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World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30622832/current-therapies-and-novel-approaches-for-biliary-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Indu G Rajapaksha, Peter W Angus, Chandana B Herath
Chronic liver diseases that inevitably lead to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma have become a major cause of illness and death worldwide. Among them, cholangiopathies or cholestatic liver diseases comprise a large group of conditions in which injury is primarily focused on the biliary system. These include congenital diseases (such as biliary atresia and cystic fibrosis), acquired diseases (such as primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis), and those that arise from secondary damage to the biliary tree from obstruction, cholangitis or ischaemia...
January 5, 2019: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30386667/gastro-oesophageal-reflux-disease-and-eosinophilic-oesophagitis-what-is-the-relationship
#2
REVIEW
Stephanie Wong, Andrew Ruszkiewicz, Richard H Holloway, Nam Q Nguyen
Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) are the most common causes of chronic oesophagitis and dysphagia associated with oesophageal mucosal eosinophilia. Distinguishing between the two is imperative but challenging due to overlapping clinical and histological features. A diagnosis of EoE requires clinical, histological and endoscopic correlation whereas a diagnosis of GORD is mainly clinical without the need for other investigations. Both entities may exhibit oesophageal eosinophilia at a similar level making a histological distinction between them difficult...
October 25, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30386666/calcium-and-vitamin-d-in-the-serrated-neoplastic-pathway-friends-or-foes
#3
EDITORIAL
Natalia García-Morales, Carla Satorres, Marco Bustamante-Balén
Sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (known as SSA/Ps) may play an important role in the development of interval colorectal cancer (CRC). These lesions are more difficult to detect with conventional endoscopy and they may quickly turn into CRC, especially when dysplasia has developed. Therefore, primary or secondary chemoprevention may be an appealing strategy at a population level. Calcium and vitamin D have been shown in epidemiological studies to reduce the risk of CRC and conventional adenomas, but the evidence regarding their effect on SSA/Ps is controversial...
October 25, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30283710/gut-microbiome-profiling-and-colorectal-cancer-in-african-americans-and-caucasian-americans
#4
Lulu Farhana, Fadi Antaki, Farhan Murshed, Hamidah Mahmud, Stephanie L Judd, Pratima Nangia-Makker, Edi Levi, Yingjie Yu, Adhip Pn Majumdar
AIM: To determine whether and to what extent the gut microbiome is involved in regulating racial disparity in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: All patients were recruited and experiments were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations by the Institutional Review Boards (IRB), committees of the John D. Dingell VAMC and Wayne State University guidelines. African American (AA) and Caucasian American (CA) patients were scheduled for an outpatient screening for colonoscopy, and no active malignancy volunteer patients were doubly consented, initially by the gastroenterologist and later by the study coordinator, for participation in the study...
September 29, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30283709/acinar-cell-injury-induced-by-inadequate-unfolded-protein-response-in-acute-pancreatitis
#5
REVIEW
Kaylene Barrera, Albert Stanek, Kei Okochi, Zuzanna Niewiadomska, Cathy Mueller, Peiqi Ou, Devon John, Antonio E Alfonso, Scott Tenner, Chongmin Huan
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disorder of pancreatic tissue initiated in injured acinar cells. Severe AP remains a significant challenge due to the lack of effective treatment. The widely-accepted autodigestion theory of AP is now facing challenges, since inhibiting protease activation has negligible effectiveness for AP treatment despite numerous efforts. Furthermore, accumulating evidence supports a new concept that malfunction of a self-protective mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), is the driving force behind the pathogenesis of AP...
September 29, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29487764/liver-cirrhosis-effect-on-qt-interval-and-cardiac-autonomic-nervous-system-activity
#6
Elias Tsiompanidis, Spyros I Siakavellas, Anastasios Tentolouris, Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Stamatia Chorepsima, Anastasios Manolakis, Konstantinos Oikonomou, Nikolaos Tentolouris
AIM: To examine the impact of liver cirrhosis on QT interval and cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN). METHODS: A total of 51 patients with cirrhosis and 51 controls were examined. Standard 12-lead electrocardiogram recordings were obtained and QT as well as corrected QT interval (QTc) and their dispersions (dQT, dQTc) were measured and calculated using a computer-based program. The diagnosis of CAN was based upon the battery of the tests proposed by Ewing and Clarke and the consensus statements of the American Diabetes Association...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29487763/abundance-of-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-colon-mucosa-in-diverticular-disease
#7
Caroline Linninge, Bodil Roth, Charlotte Erlanson-Albertsson, Göran Molin, Ervin Toth, Bodil Ohlsson
AIM: To compare gut bacterial diversity and amount of Enterobacteriaceae in colonic mucosa between patients with and without diverticular disease (DD). METHODS: Patients in a stable clinical condition with planned elective colonoscopy were included. Blood samples and colon mucosa biopsies were collected at the colonoscopy. Study questionnaires including questions about gastrointestinal symptoms were completed by the patients and physicians. DNA from mucosa samples was isolated and the amount of Enterobacteriaceae was estimated using PCR assay...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29487762/emergency-resection-surgery-for-colorectal-cancer-patterns-of-recurrent-disease-and-survival
#8
Joe Littlechild, Muneer Junejo, Anne-Marie Simons, Finlay Curran, Darren Subar
AIM: To evaluate prognostic pathological factors associated with early metachronous disease and adverse long-term survival in these patients. METHODS: Clinical and histological features were analysed retrospectively over an eight-year period for prognostic impact on recurrent disease and overall survival in patients undergoing curative resection of a primary colorectal cancer. RESULTS: A total of 266 patients underwent curative surgery during the study period...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29487761/acute-cholangitis-an-update
#9
REVIEW
Monjur Ahmed
Acute cholangitis is bacterial infection of the extra-hepatic biliary system. As it is caused by gallstones blocking the common bile duct in most of the cases, its prevalence is greater in ethnicities with high prevalence of gallstones. Biliary obstruction of any cause is the main predisposing factor. Diagnosis is established by the presence of clinical features, laboratory results and imaging studies. The treatment modalities include administration of intravenous fluid, antibiotics, and drainage of the bile duct...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29184703/effects-of-commercially-produced-almond-by-products-on-chemotherapy-induced-mucositis-in-rats
#10
Alexandra L Whittaker, Ying Zhu, Gordon S Howarth, Chi S Loung, Susan E P Bastian, Michelle G Wirthensohn
AIM: To determine if almond extracts reduce the severity of chemotherapy-induced mucositis as determined through biochemical, histological and behavioural markers. METHODS: Intestinal mucositis is a debilitating condition characterized by inflammation and ulceration of the gastrointestinal mucosa experienced by cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Certain bioactive plant products have shown promise in accelerating mucosal repair and alleviating clinical symptoms...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29184702/pharmacological-inhibition-of-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-1-and-insights-into-postprandial-gut-peptide-secretion
#11
Benjamin S Maciejewski, Tara B Manion, Claire M Steppan
AIM: To examine the role that enzyme Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1) plays in postprandial gut peptide secretion and signaling. METHODS: The standard experimental paradigm utilized to evaluate the incretin response was a lipid challenge. Following a lipid challenge, plasma was collected via cardiac puncture at each time point from a cohort of 5-8 mice per group from baseline at time zero to 10 h. Incretin hormones [glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)] were then quantitated...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29184701/paneth-cells-in-intestinal-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#12
REVIEW
Nikolaus Gassler
Small intestinal mucosa is characterised by villus forming connective tissues with highly specialised surface lining epithelial cells essentially contributing to the establishment of the intestinal border. In order to perform these diverse functions, spatially distinct compartments of epithelial differentiation are found along the crypt-villus axis, including Paneth cells as a highly specialised cell type. Paneth cells locate in crypts and assist undifferentiated columnar cells, called crypt base columnar cells, and rapidly amplifying cells in the regeneration of absorptive and secretory cell types...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28868184/multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-2b-differential-increase-in-enteric-nerve-subgroups-in-muscle-and-mucosa
#13
John M Hutson, Pam J Farmer, Cristal J Peck, Chung W Chow, Bridget R Southwell
Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (MEN2B) is a rare syndrome caused by an activating mutation of the RET gene, leading to enteric gangliomatosis. This child presented with constipation at 1-mo old, was diagnosed with MEN2B by rectal biopsy at 4 mo, had thyroidectomy at 9 mo and a colectomy at 4 years. We studied the extent of neuronal and nerve fibre proliferation and which classes of enteric nerves are affected by examining the colon with multiple neuronal antibodies. Resected transverse colon was fixed, frozen, sectioned and processed for fluorescence immunohistochemistry labelling with antibodies against TUJ1, Hu, ChAT, NOS, VIP, SP and CGRP and cKit...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28868183/effect-of-replenishment-of-vitamin-d-on-survival-in-patients-with-decompensated-liver-cirrhosis-a-prospective-study
#14
Ashish Kumar Jha, Sharad Kumar Jha, Amarendra Kumar, Vishwa Mohan Dayal, Sanjeev Kumar Jha
AIM: To assess the vitamin D (VD) deficiency as a prognostic factor and effect of replenishment of VD on mortality in decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: Patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis were screened for serum VD levels. A total of 101 VD deficient patients (< 20 ng/mL) were randomly enrolled in two groups: Treatment group ( n = 51) and control group ( n = 50). Treatment group received VD treatment in the form of intramuscular cholecalciferol 300000 IU as loading dose and 800 IU/d oral as maintenance dose along with 1000 mg oral calcium supplementation...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28868182/assessment-of-serum-angiogenic-factors-as-a-diagnostic-aid-for-small-bowel-angiodysplasia-in-patients-with-obscure-gastrointestinal-bleeding-and-anaemia
#15
Grainne Holleran, Mary Hussey, Sinead Smith, Deirdre McNamara
AIM: To assess the use of serum levels of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), Ang2 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) as predictive factors for small bowel angiodysplasia (SBA). METHODS: Serum samples were collected from patients undergoing capsule endoscopy for any cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) or anaemia. Based on small bowel findings patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) SBA; (2) other bleeding causes; and (3) normal, according to diagnosis. Using ELISA technique we measured serum levels of Ang1, Ang2 and TNFα and compared mean and median levels between the groups based on small bowel diagnosis...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28868181/oral-spore-based-probiotic-supplementation-was-associated-with-reduced-incidence-of-post-prandial-dietary-endotoxin-triglycerides-and-disease-risk-biomarkers
#16
Brian K McFarlin, Andrea L Henning, Erin M Bowman, Melody A Gary, Kimberly M Carbajal
AIM: To determine if 30-d of oral spore-based probiotic supplementation could reduce dietary endotoxemia. METHODS: Apparently healthy men and women ( n = 75) were screened for post-prandial dietary endotoxemia. Subjects whose serum endotoxin concentration increased by at least 5-fold from pre-meal levels at 5-h post-prandial were considered "responders" and were randomized to receive either placebo (rice flour) or a commercial spore-based probiotic supplement [Bacillus indicus (HU36), Bacillus subtilis (HU58), Bacillus coagulans, and Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus clausii] for 30-d...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28868180/acute-and-chronic-hepatobiliary-manifestations-of-sickle-cell-disease-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Rushikesh Shah, Cesar Taborda, Saurabh Chawla
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a common hemoglobinopathy which can affect multiple organ systems in the body. Within the digestive tract, the hepatobiliary system is most commonly affected in SCD. The manifestations range from benign hyperbilirubinemia to overt liver failure, with the spectrum of acute clinical presentations often referred to as "sickle cell hepatopathy". This is an umbrella term referring to liver dysfunction and hyperbilirubinemia due to intrahepatic sickling process during SCD crisis leading to ischemia, sequestration and cholestasis...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28868179/fatty-liver-without-a-large-belly-magnified-review-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-non-obese-patients
#18
REVIEW
Mohamad H Yousef, Alhareth Al Juboori, Abdulmajeed A Albarrak, Jamal A Ibdah, Veysel Tahan
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is well described as a common cause of chronic liver disease, mostly in the obese population. It refers to a spectrum of chronic liver disease that starts with simple steatosis than progresses to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis in patients without significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD in the non-obese population has been increasingly reported and studied recently. The pathogenesis of nonobese NAFLD is poorly understood and is related to genetic predisposition, most notably patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 33 G allele polymorphism that leads to intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance...
August 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28573073/late-onset-pulmonary-metastasis-more-than-10-years-after-primary-sigmoid-carcinoma
#19
Anne M Daniels, Jeroen F J Vogelaar
According to current guidelines, follow-up of patients with colorectal cancer is ended after five years. Also, chest X-ray is not part of standard investigation during follow-up. We describe a case of a 74-year-old patient, more than ten years after a sigmoid resection because of carcinoma of the sigmoid. No recurrence was detected during intensive follow-up. However, ten years after resection of the sigmoid adenocarcinoma, complaints of coughing induced further examination with as result the detection of a solitary metastasis in the left lung of the patient...
May 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28573072/duodenal-localization-of-plasmablastic-myeloma
#20
Stefano Licci
Gastrointestinal involvement in plasma cell neoplasms, either as primary localizations (extramedullary plasmacytomas) or as secondary involvement in systemic multiple myeloma, is a well-known event. Accurate histological examination is crucial in defining the diagnosis. In this report, an uncommon case of duodenal localization of myeloma with plasmablastic features is described, with emphasis on the role of clinical data and findings from ancillary immunostaining techniques to avoid misdiagnosis.
May 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
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