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Aging and Disease

Christin Weissleder, Guy Barry, Samantha J Fung, Matthew W Wong, Kay L Double, Maree J Webster, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
The cell proliferation marker, Ki67 and the immature neuron marker, doublecortin are both expressed in the major human neurogenic niche, the subependymal zone (SEZ), but expression progressively decreases across the adult lifespan (PMID: 27932973). In contrast, transcript levels of several mitogens (transforming growth factor α, epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2) do not decline with age in the human SEZ, suggesting that other growth factors may contribute to the reduced neurogenic potential...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Yiqin Wang, Rong Zhou, Jianliu Wang
Thyroid dysfunction is involved in several types of carcinoma. Hypothyroidism is one of the most common medical morbidities among patients with endometrial cancer; however, the related mechanism is unclear. Among the risk factors related to endometrial cancer, hypothyroidism interacts with metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovarian syndrome and infertility or directly acts on the endometrium itself, which may influence the development and progression of endometrial cancer. We summarize recent studies on the relationship between hypothyroidism and endometrial cancer and its risk factors to provide references for basic research as well as for clinical treatment and prognostic evaluation...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Dimitrios Cakouros, Stan Gronthos
In this review we explore the importance of epigenetics as a contributing factor for aging adult stem cells. We summarize the latest findings of epigenetic factors deregulated as adult stem cells age and the consequence on stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, with a focus on adult stem cells in the bone marrow. With the latest whole genome bisulphite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitations we are able to decipher an emerging pattern common for adult stem cells in the bone marrow niche and how this might correlate to epigenetic enzymes deregulated during aging...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Yuxiao Liao, Zhao Peng, Liangkai Chen, Yan Zhang, Qian Cheng, Andreas K Nüssler, Wei Bao, Liegang Liu, Wei Yang
Skeletal muscle aging is characterized by decline in skeletal muscle mass and function along with growing age, which consequently leads to age-related sarcopenia, if without any preventive timely treatment. Moreover, age-related sarcopenia in elder people would contribute to falls and fractures, disability, poor quality of life, increased use of hospital services and even mortality. Whey protein (WP) and/or resistance training (RT) has shown promise in preventing and treating age-related sarcopenia. It seems that sex hormones could be potential contributors for gender differences in skeletal muscle and age-related sarcopenia...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Michael G Flynn, Melissa M Markofski, Andres E Carrillo
Age-associated hyper-inflammation or "inflamm-aging" has been linked to the development of chronic diseases and characterized as an unavoidable aspect of aging. However, the inflamm-aging model does not adequately address the potential anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training and the potential for exercise to ameliorate several age-related diseases. In this brief review, we introduce a new paradigm- inflamm-inactivity -that describes a potent counter-measure to age-associated inflammatory illness...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Wei Zhuang, Lifeng Yue, Xiaofang Dang, Fei Chen, Yuewen Gong, Xiaolan Lin, Yumin Luo
Aging is a progressive accumulation of changes in the body, which increases the susceptibility to diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Recently, Chinese medicinal herbs have been investigated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of some aging-related diseases. Rhodiola , known as 'Hongjingtian' in Chinese, has been reported to have anti-aging activity. Here, we provide a comprehensive review about its origin, chemical constituents, and effects on aging-related diseases...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Dong Liu, Liqun Xu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Changhong Shi, Shubin Qiao, Zhiqiang Ma, Jiansong Yuan
Aging may aggravate the damage and dysfunction of different components of multiorgan and thus increasing multiorgan ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. IR injury occurs in many organs and tissues, which is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an atypical serine/threonine protein kinase, involves in the pathophysiological process of IR injury. In this review, we first briefly introduce the molecular features of mTOR, the association between mTOR and aging, and especially its role on autophagy...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Tingting Sui, Di Liu, Tingjun Liu, Jichao Deng, Mao Chen, Yuanyuan Xu, Yuning Song, Hongsheng Ouyang, Liangxue Lai, Zhanjun Li
Premature aging syndromes are rare genetic disorders mimicking clinical and molecular features of aging. Products of the LMNA gene, primarily lamin A and C, are major components of the nuclear lamina. A recently identified group of premature aging syndromes was related to mutations of the LMNA gene. Although LMNA disorders have been identified in premature aging syndromes, affect specifically the skeletal muscles, cardiac muscles, and lipodystrophy, understanding the pathogenic mechanisms still need to be elucidated...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Poyin Huang, Cheng-Sheng Chen, Yuan-Han Yang, Mei-Chuan Chou, Ya-Hsuan Chang, Chiou-Lian Lai, Hsuan-Yu Chen, Ching-Kuan Liu
Recently, REST (RE1-silencing transcription factor) gene has been shown to be lost in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and a missense minor REST allele rs3796529-T has been shown to reduce the rate of hippocampal volume loss. However, whether the REST rs3796529 genotype is associated with the rate of functional deterioration in AD is unknown. A total of 584 blood samples from Taiwanese patients with AD were collected from January 2002 to December 2013. The diagnosis of AD was based on the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Jianji Xu, Yunjin Zang, Dongjie Liu, Tongwang Yang, Jieling Wang, Yanjun Wang, Xiaoni Liu, Dexi Chen
Liver hypoxia/ischemia injury leads to acute liver injury, delayed graft dysfunction, and failure during liver transplantation. Previous studies showed that autophagy is involved in liver hypoxia/ischemia injury. Our and others' studies have found that the damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) could induce the autophagic apoptosis. However, the role of DRAM regulating autophagy in liver hypoxia/ischemia injury remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether DRAM is involved in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced hepatocyte autophagic apoptosis...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Marina Cardellini, Valentina Rovella, Manuel Scimeca, Lucia Anemona, Simone Bischetti, Sara Casella, Andrea Saggini, Elena Bonanno, Marta Ballanti, Francesca Davato, Rossella Menghini, Arnaldo Ippoliti, Giuseppe Santeusanio, Nicola Di Daniele, Massimo Federici, Alessandro Mauriello
The incidence and the different type of carotid calcifications, nodular and non-nodular, and their role in the acute cerebrovascular disease has not yet been defined. Various studies have correlated the presence of specific risk factors, in particular the chronic kidney disease, with the presence of calcification, but not with the type of calcification. Since it is likely that carotid nodular calcifications rather than those with non-nodular aspect may represent a plaque at high risk of rupture, the purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of nodular calcification in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular syndromes and their possible correlation with specific risk factors...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Yang Hua, Lingyun Jia, Yingqi Xing, Pinjing Hui, Xuan Meng, Delin Yu, Xiaofang Pan, Yalan Fang, Binbin Song, Chunxia Wu, Chunmei Zhang, Xiufang Sui, Youhe Jin, Jingfen Zhang, Jianwei Li, Ling Wang, Yuming Mu, Jingxin Zhong, Yuhong Zhu, Heng Zhang, Xiaoyu Cai
The aim of this multicenter study was to demonstrate the distribution pattern of atherosclerotic stenosis and its trend with aging between extracranial and intracranial arteries and its distribution between the anterior and posterior circulations in Chinese patients hospitalized with ischemic stroke. In addition, the risk factors for the distribution pattern were illustrated. From June 2015 to May 2016, 9,346 patients with ischemic stroke from 20 hospitals were enrolled. Carotid artery ultrasonography and transcranial color-coded sonography/transcranial Doppler were used to evaluate the extracranial and intracranial arteries...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Geraldo Rubens Ramos Freitas, Maria da Luz Fernandes, Fabiana Agena, Omar Jaluul, Sérgio Colenci Silva, Francine Brambate Carvalhinho Lemos, Verônica Coelho, David-Neto Elias, Nelson Zocoler Galante
There is a growing number of elderly kidney transplant (Ktx) recipients. Elderly recipients present lower acute rejection rates but higher incidence of infection and malignancies. Aging per se seems to result in a shift to memory profile and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in premature immunological aging. Understanding aging and CKD effects on the immune system can improve elderly Ktx immunosuppression. We analyzed the effects of aging and CKD in the immune system, comparing healthy adults (HAd) (n=14, 26±2y), healthy elderly (HEld) (n=15, 79±7y), end stage renal disease (ESRD) adults (EnAd) (n=18, 36±7y) and ESRD elderly (EnEld) (n=31, 65±3y) prior to Ktx regarding their naïve, memory and regulatory T and B peripheral lymphocytes...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Tseng Chin-Hsiao
This retrospective cohort study investigated dementia risk associated with metformin use in type 2 diabetes patients by using the reimbursement database of the Taiwan's National Health Insurance. The patients had new-onset diabetes during 1999-2005 and were followed up until December 31, 2011. An unmatched cohort of 147,729 ever users and 15,676 never users of metformin were identified, and a matched-pair cohort of 15,676 ever users and 15,676 never users was created by propensity score (PS). Hazard ratios were estimated by Cox regression incorporated with the inverse probability of treatment weighting using PS...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Shigeki Yamada, Yukihiko Aoyagi, Kazuo Yamamoto, Masatsune Ishikawa
Although the 3-m timed up-and-go test (TUG) is reliable for evaluating mobility, TUG time is insufficient to evaluate mild gait disturbance; we, therefore aimed to investigate other measurements with instrumented TUG (iTUG) using a free smartphone application. Our inclusion criterion in this study is only that participants can walk without any assistance. This study included three heterogeneous groups; patients who underwent a tap test or shunt surgery, 29 inpatients hospitalized for other reasons, and 87 day-care users...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Fanxia Shen, Lidan Jiang, Frank Han, Vincent Degos, Shengdi Chen, Hua Su
Stroke occurs mostly in patients with advanced age. Elderly patients have a less favorable prognosis compared with young adult patients. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we tested our hypothesis that an increased inflammatory response to acute ischemic injury in old stroke mice leads to more severe brain damage and behavioral dysfunction. An ischemic stroke model was created in 2- and 12-month-old C57BL/6 mice through permanent occlusion of the left distal middle cerebral artery (dMCAO). Infarct/atrophy volumes were quantified by staining the brain sections with Cresyl Violet...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Jong Bin Bae, Ji Won Han, Kyung Phil Kwak, Bong Jo Kim, Shin Gyeom Kim, Jeong Lan Kim, Tae Hui Kim, Seung-Ho Ryu, Seok Woo Moon, Joon Hyuk Park, Jong Chul Youn, Dong Young Lee, Dong Woo Lee, Seok Bum Lee, Jung Jae Lee, Jin Hyeong Jhoo, Ki Woong Kim
Dementia increases the risk of mortality (ROM) in the elderly and estimates of hazard ratio (HR) of dementia for mortality have ranged from 1.7 to 6.3. However, previous studies may have underestimated ROM of dementia due to length bias, which occurs when failing to include the persons with rapidly progressive diseases, who died before they could be included in the study. This population-based prospective cohort study conducted on 6,752 randomly sampled Koreans, aged 60 years or older (the Korean Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging and Dementia)...
February 2019: Aging and Disease
Ashok K Shetty, Maheedhar Kodali, Raghavendra Upadhya, Leelavathi N Madhu
The prevalence of age-related diseases is in an upward trend due to increased life expectancy in humans. Age-related conditions are among the leading causes of morbidity and death worldwide currently. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find apt interventions that slow down aging and reduce or postpone the incidence of debilitating age-related diseases. This review discusses the efficacy of emerging anti-aging approaches for maintaining better health in old age. There are many anti-aging strategies in development, which include procedures such as augmentation of autophagy, elimination of senescent cells, transfusion of plasma from young blood, intermittent fasting, enhancement of adult neurogenesis, physical exercise, antioxidant intake, and stem cell therapy...
December 2018: Aging and Disease
Shichao Lv, Yang Ding, Haiping Zhao, Shihao Liu, Junping Zhang, Jun Wang
Gardeniae fructus (GF), an evergreen Rubiaceae shrub, is one of the most commonly used Chinese herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has been used for over a thousand years. It is usually prescribed for the treatment of brain aging, vascular aging, bone and joint aging, and other age-related diseases. It has been demonstrated that several effective compounds of GF, such as geniposide, genipin and crocin, have neuroprotective or related activities which are involved in senile disease treatment. These bioactivities include the mitochondrion dysfunction, antioxidative activity, apoptosis regulation and an anti-inflammatory activity, which related to multiple signaling pathways such as the nuclear factor-κB pathway, AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway...
December 2018: Aging and Disease
Antonina Luca, Carmela Calandra, Maria Luca
Neuroglia is an umbrella term indicating different cellular types that play a pivotal role in the brain, being involved in its development and functional homeostasis. Glial cells are becoming the focus of recent researches pertaining the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer's Disease (AD) in particular. In fact, activated microglia is the main determinant of neuroinflammation, contributing to neurodegeneration. In addition, the oxidative insult occurring during pathological brain aging can activate glial cells that, in turn, can favor the production of free radicals...
December 2018: Aging and Disease
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