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Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

Witold Chmielewski, Annet Bluschke, Benjamin Bodmer, Nicole Wolff, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
Inhibitory control deficits are a hallmark in ADHD. Yet, inhibitory control includes a multitude of entities (e.g. 'inhibition of interferences' and 'action inhibition'). Examining the interplay between these kinds of inhibitory control provides insights into the architecture of inhibitory control in ADHD. Combining a Simon task and a Go/Nogo task, we assessed the interplay of 'inhibition of interferences' and 'action inhibition'. This was combined with EEG recordings, EEG data decomposition and source localization...
February 1, 2019: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Kreshnik Burani, Elizabeth M Mulligan, Julia Klawohn, Katherine R Luking, Brady D Nelson, Greg Hajcak
Adolescence is frequently described as a developmental period characterized by increased sensitivity to rewards. However, previous research on age-related changes in the neural response to gains and losses have produced mixed results, with only some studies reporting potentiated neural responses during adolescence. The current study examined the ERP responses to gains and losses during a simple monetary reward (i.e., Doors) task in a large and longitudinal sample of 248 adolescent females assessed at two time points, separated by two years...
January 24, 2019: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Sebastian Wahl, Vesna Marinović, Birgit Träuble
We investigated young infants' object encoding and processing in response to isolated eye gaze cues on the neural and behavioral level. In two experiments, 4-month-old infants watched a pair of isolated eyes gazing towards or away from novel objects. Subsequently, the same objects were presented alone (i.e., without eyes). We measured event-related potentials (ERP) in response to object-directed and object-averted eye gaze as well as to the subsequently presented isolated objects. Using eye-tracking methods, we additionally measured infants' looking behavior in reaction to the subsequently presented isolated objects...
January 24, 2019: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Heather Payne, Eva Gutierrez-Sigut, Bencie Woll, Mairéad MacSweeney
The effect of sensory experience on hemispheric specialisation for language production is not well understood. Children born deaf, including those who have cochlear implants, have drastically different perceptual experiences of language than their hearing peers. Using functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD), we measured lateralisation during language production in a heterogeneous group of 19 deaf children and in 19 hearing children, matched on language ability. In children born deaf, we observed significant left lateralisation during language production (British Sign Language, spoken English, or a combination of languages)...
January 24, 2019: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Joseph Aloi, Harma Meffert, Stuart F White, Karina S Blair, Soonjo Hwang, Patrick M Tyler, Laura C Thornton, Kathleen I Crum, Kathryn O Adams, Abraham D Killanin, Francesca Filbey, Kayla Pope, R James R Blair
Alcohol and cannabis are two of the most commonly used substances by adolescents and are associated with adverse medical and psychiatric outcomes. These adverse psychiatric outcomes may reflect the negative impact of alcohol and/or cannabis abuse on neural systems mediating reward and/or error detection. However, work indicative of this has mostly been conducted in adults with Alcohol and/or Cannabis Use Disorder (i.e., AUD and CUD), with relatively little work in adolescent patients. Furthermore, of the work that has been conducted in adolescents, groups were based on categorical diagnoses of AUD and/or CUD, so the relationship between AUD and/or CUD symptom severity in adolescents and neural dysfunction is unclear...
January 24, 2019: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2019: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Yael M Cycowicz
For children, new experiences occur very often, and learning to differentiate between old and new events is a fundamental process necessary for appropriate reactions to stimuli. Thus the present study is concerned with maturation of brain responses to repeated novel events. We examined the effect of repetition of familiar (meaningful) and unfamiliar (meaningless) symbols on the event-related-potentials (ERPs) recorded during novelty oddball and recognition memory tasks from children, adolescents and young adults...
January 16, 2019: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Noa Ofen, Lingfei Tang, Qijing Yu, Elizabeth L Johnson
Recent advances in human cognitive neuroscience show great promise in extending our understanding of the neural basis of memory development. We briefly review the current state of knowledge, highlighting that most work has focused on describing the neural correlates of memory in cross-sectional studies. We then delineate three examples of the application of innovative methods in addressing questions that go beyond description, towards a mechanistic understanding of memory development. First, structural brain imaging and the harmonization of measurements across laboratories may uncover ways in which the maturation of the brain constrains the development of specific aspects of memory...
December 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
S V Wass, K Daubney, J Golan, F Logan, E Kushnerenko
Little is known of how autonomic arousal relates to neural responsiveness during auditory attention. We presented N = 21 5-7-year-old children with an oddball auditory mismatch paradigm, whilst concurrently measuring heart rate fluctuations. Children with higher mean autonomic arousal, as indexed by higher heart rate (HR) and decreased high-frequency (0.15-0.8 Hz) variability in HR, showed smaller amplitude N250 responses to frequently presented (70%), 500 Hz standard tones. Follow-up analyses showed that the modal evoked response was in fact similar, but accompanied by more large and small amplitude responses and greater variability in peak latency in the high HR group, causing lower averaged responses...
December 21, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Patricia J Bauer, Jessica A Dugan, Nicole L Varga, Tracy Riggins
Accumulation of semantic or factual knowledge is a major task during development. Knowledge builds through direct experience and explicit instruction as well as through productive processes that permit derivation of new understandings. In the present research, we tested the neural bases of the specific productive process of self-derivation of new factual knowledge through integration of separate yet related episodes of new learning. The process serves as an ecologically valid model of semantic knowledge accumulation...
December 20, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Denise M Werchan, Heidi A Baumgartner, David J Lewkowicz, Dima Amso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 18, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Santiago Morales, Alicia Vallorani, Koraly Pérez-Edgar
Despite the importance of peer experiences during early childhood for socioemotional development, few studies have examined how young children process and respond to peer feedback. The current study used an ecologically valid experimental paradigm to study young children's processing of peer social acceptance or rejection. In this paradigm, 118 children (50% boys; Mage = 72.92 months; SD = 9.30; Rangeage = 53.19-98.86 months) sorted pictures of unknown, similar-aged peers into those with whom they wished or did not wish to play...
December 15, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Wesley K Thompson, Deanna M Barch, James M Bjork, Raul Gonzalez, Bonnie J Nagel, Sara Jo Nixon, Monica Luciana
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study is poised to be the largest single-cohort long-term longitudinal study of neurodevelopment and child health in the United States. Baseline data on N= 4521 children aged 9-10 were released for public access on November 2, 2018. In this paper we performed principal component analyses of the neurocognitive assessments administered to the baseline sample. The neurocognitive battery included seven measures from the NIH Toolbox as well as five other tasks. We implemented a Bayesian Probabilistic Principal Components Analysis (BPPCA) model that incorporated nesting of subjects within families and within data collection sites...
December 13, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Kristen Tummeltshammer, Estée C H Feldman, Dima Amso
The brain is adapted to learn from interactions with the environment that predict or enable the procurement of rewards (Schultz, 2010). For infants, the main caregiver (often the mother) is most associated with primary biological rewards such as food and warmth, as well as the most likely provider of emotional and social rewards such as comfort and responsiveness. In this study we capitalize on the reward value of mother to examine reward learning mechanisms in infancy using multiple eye-tracking measures. Converging lines of research have demonstrated links between reward-related striatal dopamine activity and measurable changes in spontaneous eye-blink rate (EBR) and pupil dilation (Eckstein et al...
December 13, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Stuart Oldham, Alex Fornito
Some brain regions have a central role in supporting integrated brain function, marking them as network hubs. Given the functional importance of hubs, it is natural to ask how they emerge during development and to consider how they shape the function of the maturing brain. Here, we review evidence examining how brain network hubs, both in structural and functional connectivity networks, develop over the prenatal, neonate, childhood, and adolescent periods. The available evidence suggests that structural hubs of the brain arise in the prenatal period and show a consistent spatial topography through development, but undergo a protracted period of consolidation that extends into late adolescence...
December 13, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Elina Thomas, Claudia Buss, Jerod M Rasmussen, Sonja Entringer, Julian S B Ramirez, Mollie Marr, Marc D Rudolph, John H Gilmore, Martin Styner, Pathik D Wadhwa, Damien A Fair, Alice M Graham
Connectivity between the amygdala, insula (Amygdala-aI) and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (Amygdala-vmPFC) have been implicated in individual variability in fear and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. However, it is currently unknown to what extent connectivity between these regions in the newborn period is relevant for the development of fear and other aspects of negative emotionality (NE), such as sadness. Here, we investigate newborn Am-Ins and Am-vmPFC resting state functional connectivity in relation to developmental trajectories of fear and sadness over the first two years of life using data from the Infant Behavior Questionnaire Revised (IBQ-R) and Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ) (N=62)...
December 12, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Paola Odriozola, Dina R Dajani, Catherine A Burrows, Laurel J Gabard-Durnam, Emma Goodman, Adriana C Baez, Nim Tottenham, Lucina Q Uddin, Dylan G Gee
Functional connectivity (FC) between the amygdala and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex underlies socioemotional functioning, a core domain of impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although frontoamygdala circuitry undergoes dynamic changes throughout development, little is known about age-related changes in frontoamygdala networks in ASD. Here we characterize frontoamygdala resting-state FC in a cross-sectional sample (ages 7-25) of 58 typically developing (TD) individuals and 53 individuals with ASD...
December 7, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Bram Gooskens, Dienke J Bos, Vincent T Mensen, Devon A Shook, Muriel M K Bruchhage, Jilly Naaijen, Isabella Wolf, Daniel Brandeis, Steven C R Williams, Jan K Buitelaar, Bob Oranje, Sarah Durston
Repetitive behaviors are among the core symptoms of both Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and are thought to be associated with impairments in cognitive control. However, it is still unknown how deficits in cognitive control and associated neural circuitry relate to the quality or severity of repetitive behavior in children with these disorders. Therefore, we investigated the behavioral and neural correlates of cognitive control using a modified stop-signal task in a multicenter study of children (aged 8-12 years) with ASD, OCD and typically developing (TD) children (N = 95)...
November 29, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Erin K Kirschmann, Michael W Pollock, Vidhya Nagarajan, Mary M Torregrossa
Working memory develops over the course of adolescence, and neuroimaging studies find development-associated changes in the activity of prefrontal cortical brain regions. Establishment of a rodent model of working memory development would permit more comprehensive studies of the molecular and circuit basis for working memory development in health and disease. Thus, in this study, working memory performance was compared between adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats using an operant-based, delay-match-to-sample working memory task...
November 22, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Diana Selmeczy, Yana Fandakova, Kevin J Grimm, Silvia A Bunge, Simona Ghetti
The current study investigated longitudinal change in hippocampal and prefrontal contribution to episodic retrieval. Functional neuroimaging data were collected during an item-context association memory task for children between the ages of 8 and 14 with individuals scanned 1-3 times over the course of 0.75-3.7 years (Timepoint 1 N = 90; Timepoint 2 N = 83, Timepoint 3 N = 75). We investigated developmental changes in functional activation associated with episodic retrieval (correct item-context > incorrect item-context contrast) and asked whether pubertal changes contributed to developmental changes in pattern of activation...
November 20, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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