuries and become a key focus of neuroscientists since the dawn of MRI. We recently published a major review in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews showing that most male-female brain differences in humans are small and few have been reliably replicated. Although widely cited, this work was the target of a critical Commentary by DeCasien et al. (Biol Sex Differ 13:43, 2022). In this response, I update our findings and confirm the small effect sizes and pronounced scatter across recent large neuroimaging studies of human sex/gender difference...
February 9, 2024: Biology of Sex Differences
Jaime Llera-Oyola, Héctor Carceller, Zoraida Andreu, Marta R Hidalgo, Irene Soler-Sáez, Fernando Gordillo, Borja Gómez-Cabañes, Beatriz Roson, Maria de la Iglesia-Vayá, Roberta Mancuso, Franca R Guerini, Akiko Mizokami, Francisco García-García
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-the most frequent cause of dementia-is expected to increase as life expectancies rise across the globe. While sex-based differences in AD have previously been described, there remain uncertainties regarding any association between sex and disease-associated molecular mechanisms. Studying sex-specific expression profiles of regulatory factors such as microRNAs (miRNAs) could contribute to more accurate disease diagnosis and treatment...
January 31, 2024: Biology of Sex Differences
Xiaofeng Lan, Haiyan Liu, Chengyu Wang, Weicheng Li, Fan Zhang, Zhibo Hu, Xiaoyu Chen, Zerui You, Yuping Ning, Yanling Zhou
BACKGROUND: Patients with depression, especially women, are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD). Traditional antidepressants are associated with negative effects on BMD. Few studies have examined the effect of ketamine on BMD, and it remains unclear whether there are sex differences in the effects of ketamine on BMD in patients with depression. METHODS: A total of 102 patients with unipolar and bipolar depression were administered six infusions of intravenous ketamine over a 12-day period...
January 29, 2024: Biology of Sex Differences
Fernanda Yamamoto Ricardo-da-Silva, Roberto Armstrong-Jr, Mayara Munhoz de Assis Ramos, Marina Vidal-Dos-Santos, Cristiano Jesus Correia, Petra J Ottens, Luiz Felipe Pinho Moreira, Henri G D Leuvenink, Ana Cristina Breithaupt-Faloppa
BACKGROUND: Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a useful tool for assessing lung grafts quality before transplantation. Studies indicate that donor sex is as an important factor for transplant outcome, as females present higher inflammatory response to brain death (BD) than males. Here, we investigated sex differences in the lungs of rats subjected to BD followed by EVLP. METHODS: Male and female Wistar rats were subjected to BD, and as controls sham animals. Arterial blood was sampled for gas analysis...
January 29, 2024: Biology of Sex Differences
Carla Perpiñá-Clérigues, Susana Mellado, Cristina Galiana-Roselló, María Fernández-Regueras, Miguel Marcos, Francisco García-García, María Pascual
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, with the consumption of alcohol considered a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. Lipids play a crucial functional role in cell membranes; however, we know little about the role of lipids in extracellular vesicles (EVs) as regulatory molecules and disease biomarkers. METHODS: We employed a sensitive lipidomic strategy to characterize lipid species from the plasma EVs of AUD patients to evaluate functional roles and enzymatic activity networks to improve the knowledge of lipid metabolism after alcohol consumption...
January 25, 2024: Biology of Sex Differences
Alec C Horton, Mary M Wilkinson, Isabella Kilanowski-Doroh, Zhejun Dong, Jiao Liu, Benard O Ogola, Bruna Visniauskas, Sarah H Lindsey
BACKGROUND: Androgens are important sex hormones in both men and women and are supplemented when endogenous levels are low, for gender transitioning, or to increase libido. Androgens also circulate at higher levels in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, a condition that increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and arterial stiffness. Since our previous work shows an important role for the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in arterial stiffness, we hypothesized that other hormones including androgens may impact arterial stiffness in female mice via downregulation of GPER...
January 23, 2024: Biology of Sex Differences
Ece Bayram, David G Coughlin, Ravi Rajmohan, Irene Litvan
BACKGROUND: Lewy body dementia (LBD) phenotype is associated with the presence and degree of Lewy body, Alzheimer's pathologies, and substantia nigra neuron loss. Nigral neuron loss is associated with parkinsonism in LBD, and females with LBD are less likely than males to have parkinsonism. As sex differences were reported for clinical correlates of Lewy body and Alzheimer's pathologies, we aimed to investigate whether there are also sex differences for correlates of nigral neuron loss...
January 19, 2024: Biology of Sex Differences
Helena Garcia-Fernandez, Antonio P Arenas-de Larriva, Javier Lopez-Moreno, Francisco M Gutierrez-Mariscal, Juan L Romero-Cabrera, Helena Molina-Abril, Jose D Torres-Peña, Diego Rodriguez-Cano, Maria M Malagon, Jose M Ordovas, Javier Delgado-Lista, Pablo Perez-Martinez, Jose Lopez-Miranda, Antonio Camargo
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including coronary heart disease (CHD), display a higher prevalence in men than women. This study aims to evaluate the variations in the intestinal microbiota between men and women afflicted with CHD and delineate these against a non-CVD control group for each sex. METHODS: Our research was conducted in the framework of the CORDIOPREV study, a clinical trial which involved 837 men and 165 women with CHD. We contrasted our findings with a reference group of 375 individuals (270 men, 105 women) without CVD...
January 19, 2024: Biology of Sex Differences
Colin Salaün, Marine Courvalet, Léna Rousseau, Kévin Cailleux, Jonathan Breton, Christine Bôle-Feysot, Charlène Guérin, Marion Huré, Alexis Goichon, Jean-Claude do Rego, Pierre Déchelotte, David Ribet, Najate Achamrah, Moïse Coëffier
RATIONALE: Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) often present sleep disorders and circadian hormonal dysregulation. The role of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in the regulation of feeding behavior has emerged during the last decades but its relationships with the circadian rhythm remains poorly documented. Thus, we aimed to characterize the circadian clock genes expression in peripheral and central tissues in the activity-based anorexia mouse model (ABA), as well as the dynamics of the gut-microbiota composition...
January 12, 2024: Biology of Sex Differences
Saluda Stapleton, Grace Welch, Lindsay DiBerardo, Linnea R Freeman
BACKGROUND: Recent decades have seen an exponential rise in global obesity prevalence, with rates nearly doubling in a span of 40 years. A comprehensive knowledge base regarding the systemic effects of obesity is required to create new preventative and therapeutic agents effective at combating the current obesity epidemic. Previous studies of diet-induced obesity utilizing mouse models have demonstrated a difference in bodyweight gain by sex. In such studies, female mice gained significantly less weight than male mice when given the same high fat (HF) diet, indicating a resistance to diet-induced obesity...
January 10, 2024: Biology of Sex Differences
Marlene Zubillaga, Julia Tau, Diana Rosa, M José Bellini, Nathalie Arnal
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol (Cho) is an essential lipophilic molecule in cells; however, both its decrease and its increase may favor the development of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although copper (Cu) is an essential trace metal for cells, the increased plasma concentration of its free form has been linked with AD development and severity. AD affects aged people, but its prevalence and severity are higher in women than in men. We have previously shown that Cu promotes Cho de novo synthesis in immature neurons as well as increased Cho in membrane rafts and Aβ levels in culture medium, but there are no results yet regarding sex differences in the effects of sublethal Cu exposure on Cho de novo synthesis...
January 8, 2024: Biology of Sex Differences
Louis Cartier, Mina Guérin, Fanny Saulnier, Ioana Cotocea, Amine Mohammedi, Fadila Moussaoui, Sarah Kheloui, Robert-Paul Juster
BACKGROUND: Sexually polymorphic cognition (SPC) results from the interaction between biological (birth-assigned sex (BAS), sex hormones) and socio-cultural (gender identity, gender roles, sexual orientation) factors. The literature remains quite mixed regarding the magnitude of the effects of these variables. This project used a battery of classic cognitive tests designed to assess the influence of sex hormones on cognitive performance. At the same time, we aimed to assess the inter-related and respective effects that BAS, sex hormones, and gender-related factors have on SPC...
January 8, 2024: Biology of Sex Differences
Lisa-Marie Legault, Mélanie Breton-Larrivée, Alexandra Langford-Avelar, Anthony Lemieux, Serge McGraw
BACKGROUND: The placenta is vital for fetal development and its contributions to various developmental issues, such as pregnancy complications, fetal growth restriction, and maternal exposure, have been extensively studied in mice. The placenta forms mainly from fetal tissue and therefore has the same biological sex as the fetus it supports. Extensive research has delved into the placenta's involvement in pregnancy complications and future offspring development, with a notable emphasis on exploring sex-specific disparities...
January 6, 2024: Biology of Sex Differences
Vishal Chanana, Margaret Hackett, Nazli Deveci, Nur Aycan, Burak Ozaydin, Nur Sena Cagatay, Damla Hanalioglu, Douglas B Kintner, Karson Corcoran, Sefer Yapici, Furkan Camci, Jens Eickhoff, Karyn M Frick, Peter Ferrazzano, Jon E Levine, Pelin Cengiz
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI) related brain injury is one of the major causes of life-long neurological morbidities that result in learning and memory impairments. Evidence suggests that male neonates are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of HI, yet the mechanisms mediating these sex-specific responses to neural injury in neonates remain poorly understood. We previously tested the effects of treatment with a small molecule agonist of the tyrosine kinase B receptor (TrkB), 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) following neonatal HI and determined that females, but not males exhibit increased phosphorylation of TrkB and reduced apoptosis in their hippocampi...
January 4, 2024: Biology of Sex Differences
Carla Sanchis-Segura, Rand R Wilcox, Alvaro Javier Cruz-Gómez, Sonia Félix-Esbrí, Alba Sebastián-Tirado, Cristina Forn
BACKGROUND: Sex differences in language-related abilities have been reported. It is generally assumed that these differences stem from a different organization of language in the brains of females and males. However, research in this area has been relatively scarce, methodologically heterogeneous and has yielded conflicting results. METHODS: Univariate and multivariate sex differences and similarities in gray matter volume (GMVOL ) within 18 essential language-processing brain areas were assessed in a sex-balanced sample (N = 588) of right-handed young adults...
December 21, 2023: Biology of Sex Differences
Masahiro Morishita, Shimpei Higo, Kinuyo Iwata, Hirotaka Ishii
BACKGROUND: ESR2, a nuclear estrogen receptor also known as estrogen receptor β, is expressed in the brain and contributes to the actions of estrogen in various physiological phenomena. However, its expression profiles in the brain have long been debated because of difficulties in detecting ESR2-expressing cells. In the present study, we aimed to determine the distribution of ESR2 in rodent brains, as well as its sex and interspecies differences, using immunohistochemical detection with a well-validated anti-ESR2 antibody (PPZ0506)...
December 18, 2023: Biology of Sex Differences
Meredith L Johnson, Joshua D Preston, Cetewayo S Rashid, Kevin J Pearson, J Nina Ham
Over the past several decades, substantial ground has been gained in understanding the biology of sex differences. With new mandates to include sex as a biological variable in NIH-funded research, greater knowledge is forthcoming on how sex chromosomes, sex hormones, and social and societal differences between sexes can affect the pathophysiology of health and disease. A detailed picture of how biological sex impacts disease pathophysiology will directly inform clinicians in their treatment approaches and challenge canonical therapeutic strategies...
December 13, 2023: Biology of Sex Differences
Caroline S Johnson, Andrew D Chapp, Erin B Lind, Mark J Thomas, Paul G Mermelstein
BACKGROUND: The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is an important region in motivation and reward. Glutamatergic inputs from the infralimbic cortex (ILC) to the shell region of the NAc (NAcSh) have been implicated in driving the motivation to seek reward through repeated action-based behavior. While this has primarily been studied in males, observed sex differences in motivational circuitry and behavior suggest that females may be more sensitive to rewarding stimuli. These differences have been implicated for the observed vulnerability in women to substance use disorders...
December 11, 2023: Biology of Sex Differences
Alba Hernangomez-Laderas, Ariadna Cilleros-Portet, Silvia Martínez Velasco, Sergi Marí, María Legarda, Bárbara Paola González-García, Carlos Tutau, Iraia García-Santisteban, Iñaki Irastorza, Nora Fernandez-Jimenez, Jose Ramon Bilbao
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CeD) is an immune-mediated disorder that develops in genetically predisposed individuals upon gluten consumption. HLA risk alleles explain 40% of the genetic component of CeD, so there have been continuing efforts to uncover non-HLA loci that can explain the remaining heritability. As in most autoimmune disorders, the prevalence of CeD is significantly higher in women. Here, we investigated the possible involvement of the X chromosome on the sex bias of CeD...
December 11, 2023: Biology of Sex Differences
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