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Advances in Nutrition

Kentaro Murakami, Nana Shinozaki, Aya Fujiwara, Xiaoyi Yuan, Ayumi Hashimoto, Hitomi Fujihashi, Han-Chieh Wang, M Barbara E Livingstone, Satoshi Sasaki
Principal component analysis (PCA) has been widely used in nutritional epidemiology to derive dietary patterns. However, although PCA-derived dietary patterns are population-dependent, their reproducibility in different populations is largely unexplored. We aimed to investigate whether major dietary patterns are consistently identified among different populations within a country and, if so, how similar these dietary patterns are. We conducted a systematic review of PCA-derived dietary patterns in Japanese adults using PubMed and Web of Science for English articles and Ichushi-Web and CiNii databases for Japanese articles...
February 20, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Beata Olas
Increased blood platelet activation, especially platelet aggregation, plays an important function in cardiovascular disease; however, various dietary components may inhibit platelet activation. Recent clinical and epidemiologic studies indicate that both fruits and vegetables, and their products, contain various phytoprotective substances possessing biological properties such as antiplatelet and antioxidant effects that may work synergistically to ameliorate the effect of cardiovascular disease. In addition, the consumption of vegetables and their products may also play an important role in prevention...
February 12, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Wenkai Ren, Yaoyao Xia, Siyuan Chen, Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer, Beiyan Zhou, Bie Tan, Guoqiang Zhu, Jinping Deng, Yulong Yin
Obesity is a nutritional disorder resulting from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. This disease is characterized by inflammation in multiple cell types, including macrophages. M1 macrophage responses are correlated with the progression of obesity or diabetes; therefore, strategies that induce repolarization of macrophages from an M1 to an M2 phenotype may be promising for the prevention of obesity- or diabetes-associated pathology. Glutamine (the most abundant amino acid in the plasma of humans and many other mammals including rats) is effective in inducing polarization of M2 macrophages through the glutamine-UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pathway and α-ketoglutarate produced via glutaminolysis, whereas succinate synthesized via glutamine-dependent anerplerosis or the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt promotes polarization of M1 macrophages...
February 6, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Ronan Lordan, Alexandros Tsoupras, Ioannis Zabetakis
Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide. The role of unresolved inflammation in cancer progression and metastasis is well established. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a key proinflammatory mediator in the initiation and progression of cancer. Evidence suggests that PAF is integral to suppression of the immune system and promotion of metastasis and tumor growth by altering local angiogenic and cytokine networks. Interactions between PAF and its receptor may have a role in various digestive, skin, and hormone-dependent cancers...
February 5, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
William R Reeves, Michelle K McGuire, Milton Stokes, John L Vicini
Understanding the magnitude and impact of dietary pesticide exposures is a concern for some consumers. However, the ability of consumers to obtain and understand state-of-the-science information about how pesticides are regulated and how dietary exposure limits are set can be limited by the complicated nature of the regulations coupled with an abundance of sources seeking to cast doubt on the reliability of those regulations. Indeed, these regulations are sometimes not well understood within health care professions...
January 21, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Ana Isabel Rodríguez-Rejón, María Dolores Ruiz-López, Carmina Wanden-Berghe, Reyes Artacho
Assessing sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, in institutionalized older adults is a challenging task. Data on its prevalence in residential facilities are scant and highly variable. Our objective was to report the prevalence of sarcopenia in older adults living in residential facilities (nursing/long term-care homes and assisted-living facilities) and review the criteria and methodologies used to diagnose sarcopenia in this setting. Bibliographic searches were carried out in 6 electronic databases (Medline via PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, LILACS, and Cochrane) with the use of the Medical Subject Heading terms "Sarcopenia" and "Residential Facilities...
January 21, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Matthew Snelson, Nicole J Kellow, Melinda T Coughlan
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been associated with changes in gut microbial ecology, or "dysbiosis," which may contribute to disease progression. Recent studies have focused on dietary approaches to favorably alter the composition of the gut microbial communities as a treatment method in CKD. Resistant starch (RS), a prebiotic that promotes proliferation of gut bacteria such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli, increases the production of metabolites including short-chain fatty acids, which confer a number of health-promoting benefits...
January 21, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Athira Rohit, Emma Tonkin, Louise Maple-Brown, Rebecca Golley, Leisa McCarthy, Julie Brimblecombe
Although extensive literature on parent feeding practices among the general Australian population exists, Australian Indigenous populations are generally overlooked. A systematic scoping review was carried out to map any source of literature showing Indigenous parent feeding practices in Australia in the context of what is known about parent feeding practices among broader Australian populations and Indigenous populations in other high-income countries.A search of 8 electronic health databases was conducted...
January 18, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Caroline G Dunn, Marissa Burgermaster, Alyson Adams, Pamela Koch, Peter A Adintori, Virginia C Stage
Many nutrition programs include classroom-based education. Schoolteachers are relied upon to deliver these programs despite gaps in nutrition education motivation, knowledge, and self-efficacy. Teacher professional development (PD) for these nutrition education programs has been identified as a strategy for improving program effectiveness, yet many interventions do not include a PD component and still fewer describe it. A literature search was conducted between January and February 2017; articles were collected from PubMed, ERIC, and EBSCOhost...
January 18, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Sarah O'Connor, Anne-Frédérique Turcotte, Claudia Gagnon, Iwona Rudkowska
Dairy product intake is inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in numerous cohort studies; yet, the beneficial effects of increased dairy product intake on T2D risk factors such as fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance with the homeostasis model assessment, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) remain inconclusive in clinical trials. The objective of this study was to systematically review clinical trials observing the effects of elevated compared with minimal intake of dairy products on T2D risk factors in subjects without diabetes...
January 17, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Roberto Fabiani, Giulia Naldini, Manuela Chiavarini
Low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis-related fractures constitute a considerable public health burden. Several studies have demonstrated the association between diet and bone health. We performed a systematic review to provide an estimate of the association between different dietary patterns defined through the use of a posteriori methods and fracture or low BMD risk. A literature search on PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases, up to March 2018, was performed to identify all eligible case-control, prospective, or cross-sectional studies involving subjects of both sexes and any age...
January 17, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Elizabeth P Neale, Linda C Tapsell
Decision making in nutrition is based on current available scientific evidence. However, we are currently living in a time of highly accessible information, and with the increase in accessibility has come a concomitant increase in misinformation and pseudoscience relating to nutrition. This presents a challenge to the nutrition research community, practitioners, and consumers, and highlights a need to critically examine the current evidence-based framework in nutrition, and identify strategies for future improvements...
January 11, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Susan C Campisi, Sarah E Carbone, Stanley Zlotkin
This is the first systematic review to examine the global prevalence of catch-up growth (CUG) in small for gestational age (SGA) infants who were born at full term (FT). Size at birth and subsequent growth is an important indicator of neonatal and adult health. Globally, 16% of infants are SGA at birth, ranging from 7% in industrialized countries to 41.5% in South Asia. SGA infants are at increased risk for negative developmental and adult health outcomes. Some achieve CUG but others do not. CUG has immediate and late health implications especially in low- and middle-income countries...
January 11, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Astrid Hooper, Anne McMahon, Yasmine Probst
This study describes the types of food-portion tools used and changes in accuracy for food-portion size estimation by adult populations after an intervention of food-portion education and training. This systematic review searched 7 scientific databases. Only internally comparable study designs were included. Studies were tabulated for nutrition- and non-nutrition-trained university students and the general population. Included studies were assessed for level of evidence and quality, including risk of bias. Thirteen studies were reviewed, with 8 targeting university students...
January 9, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Stavia B Blunt, Anthony Kafatos
There is a well-documented pandemic of malnutrition. It has numerous sequelae, including physical and psychological ill health, early death, and socioeconomic burden. The nutrition landscape and dynamics of the nutrition transition are extremely complex, but one significant factor in both is the role of medical management. Doctors have a unique position in society from which to influence this scenario at global, public, and personal levels, but we are failing to do so. There are several reasons for this, including inadequate time; historical educational bias towards disease and therapeutic intervention-rather than diet, lifestyle, and prevention; actual or perceived incompetency in the field of nutrition; confusion or deflection within medicine about whose role(s) it is on a medical team to address nutrition; and public confusion about whom to turn to for advice...
January 9, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Francisco J Osuna-Prieto, Borja Martinez-Tellez, Guillermo Sanchez-Delgado, Concepción M Aguilera, Jesús Lozano-Sánchez, David Arráez-Román, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Jonatan R Ruiz
Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted clinical interest not only because it dissipates energy but also for its potential capacity to counteract obesity and related metabolic disorders (e.g., insulin resistance and dyslipidemia). Cold exposure is the most powerful stimulus for activating and recruiting BAT, and this stimulatory effect is mediated by the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. BAT can also be activated by other receptors such as the G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1) or β-adrenergic receptors...
January 8, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Nivine I Hanach, Fiona McCullough, Amanda Avery
Sarcopenia is an age-related condition associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength. Insufficient protein intake is a risk factor for sarcopenia. Protein supplementation is suggested to improve muscle anabolism and function in younger and older adults. Dairy products are a good source of high-quality proteins. This review evaluates the effectiveness of dairy proteins on functions associated with sarcopenia in middle-aged and older adults. Randomized controlled trials were identified using PubMed, CINAHL/EBSCO, and Web of Science databases (last search: 10 May 2017) and were quality assessed...
January 8, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Sorayya Kheirouri, Mohammad Alizadeh
Diet is proposed to have a stimulatory or preventative influence on mental health and the risk of depressive symptoms, given that the diet can have either a pro- or an anti-inflammatory effect. This study aimed to collate the relation between dietary inflammatory potential and the risk of depression. PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Scopus databases, as well as Google were searched for articles published at any date until May 2018. Original English-language articles involving human participants and studies that investigated the association between dietary inflammatory potential and the risk of developing depression were included...
January 5, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Rattiyaporn Kanlaya, Visith Thongboonkerd
Kidney diseases are common health problems worldwide. Various etiologies (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, drug-induced nephrotoxicity, infection, cancers) can affect renal function and ultimately lead to development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The global rise in number of CKD/ESRD patients during recent years has led to tremendous concern to look for effective strategies to prevent or slow progression of CKD and ESRD. Natural compounds derived from herbs or medicinal plants have gained wide attention for scientific scrutiny to achieve such goals...
January 5, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
James R Hébert, Nitin Shivappa, Michael D Wirth, James R Hussey, Thomas G Hurley
The literature on the role of inflammation in health has grown exponentially over the past several decades. Paralleling this growth has been an equally intense focus on the role of diet in modulating inflammation, with a doubling in the size of the literature approximately every 4 y. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was developed to provide a quantitative means for assessing the role of diet in relation to health outcomes ranging from blood concentrations of inflammatory cytokines to chronic diseases. Based on literature from a variety of different study designs ranging from cell culture to observational and experimental studies in humans, the DII was designed to be universally applicable across all human studies with adequate dietary assessment...
January 5, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
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