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Biology of Sex Differences

C Strewe, D Moser, J-I Buchheim, H-C Gunga, A Stahn, B E Crucian, B Fiedel, H Bauer, P Gössmann-Lang, D Thieme, E Kohlberg, A Choukèr, M Feuerecker
BACKGROUND: Antarctica challenges human explorers by its extreme environment. The effects of these unique conditions on the human physiology need to be understood to best mitigate health problems in Antarctic expedition crews. Moreover, Antarctica is an adequate Earth-bound analogue for long-term space missions. To date, its effects on human physiology have been studied mainly in male cohorts though more female expeditioners and applicants in astronaut training programs are selected. Therefore, the identification of sex differences in stress and immune reactions are becoming an even more essential aim to provide a more individualized risk management...
April 16, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Parisa Amiri, Golnaz Vahedi-Notash, Parisa Naseri, Davood Khalili, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Yadollah Mehrabi, Ali Reza Mahdavi Hazaveh, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
April 15, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Sujoy Ghosh, Jessica L Taylor, Tamra M Mendoza, Thanh Dang, David H Burk, Yongmei Yu, Gail Kilroy, Z Elizabeth Floyd
BACKGROUND: The obesity-related risk of developing metabolic syndrome is higher in males than in females of reproductive age, likely due to estrogen-mediated reduced adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis with hypertrophied adipocytes. Depletion of the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 reduced white adipose tissue inflammation and improved glucose metabolism in obese male mice. Siah2 is a transcriptional target of estrogen, but data is lacking about the effect of Siah2 on adipose tissue of females...
April 15, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
TiAnni Harris, Andrea Scheuringer, Belinda Pletzer
Sex differences in navigation performance have been attributed to sex differences in information processing during navigation. Perspective refers to the viewpoint of the navigator, with previous work suggesting that men tend to use an allocentric perspective, while women tend to use an egocentric perspective during navigation. Furthermore, different navigation strategies may be used when moving from point A to B, with previous work suggesting that men tend to use a Euclidian strategy, while women tend to use a landmark-based strategy...
April 6, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Cameron Griffin, Chelsea R Hutch, Simin Abrishami, Daria Stelmak, Leila Eter, Ziru Li, Eric Chang, Devyani Agarwal, Brian Zamarron, Mita Varghese, Perla Subbaiah, Ormond A MacDougald, Darleen A Sandoval, Kanakadurga Singer
BACKGROUND: Weight loss by surgery or lifestyle changes is strongly recommended for obese individuals to improve metabolic health, but the underlying impairments that persist from a history of obesity remain unclear. Recent investigations demonstrate a persistent inflammatory state with weight loss and bariatric surgery, but the mechanism and impact are not fully understood. Additionally, these studies have not been performed in females although women are the majority of individuals undergoing weight loss interventions...
April 3, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Parisa Amiri, Golnaz Vahedi-Notash, Parisa Naseri, Davood Khalili, Seyed Saeed Hashemi Nazari, Yadollah Mehrabi, Ali Reza Mahdavi Hazaveh, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
BACKGROUND: The current nationwide study, for the first time, aimed to assess and compare the trend of pre-hypertension and hypertension among urban and rural adolescents in Iran. METHODS: This study has been conducted in the framework of the National Surveys of Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases. To estimate pre-hypertension and hypertension prevalence among 9715 adolescents, aged 15-19 years, data collected in four repeated cross-sectional surveys (2007-2011) has been used...
March 29, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Katie J Schenning, Charles F Murchison, Nora C Mattek, Jeffrey A Kaye, Joseph F Quinn
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common postoperative complication experienced by patients aged 65 years and older, and these older adults comprise more than one third of the surgical patients in the USA. Because not everyone with a history of exposure to surgery and anesthesia develops POCD, there are likely major biological risk factors involved. There are important gaps in our knowledge regarding whether genetic makeup, biological sex, or other Alzheimer's disease risk factors predispose older adults to developing POCD...
March 29, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Xiao-Yu Zuo, Qi-Sheng Feng, Jian Sun, Pan-Pan Wei, Yoon-Ming Chin, Yun-Miao Guo, Yun-Fei Xia, Bo Li, Xiao-Jun Xia, Wei-Hua Jia, Jian-Jun Liu, Alan Soo-Beng Khoo, Taisei Mushiroda, Ching-Ching Ng, Wen-Hui Su, Yi-Xin Zeng, Jin-Xin Bei
BACKGROUND: The male predominance in the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) suggests the contribution of the X chromosome to the susceptibility of NPC. However, no X-linked susceptibility loci have been examined by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for NPC by far. METHODS: To understand the contribution of the X chromosome in NPC susceptibility, we conducted an X chromosome-wide association analysis on 1615 NPC patients and 1025 healthy controls of Guangdong Chinese, followed by two validation analyses in Taiwan Chinese (n = 562) and Malaysian Chinese (n = 716)...
March 25, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Rachel-Karson Thériault, Melissa L Perreault
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating chronic illness that is two times more prevalent in women than in men. The mechanisms associated with the increased female susceptibility to depression remain poorly characterized. Aberrant neuronal oscillatory activity within the putative depression network is an emerging mechanism underlying MDD. However, innate sex differences in network activity and its contribution to depression vulnerability have not been well described. In this review, current evidence of sex differences in neuronal oscillatory activity, including the influence of sex hormones and female cycling, will first be described followed by evidence of disrupted neuronal circuit function in MDD and the effects of antidepressant treatment...
February 28, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Marcela González-Granillo, Luisa A Helguero, Eliana Alves, Amena Archer, Christina Savva, Matteo Pedrelli, Osman Ahmed, Xidan Li, Maria Rosário Domingues, Paolo Parini, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Marion Korach-André
The response to overfeeding is sex dependent, and metabolic syndrome is more likely associated to obesity in men or postmenopausal women than in young fertile women. We hypothesized that obesity-induced metabolic syndrome is sex dependent due to a sex-specific regulation of the fatty acid (FA) synthesis pathways in liver and white adipose depots. We aimed to identify distinctive molecular signatures between sexes using a lipidomics approach to characterize lipid species in liver, perigonadal adipose tissue, and inguinal adipose tissue and correlate them to the physiopathological responses observed...
February 26, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Katsuya Uchida, Hiroko Otsuka, Masahiro Morishita, Shinji Tsukahara, Tatsuya Sato, Kenji Sakimura, Keiichi Itoi
Following publication of the original article [1], we noticed a number of errors.
February 19, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Jennifer Hernandez, Carolina Fabelo, Lynnea Perez, Clare Moore, Rachel Chang, Edward J Wagner
BACKGROUND: Orphanin FQ (aka nociceptin; N/OFQ) binds to its nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptor expressed in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons within the arcuate nucleus (ARC), a critical anorexigenic component of the hypothalamic energy balance circuitry. It inhibits POMC neurons by modifying neuronal excitability both pre- and postsynaptically. We tested the hypothesis that N/OFQ inhibits neurotransmission at synapses involving steroidogenic factor (SF)-1 neurons in the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) and ARC POMC neurons in a sex- and diet-dependent fashion...
February 12, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Hugo Sanchez-Ruderisch, Ana Maria Queirós, Daniela Fliegner, Claudia Eschen, Georgios Kararigas, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
BACKGROUND: Maladaptive remodeling in pressure overload (PO)-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) may lead to heart failure. Major sex differences have been reported in this process. The steroid hormone 17β-estradiol, along with its receptors ERα and ERβ, is thought to be crucial for sex differences and is expected to be protective, but this may not hold true for males. Increasing evidence demonstrates a major role for microRNAs (miRNAs) in PO-induced LVH. However, little is known about the effects of biological sex and ERβ on cardiac miRNA regulation and downstream mitochondrial targets...
February 6, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Elise L Kessler, Mathilde R Rivaud, Marc A Vos, Toon A B van Veen
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) culminating into heart failure (HF) are major causes of death in men and women. Prevalence and manifestation, however, differ between sexes, since men mainly present with coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI), and post-menopausal women predominantly present with hypertension. These discrepancies are probably influenced by underlying genetic and molecular differences in structural remodeling pathways involved in hypertrophy, inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis...
February 4, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Katsuya Uchida, Hiroko Otsuka, Masahiro Morishita, Shinji Tsukahara, Tatsuya Sato, Kenji Sakimura, Keiichi Itoi
BACKGROUND: The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) contains the highest density of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-producing neurons in the brain. CRF-immunoreactive neurons show a female-biased sexual dimorphism in the dorsolateral BNST in the rat. Since CRF neurons cannot be immunostained clearly with available CRF antibodies in the mouse, we used a mouse line, in which modified yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) was inserted to the CRF gene, and the Neo cassette was removed, to examine the morphological characteristics of CRF neurons in the dorsolateral BNST...
January 28, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Madhavi Pandya, Thulani H Palpagama, Clinton Turner, Henry J Waldvogel, Richard L Faull, Andrea Kwakowsky
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the nervous system. Previous studies have shown fluctuations in expression levels of GABA signaling components-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GABA receptor (GABAR) subunit, and GABA transporter (GAT)-with increasing age and between sexes; however, this limited knowledge is highly based on animal models that produce inconsistent findings. This study is the first analysis of the age- and sex-specific changes of the GAD, GABAA/B R subunits, and GAT expression in the human primary sensory and motor cortices; superior (STG), middle (MTG), and inferior temporal gyrus (ITG); and cerebellum...
January 14, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Dillion D Hutson, Rakesh Gurrala, Benard O Ogola, Margaret A Zimmerman, Ricardo Mostany, Ryousuke Satou, Sarah H Lindsey
BACKGROUND: Estrogen is formed by the enzyme aromatase (CYP19A1) and signals via three identified receptors ERα (ESR1), ERß (ESR2), and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Understanding the relative contribution of each receptor to estrogenic signaling may elucidate the disparate effects of this sex hormone across tissues, and recent developments in PCR technology allow absolute quantification and direct comparison of multiple targets. We hypothesized that this approach would reveal tissue- and sex-specific differences in estrogen receptor mRNA...
January 11, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Jill B Becker, Carolyn M Mazure
The Fast-Track Action Committee on (the) Health Science and Technology Response to the Opioid Crisis recently released their draft report for public comment. This report provides the "roadmap" for a coordinated federal research and development response to the opioid crisis. Other than noting the important concerns regarding maternal and neonatal exposure to opioids, the report overlooks the laboratory, clinical, and epidemiological data that inform the need for further research on sex and gender differences in opioid addiction that have critical gender-based treatment and prevention implications...
January 7, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Shuchun Lin, Yun Liu, Lynn R Goldin, Chen Lyu, Xiangyin Kong, Yan Zhang, Neil E Caporaso, Song Xiang, Ying Gao
BACKGROUND: Men are at higher risk of developing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) than women. DNA methylation has been shown to play important roles in a number of cancers. There are differences in the DNA methylation pattern between men and women. In this study, we investigated whether this contributes to the sex-related difference of B cell CLL risk. METHODS: Using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, we profiled the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern of CD19+ B cells from 48 CLL patients (29 female patients and 19 male patients) and 28 healthy people (19 women and 9 men)...
January 7, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
Eman Y Gohar, Anthony K Cook, David M Pollock, Edward W Inscho
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of hypertension is distinct between men and women. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potential contributor to sex differences in the pathophysiology of hypertension. ET-1 participates in blood pressure regulation through activation of endothelin A (ETA ) and endothelin B (ETB ) receptors including those in the vasculature. Previous studies demonstrated that sex and sex hormones evoke discrepancies in ET-1-mediated control of vascular tone in different vascular beds...
January 3, 2019: Biology of Sex Differences
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