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Childhood Obesity

Margo G Wootan, Jessica Almy, Maciel Ugalde, Molly Kaminski
BACKGROUND: Food and beverage advertising targeting children influences their food choices, diets, and health. Experts have suggested that efforts on food marketing to children would be more effective if self-regulatory nutrition criteria were stronger. The US self-regulatory program, the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI), and the World Health Organization (WHO) Europe nutrient profile model use different approaches to set nutrition criteria for food marketing to children, making comparing the strength of their criteria challenging...
February 20, 2019: Childhood Obesity
Lorraine M McKelvey, Jennifer E Saccente, Taren M Swindle
BACKGROUND: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) study articulated the negative effects of childhood trauma on adult weight and health. The purpose of the current study is to examine the associations between ACEs in infancy and toddlerhood and obesity and related health indicators in middle childhood. METHODS: We used data collected from a sample of low-income families enrolled in the national evaluation of Early Head Start (EHS). Data come from 1335 demographically diverse families collected at or near children's ages 1, 2, 3, and 11...
February 14, 2019: Childhood Obesity
Rui-Xue Dai, Xiu-Jie He, Chuan-Lai Hu
PURPOSE: The aim of our meta-analysis was to explore whether advanced maternal age (AMA) is regarded as an important risk factor for predicting macrosomia or not. METHODS: Three databases were systematically reviewed and reference lists of relevant articles were checked. Meta-analysis of published cohort studies was done comparing whether AMA was associated with macrosomia and adjusting for potential confounding factors. Calculations of pooled estimates were conducted in random-effects models...
February 7, 2019: Childhood Obesity
Kim M Gans, Alison Tovar, Qianxia Jiang, Jennifer Mello, Laura Dionne, Augustine Kang, Noereem Z Mena, Vanessa Palomo, Patricia Markham Risica
BACKGROUND: Child care settings play an important role in shaping children's eating behaviors; yet few studies have included family child care homes (FCCHs). We examined provider-reported nutrition-related practices in FCCHs and observed adherence to nutrition guidelines from the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC), exploring differences by provider ethnicity. METHODS: We assessed baseline data from a cluster-randomized trial, including surveys with FCCH providers and observational data collected at the FCCH...
February 1, 2019: Childhood Obesity
Leticia Reis Pereira, Fernanda Pedrotti Moreira, Amanda Neumann Reyes, Suelen de Lima Bach, Paulinia Leal do Amaral, Janaína Dos Santos Motta, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva, Karen Jansen
BACKGROUND: Biological rhythm is the daily metabolic cycle of mammals that involves the sleep-wake cycles, hormone release, eating habits and digestion, body temperature, and other important bodily functions that are repeated daily. Thus, greater difficulty in maintaining the circadian rhythms may be involved in the increased risk of obesity. This study assessed the association between biological rhythm disruption and childhood obesity among school children. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with 7-8-year-old school children enrolled in a public school in the city of Pelotas-RS...
January 29, 2019: Childhood Obesity
Anthony Deldin, Jennifer L Kuk, SoJung Lee
BACKGROUND: We retrospectively examined the sex differences in the changes in (1) total fat, total and regional subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral fat, and intermuscular fat and (2) total and regional skeletal muscle distribution in response to aerobic exercise (AE) or resistance exercise (RE) in adolescents with obesity. METHODS: Twenty-eight boys and 27 girls with obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile, 12-18 years) were randomly assigned to 3-month interventions (180 minutes per week) of AE or RE...
January 29, 2019: Childhood Obesity
Patricia East, Erin Delker, Estela Blanco, Raquel Burrows, Betsy Lozoff, Sheila Gahagan
BACKGROUND: Early-life conditions are important for the development of obesity. We hypothesized that home and family characteristics reflective of less supportive environments during childhood will be associated with higher adult BMI and faster BMI growth between ages 5 and 21 years. We also examined the timing and acceleration of BMI increase by adult weight status (normal weight, overweight, obese, and extremely obese) to discern how BMI increase differs across group and across time...
January 24, 2019: Childhood Obesity
Caroline Croteau, Leila Ben Amor, Drigissa Ilies, Laurent Mottron, Jean-Eric Tarride, Marc Dorais, Sylvie Perreault
BACKGROUND: Obesity in children on the autism spectrum (AS) is becoming a significant health concern. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of obesity in a cohort of AS youth and to assess the impact of psychoactive medication use while exploring the second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) dose-response curve. STUDY DESIGN: A nested case-control study was conducted using Quebec public administrative databases. Subjects with AS <18 years [≥2 diagnoses International Classification of Diseases: 9th revision (ICD-9): 299...
January 22, 2019: Childhood Obesity
Yan Wang, Erin R Hager, Laurence S Magder, Raquel Arbaiza, Samantha Wilkes, Maureen M Black
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) declines in adolescence among black girls. This study assesses how moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) relates to caregiver- vs. adolescent-reported parental support and whether the relationship is mediated by self-efficacy. METHODS: MVPA was assessed through accelerometry. Parental support and encouragement on adolescents' PA were reported by caregivers and adolescents with a 10-item Social Support and Exercise Survey. Adolescent-reported self-efficacy related to PA was assessed with an 8-item scale...
January 17, 2019: Childhood Obesity
Zheng Liu, Qin Li, Ralph Maddison, Cliona Ni Mhurchu, Yannan Jiang, Dong-Mei Wei, Lan Cheng, Yu Cheng, Di Wang, Hai-Jun Wang
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive approach involving both environmental and individual strategies offers opportunities to strengthen school-based interventions for childhood obesity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a theory-based comprehensive intervention implemented within primary schools for childhood obesity in China. METHODS: A 1-year, cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in twelve primary schools (7-11 years old) in Beijing, China. Environmental and individual factors were improved in the intervention group (6 schools, 930 children) to promote knowledge and behaviors related to energy balance...
December 19, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Katherine Abowd Johnson, Nakiya N Showell, Sarah Flessa, Melissa Janssen, Natalie Reid, Lawrence J Cheskin, Rachel L J Thornton
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity increases the risk of obesity and harmful comorbidities later in life. It is influenced by characteristics of a child's neighborhood, particularly among underserved groups. Our objective was to systematically review the evidence relating neighborhood environment and obesity risk among urban, low socioeconomic status (SES) Black and Hispanic children. METHODS: We included studies published from 1993 through early 2017 from PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and Sociological Abstracts databases investigating relationships between empirically measured neighborhood characteristics and obesity risk factors in the populations of interest...
December 19, 2018: Childhood Obesity
M Pia Chaparro, Alissa Bilfield, Katherine P Theall
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood safety has been linked to physical activity and obesity among adolescents, but few studies have used objective measures of crime or examined associations by gender. The goal of this study was to investigate if exposure to objectively measured neighborhood crime was associated with physical activity and overweight/obesity among adolescents, and if this association varied by gender. METHODS: Georeferenced data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006 were linked to census tract-level data on crime reports from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, focusing on a sample of adolescents 12-20 years of age (n = 15,261)...
December 1, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Kristie Bergmann, Zoe Mestre, David Strong, Dawn M Eichen, Kyung Rhee, Scott Crow, Denise Wilfley, Kerri N Boutelle
BACKGROUND: Family-based weight loss treatment (FBT) for childhood obesity, the current "gold standard," is typically provided in weekly groups for 6 months. Although this program is considered effective, it poses limitations to treatment engagement, due to time commitment and lack of widespread availability. A guided self-help version of FBT (gshFBT; eleven 20-minute sessions and one 1-hour over 5 months) was developed to circumvent such limitations. The current study examined the comparative efficacy of a 5-month FBT and gshFBT program...
February 2019: Childhood Obesity
Sarah Mayer-Brown, Molly C Basch, Michael E Robinson, David M Janicke
BACKGROUND: Adult literature documents that healthcare providers rely on patient characteristics, such as age, race, and weight, when making clinical decisions. However, little research has examined these biases among pediatric populations. This study aimed to examine the impact of child and maternal weight and race on clinical decision-making of healthcare trainees in the context of a pediatric pain assessment using standardized virtual pediatric patients and mothers. METHODS: Ninety-two healthcare trainees read a standardized clinical vignette describing a child with chronic pain, which was accompanied by eight virtual human (VH) scenes-each with a child and mother...
November 2, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Loretta S Warnakulasuriya, Manel M A Fernando, Adikaram V N Adikaram, Abdul R M Thawfeek, Weda-Muhandiramge L Anurasiri, Renuka R Silva, Mohamed S F Sirasa, Elisabet Rytter, Anders H Forslund, Dulani L Samaranayake, V Pujitha Wickramasinghe
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity-related metabolic derangements are increasing among South Asian populations. Dietary and physical activity plans have limited effect. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of metformin in the management of obesity among 8- to 16-year-old children in Gampaha District of Sri Lanka. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A triple-blinded controlled trial was conducted on 150 obese school children. After 12-hour overnight fast, blood was drawn for fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid profile...
November 2018: Childhood Obesity
Rongzhe Liu, Rachel C Shelton, Nicolia Eldred-Skemp, Jeff Goldsmith, Shakira F Suglia
BACKGROUND: Childhood social risk has been associated with increased risk of childhood obesity. However, little is known about early exposure of cumulative social risk on BMI percentile (BMIp) trajectories in early childhood. METHODS: Public data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study were analyzed (N = 3809). Maternal reports of experiences of multiple social risk factors were obtained at age 1 and 3 assessments of children. Two cumulative social risk scores were calculated by summing social factors assessed at age 1 and at age 3...
October 26, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Allison Butcher, Laura S Kabiri, Wayne Brewer, Alexis Ortiz
BACKGROUND: BMI measures are often used to infer body composition. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a more accurate way to estimate percent body fat (%BF), particularly when screening children who may be overweight. The aim of this study was to determine the validity, sensitivity to change, and diagnostic value of a BIA scale designed specifically for adolescents. METHODS: One hundred twelve adolescents had their body fat assessed using both BIA and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)...
October 23, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Mukaddes Demir Acar, Meral Bayat
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted in Turkey as an empirical study in randomized, controlled, and time series design for the purpose of evaluating the effects of the Diet-Exercise trainings with creative drama method provided to overweight/obese teenagers. METHODS: This study was designed to highlight the effect of interactive education provided to slightly overweight/obese teenagers through creative drama on modifiable factors that caused obesity. Seventy-six overweight/obese teenagers studying at sixth and seventh grades of upper primary education were included in the study (38 participants in the Study Group and 38 participants in the Control Group)...
October 19, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Serene En Hui Tung, Mohd Taib Mohd Nasir, Yit Siew Chin, Mohd Shariff Zalilah, Jamil Osman Zubaidah, Hip Seng Yim
BACKGROUND: Recent research suggests that a negative relationship exists between adiposity and cognitive function in children. However, limited information is known on how they are related. This study aimed to examine the mediators of the relationship between overweight/obesity and cognitive function among school children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional comparison study whereby 225 overweight/obese children matched for age, sex, and ethnicity with 225 normal weight children participated in this study...
October 19, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Stijn Mintjens, Reinoud J B J Gemke, Mireille N M van Poppel, Tanja G M Vrijkotte, Tessa J Roseboom, Arend W van Deutekom
BACKGROUND: Maternal overweight/obesity during pregnancy increases offspring's risks of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). A possible pathway is by reduced physical fitness and physical activity (PA) levels in children of overweight/obese mother. We assessed whether maternal prepregnancy overweight/obesity independently determines cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscular strength, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary behavior (SB) in 8- to 9-year-old children...
October 2, 2018: Childhood Obesity
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