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Ying Gao, C Yan Cheng
Cell polarity is crucial to development since apico-basal polarity conferred by the 3 polarity protein modules (or complexes) is essential during embryogenesis, namely the Par (partition defective)-, the CRB (Crumbs)-, and the Scribble-based polarity protein modules. While these protein complexes and their component proteins have been extensively studied in Drosophila and C. elegans and also other mammalian tissues and/or cells, their presence and physiological significance in the testis remain unexplored until the first paper on the Par-based protein published in 2008...
May 2016: Spermatogenesis
C Yan Cheng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Spermatogenesis
Nan Li, Will M Lee, C Yan Cheng
Throughout the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis, actin microfilaments arranged as bundles near the Sertoli cell plasma membrane at the Sertoli cell-cell interface that constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB) undergo extensive re-organization by converting between bundled and unbundled/branched configuration to give plasticity to the F-actin network. This is crucial to accommodate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes across the BTB. Herein, we sought to examine changes in the actin microfilament organization at the Sertoli cell BTB using an in vitro model since Sertoli cells cultured in vitro is known to establish a functional tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier that mimics the BTB in vivo...
April 2016: Spermatogenesis
Kevin M Gribbins, Layla R Freeborn, David M Sever
Little is known about spermatid development during spermiogenesis in snakes, as there is only one complete study in ophidians, which details the spermatid ultrastructure within the viperid, Agkistrodon piscivorus. Thus, the following study will add to our understanding of the ontogenic steps of spermiogenesis in snakes by examining spermatid maturation in the elapid, Pelamis platurus, which were collected in Costa Rica in 2009. The spermatids of P. platurus share many similar ultrastructural characteristics to that described for other squamates during spermiogenesis...
2016: Spermatogenesis
Moyu Goto, Narumi Toda, Kouhei Shimaji, Dang Ngoc Anh Suong, Nicole Vo, Hiroshi Kimura, Hideki Yoshida, Yoshihiro H Inoue, Masamitsu Yamaguchi
Drosophila Jumonji/Jarid2 (dJmj) has been identified as a component of Polycomb repressive complex 2. However, it is suggested that dJmj has both PRC-dependent and -independent roles. Subcellular localization of dJmj during spermatogenesis is unknown. We therefore performed immunocytochemical analyses with specific antibodies to dJmj and tri-methylation at lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3). Interestingly, dJmj exclusively localizes at nucleolus in the late growth stage. Examination of the dJmj localization in various Polycomb group (PcG) mutant lines at the late growth stage allowed identification of some PcG genes, including Polycomb (Pc), to be responsible for dJmj recruitment to nucleolus...
2016: Spermatogenesis
Zain A Alvi, Tin-Chun Chu, Valerie Schawaroch, Angela V Klaus
The current study was aimed at analyzing putative protein sequences of the transition protein-like proteins in 12 Drosophila species based on the reference sequences of transition protein-like protein (Tpl (94D) ) expressed in Drosophila melanogaster sperm nuclei. Transition proteins aid in transforming chromatin from a histone-based nucleosome structure to a protamine-based structure during spermiogenesis - the post-meiotic stage of spermatogenesis. Sequences were obtained from NCBI Ref-Seq database using NCBI ORF-Finder (PSI-BLAST)...
September 2015: Spermatogenesis
Nan Li, Dolores D Mruk, Elizabeth I Tang, Chris Kc Wong, Will M Lee, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
Formins are a growing class of actin nucleation proteins that promote the polymerization of actin microfilaments, forming long stretches of actin microfilaments to confer actin filament bundling in mammalian cells. As such, microfilament bundles can be formed in specific cellular domains, in particular in motile mammalian cells, such as filopodia. Since ectoplasmic specialization (ES), a testis-specific adherens junction (AJ), at the Sertoli cell-cell and Sertoli-spermatid interface is constituted by arrays of actin microfilament bundles, it is likely that formins are playing a significant physiological role on the homeostasis of ES during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis...
May 2015: Spermatogenesis
Josefa Steinhauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Spermatogenesis
Tingting Zhang, Tengyuan Liu, Jiaxiang Shao, Caibin Sheng, Yunyi Hong, Weihai Ying, Weiliang Xia
Synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray has wide biomedical applications including high resolution imaging and brain tumor therapy due to its special properties of high coherence, monochromaticity and high intensity. However, its interaction with biological tissues remains poorly understood. In this study, we used the rat testis as a model to investigate how SR X-ray would induce tissue responses, especially the blood-testis barrier (BTB) because BTB dynamics are critical for spermatogenesis. We irradiated the male gonad with increasing doses of SR X-ray and obtained the testicles 1, 10 and 20 d after the exposures...
January 2015: Spermatogenesis
Geulah Ben-David, Eli Miller, Josefa Steinhauer
Fatty acids are precursors of potent lipid signaling molecules. They are stored in membrane phospholipids and released by phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Lysophospholipid acyltransferases (ATs) oppose PLA2 by re-esterifying fatty acids into phospholipids, in a biochemical pathway known as the Lands Cycle. Drosophila Lands Cycle ATs oys and nes, as well as 7 predicted PLA2 genes, are expressed in the male reproductive tract. Oys and Nes are required for spermatid individualization. Individualization, which occurs after terminal differentiation, invests each spermatid in its own plasma membrane and removes the bulk of the cytoplasmic contents...
January 2015: Spermatogenesis
N Ece Gungor-Ordueri, C Yan Cheng
In the mammalian testis such as in rats, a unique actin-rich cell-cell adherens junction (AJ) known as ectoplasmic specialization (ES) is found in the seminiferous epithelium. ES is conspicuously found between Sertoli cells near the basement membrane known as the basal ES, which together with tight junction (TJ), gap junction, and desmosome constitute the blood-testis barrier (BTB). The BTB, in turn, anatomically divides the seminiferous epithelium into the basal and the adluminal (apical) compartment. On the other hand, ES is also found at the Sertoli-spermatid interface known as apical ES which is the only anchoring device for developing step 8-19 spermatids during spermiogenesis...
January 2015: Spermatogenesis
Duangporn Jamsai, Anne E O'Connor, Liza O'Donnell, Jennifer Chi Yi Lo, Moira K O'Bryan
Male germ cell genome integrity is critical for spermatogenesis, fertility and normal development of the offspring. Several DNA repair pathways exist in male germ cells. One such important pathway is the Fanconi anemia (FANC) pathway. Unlike in somatic cells, expression profiles and the role of the FANC pathway in germ cells remain largely unknown. In this study, we undertook an extensive expression analyses at both mRNA and protein levels of key components of the FANC pathway during spermatogenesis in the mouse...
January 2015: Spermatogenesis
Justin L Rheubert, Layla Freeborn, David M Sever, Dustin S Siegel, Kevin M Gribbins
Recent studies detailed the spermatogenic cycle of the Western Cottonmouth Snake, Agkistrodon piscivorus and noted that spermatogenesis is bimodal, with active periods during March-June and August-October in southeastern Louisiana. However, only spermatogonia were present in September in the only specimen that was captured and the authors state that the individual "should have a high testis volume and also show spermiogenic activity." The specimen in their study was caught immediately following Hurricane Katrina outside of its normal habitat...
September 2014: Spermatogenesis
Kelsey Lancaster, Stanley E Trauth, Kevin M Gribbins
The testicular histology and cytology of spermatogenesis in Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii were examined using specimens collected between July 1996 and May 2004 from counties in northeastern Arkansas. A histological examination of the testes and germ cell cytology indicates a postnuptial testicular cycle of spermatogenesis and a major fall spermiation event. The majority of the germ cell populations in May and June specimens are represented by resting spermatogonia, type A spermatogonia, type B spermatogonia, pre-leptotene spermatocytes, and numerous Sertoli cell nuclei near the basement membrane...
September 2014: Spermatogenesis
Oswaldo Hernández-Gallegos, Fausto Roberto Méndez-de la Cruz, Maricela Villagrán-SantaCruz, Justin L Rheubert, Gisela Granados-González, Kevin M Gribbins
Oviparous species of Sceloporus exhibit either seasonal or continuous spermatogenesis and populations from high-elevation show a seasonal pattern known as spring reproductive activity. We studied the spermatogenic cycle of a high-elevation (2700 m) population of endemic oviparous lizard, Sceloporus aeneus, that resided south of México, D.F. Histological analyses were performed on the testes and reproductive ducts from individual lizards collected monthly. This population of S. aeneus showed a seasonal pattern of spermatogenesis, with 4 successive phases common in other lizards...
September 2014: Spermatogenesis
Mari Carmen Uribe, Víctor Mejía-Roa
Testes of salamanders or urodeles are paired elongated organs that are attached to the dorsal wall of the body by a mesorchium. The testes are composed of one or several lobes. Each lobe is morphologically and functionally a similar testicular unit. The lobes of the testis are joined by cords covered by a single peritoneal epithelium and subjacent connective tissue. The cords contain spermatogonia. Spermatogonia associate with Sertoli cells to form spermatocysts or cysts. The spermatogenic cells in a cyst undergo their development through spermatogenesis synchronously...
September 2014: Spermatogenesis
Mari Carmen Uribe, Harry J Grier, Víctor Mejía-Roa
In most bony fishes, testes are paired elongated organs that are attached to the dorsal wall of the body by a mesorchium. Histological examination of teleost testes, and also in all vertebrates, shows that the testes are formed of germ cells and somatic cells, comprising the germinal and interstitial compartments. Both compartments are separated by a basement membrane. The germ cells may be spermatogonia, meiotic spermatocytes and haploid spermatids that differentiate into spermatozoa. The process of spermatogenesis includes a sequence of morphological and physiological changes of germ cells that begin with the differentiation of spermatogonia that become meiotic spermatocytes...
September 2014: Spermatogenesis
V H Martínez, G Monasterio de Gonzo, M C Uribe, H J Grier
Histological structure of the testes and development of spermatozoa in Jenynsia species is described using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The testis type is restricted spermatogonial, wherein spermatogonia are restricted to the distal ends of lobules, typical of the Atherinomorpha, and spermatogenesis is continuous throughout the year in wild-caught fish. Within the testicular lobes there are lobular germinal compartments wherein the functional units are spermatocysts, whose borders are formed by Sertoli cells...
September 2014: Spermatogenesis
Kevin Gribbins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Spermatogenesis
Dustin S Siegel, Sam Alvino, Stanley E Trauth, David M Sever, Kevin M Gribbins
Previous investigators have described the spermatogenic cycles of numerous species of plethodontid salamanders. Most studies describe a fairly stereotypical cycle with meiotic divisions of spermatogenesis commencing in the spring/summer. However, many studies lack details obtainable from histological examination and/or testicular squashes and, instead, provide only mensural data from the testes. Studies that lacked microscopic evaluation often revealed spermatogenic cycles that varied greatly from that of the stereotypical cycle with meiotic divisions commencing in the fall/winter...
September 2014: Spermatogenesis
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