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AoB Plants

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30895154/employing-plant-functional-groups-to-advance-seed-dispersal-ecology-and-conservation
#1
REVIEW
Clare Aslan, Noelle G Beckman, Haldre S Rogers, Judie Bronstein, Damaris Zurell, Florian Hartig, Katriona Shea, Liba Pejchar, Mike Neubert, John Poulsen, Janneke HilleRisLambers, Maria Miriti, Bette Loiselle, Edu Effiom, Jenny Zambrano, Geno Schupp, Gesine Pufal, Jeremy Johnson, James M Bullock, Jedediah Brodie, Emilio Bruna, Robert Stephen Cantrell, Robin Decker, Evan Fricke, Katie Gurski, Alan Hastings, Oleg Kogan, Onja Razafindratsima, Manette Sandor, Sebastian Schreiber, Rebecca Snell, Christopher Strickland, Ying Zhou
Seed dispersal enables plants to reach hospitable germination sites and escape natural enemies. Understanding when and how much seed dispersal matters to plant fitness is critical for understanding plant population and community dynamics. At the same time, the complexity of factors that determine if a seed will be successfully dispersed and subsequently develop into a reproductive plant is daunting. Quantifying all factors that may influence seed dispersal effectiveness for any potential seed-vector relationship would require an unrealistically large amount of time, materials and financial resources...
April 2019: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30881621/effects-of-increased-precipitation-on-the-life-history-of-spring-and-autumn-germinated-plants-of-the-cold-desert-annual-erodium-oxyrhynchum-geraniaceae
#2
Yanfeng Chen, Xiang Shi, Lingwei Zhang, Jerry M Baskin, Carol C Baskin, Huiliang Liu, Daoyuan Zhang
Future increased precipitation in cold desert ecosystems may impact annual/ephemeral plant species that germinate in both spring and autumn. Our primary aim was to compare the life history characteristics of plants from spring-germinating (SG) and autumn-germinating (AG) seeds of Erodium oxyrhynchum. Plants in field plots with simulated increases in precipitation of 0, 30 and 50 % in spring and summer were monitored to determine seedling survival, phenology, plant size, seed production and biomass accumulation and allocation...
April 2019: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30805128/the-influence-of-a-relict-distribution-on-genetic-structure-and-variation-in-the-mediterranean-tree-platanus-orientalis
#3
Rosita Rinaldi, Donata Cafasso, Sandro Strumia, Antonietta Cristaudo, Federico Sebastiani, Silvia Fineschi
The distribution of plant species around the Mediterranean basin is a product of the influence of both geographical barriers and of climatic changes experienced during the Tertiary, with the transition from a warm to cool periods. Several species, once largely distributed across the Northern Hemisphere, retracted to refugial areas in southern Europe where they are described as Tertiary relicts. Platanus orientalis is a typical representative of Tertiary flora in southwest Eurasia; its distribution spreads from the Caucasus to the Mediterranean, with its western border in Southern Italy and Sicily...
February 2019: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30800260/evidence-for-a-double-mutualistic-interaction-between-a-lizard-and-a-mediterranean-gymnosperm-ephedra-fragilis
#4
Francisco Fuster, Anna Traveset
An increasing number of double mutualisms (i.e. two interacting species benefiting each other in two different functions, e.g. pollination and seed dispersal) have been reported, mainly from island ecosystems, although we still lack much information on how effective such species are in both processes. Here, we assessed the pollination effectiveness of a double mutualism between an ancient Mediterranean gymnosperm, Ephedra fragilis , and a lizard, Podarcis lilfordi . On the one hand, we assessed the lizard contribution to different fitness measures (seed set and germination success), relative to that of insects and the wind effect; on the other, we determined the lizards' seed removal rate (i...
February 2019: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30792834/herbivore-specific-induction-of-indirect-and-direct-defensive-responses-in-leaves-and-roots
#5
Li Xiao, Juli Carrillo, Evan Siemann, Jianqing Ding
Herbivory can induce both general and specific responses in plants that modify direct and indirect defence against subsequent herbivory. The type of induction (local versus systemic induction, single versus multiple defence induction) likely depends both on herbivore identity and relationships among different responses. We examined the effects of two above-ground chewing herbivores (caterpillar, weevil) and one sucking herbivore (aphid) on indirect defence responses in leaves and direct defence responses in both leaves and roots of tallow tree, Triadica sebifera...
February 2019: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740200/completing-the-hybridization-triangle-the-inheritance-of-genetic-incompatibilities-during-homoploid-hybrid-speciation-in-ragworts-senecio
#6
Adrian C Brennan, Simon J Hiscock, Richard J Abbott
A new homoploid hybrid lineage needs to establish a degree of reproductive isolation from its parent species if it is to persist as an independent entity, but the role hybridization plays in this process is known in only a handful of cases. The homoploid hybrid ragwort species, Senecio squalidus (Oxford ragwort), originated following the introduction of hybrid plants to the UK approximately 320 years ago. The source of the hybrid plants was from a naturally occurring hybrid zone between S. aethnensis and S...
February 2019: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705745/a-member-of-the-constans-like-protein-family-is-a-putative-regulator-of-reactive-oxygen-species-homeostasis-and-spaceflight-physiological-adaptation
#7
Natasha J Sng, Bryan Kolaczkowski, Robert J Ferl, Anna-Lisa Paul
A feature of the physiological adaptation to spaceflight in Arabidopsis thaliana ( Arabidopsis ) is the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated gene expression. The patterns of ROS-associated gene expression vary among Arabidopsis ecotypes, and the role of ROS signalling in spaceflight acclimation is unknown. What could differences in ROS gene regulation between ecotypes on orbit reveal about physiological adaptation to novel environments? Analyses of ecotype-dependent responses to spaceflight resulted in the elucidation of a previously uncharacterized gene ( OMG1 ) as being ROS-associated...
February 2019: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697406/association-analysis-uncovers-the-genetic-basis-of-general-combining-ability-of-11-yield-related-traits-in-parents-of-hybrid-rice
#8
Imdad Ullah Zaid, Weijie Tang, Jianbo He, Sana Ullah Khan, Delin Hong
Association analysis between constructed single nucleotide polymorphism linkage disequilibrium blocks (SNPLDBs) and general combining ability (GCA) effects is a novel approach to uncover the genetic basis of GCA within the sequence genomes of parents of hybrid rice. Here, we calculated the GCA effect values of 33 parents of hybrid rice and sequenced them to identify genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 64.6 % of the uniquely mapped paired-end short reads revealed a final total of 291 959 SNPs between the 33 parental genomes and the Nipponbare reference genome...
February 2019: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697405/identification-and-expression-of-genes-associated-with-the-abscission-layer-controlling-seed-shattering-in-lolium-perenne
#9
Zeyu Fu, Jiancheng Song, Jiqiang Zhao, Paula E Jameson
Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne ) is one of the most important pasture grasses in the world. However, seed production is negatively impacted by the seed shattering (shedding) nature of this species. Recently, genes involved in the seed shattering process have been isolated and functionally characterized in several crop species. The aim of this study was to identify the genes playing critical roles in the seed shattering process in perennial ryegrass. DNA sequences of genes involved in seed shattering in the Poaceae were used to identify and isolate target genes in perennial ryegrass using a comparative genomics strategy...
February 2019: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30697404/low-intensity-logging-and-hunting-have-long-term-effects-on-seed-dispersal-but-not-fecundity-in-afrotropical-forests
#10
Chase L Nuñez, James S Clark, Connie J Clark, John R Poulsen
Hunting and logging, ubiquitous human disturbances in tropical forests, have the potential to alter the ecological processes that govern population recruitment and community composition. Hunting-induced declines in populations of seed-dispersing animals are expected to reduce dispersal of the tree species that rely on them, resulting in potentially greater distance- and density-dependent mortality. At the same time, selective logging may alter competitive interactions among tree species, releasing remaining trees from light, nutrient or space limitations...
February 2019: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30687492/on-the-origin-of-orphan-hybrids-between-aquilegia-formosa-and-aquilegia-flavescens
#11
Jeffrey S Groh, Diana M Percy, Curtis R Björk, Quentin C B Cronk
We report the investigation of an Aquilegia flavescens × A. formosa population in British Columbia that is disjunct from its parents-the latter species is present locally but ecologically separated, while the former is entirely absent. To confirm hybridity, we used multivariate analysis of floral characters of field-sampled populations to ordinate phenotypes of putative hybrids in relation to those of the parental species. Microsatellite genotypes at 11 loci from 72 parental-type and putative hybrid individuals were analysed to assess evidence for admixture...
February 2019: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30680087/the-response-of-mesophyll-conductance-to-short-and-long-term-environmental-conditions-in-chickpea-genotypes
#12
Arjina Shrestha, Thomas N Buckley, Erin L Lockhart, Margaret M Barbour
. Mesophyll conductance ( g m ) has been shown to vary between genotypes of a number of species and with growth environments, including nitrogen availability, but understanding of g m variability in legumes is limited. We might expect g m in legumes to respond differently to limited nitrogen availability, due to their ability to fix atmospheric N2 . Using online stable carbon isotope discrimination method, we quantified genetic variability in g m under ideal conditions, investigated g m response to N source (N2 -fixation or inorganic N) and determined the effects of N source and water availability on the rapid response of g m to photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and radiation wavelength in three genotypes of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum )...
February 2019: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30619543/a-novel-dendroecological-method-finds-a-non-linear-relationship-between-elevation-and-seasonal-growth-continuity-on-an-island-with-trade-wind-influenced-water-availability
#13
Robert Weigel, Severin D H Irl, Kerstin Treydte, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Johanna Berels, Richard Field, José Carlos Miranda, Alana Steinbauer, Manuel J Steinbauer, Anke Jentsch
Climatic seasonality drives ecosystem processes (e.g. productivity) and influences plant species distribution. However, it is poorly understood how different aspects of seasonality (especially regarding temperature and precipitation) affect growth continuity of trees in climates with low seasonality because seasonality is often only crudely measured. On islands, exceptionally wide elevational species distribution ranges allow the use of tree rings to identify how growth continuity and climate-growth relationships change with elevation...
December 2018: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30595833/seed-characteristic-variations-and-genetic-structure-of-wild-zizania-latifolia-along-a-latitudinal-gradient-in-china-implications-for-neo-domestication-as-a-grain-crop
#14
Yao Zhao, Lan Zhong, Kai Zhou, Zhiping Song, Jiakuan Chen, Jun Rong
Crop wild relatives are not only important genetic resources for crop improvement, but also domestication candidates for selecting new crops. As a close relative of American wild rice Zizania palustris , Z. latifolia is a perennial aquatic grass widely distributed in China. Although Z. latifolia has been domesticated and cultivated as an aquatic vegetable for >1000 years, a neo-domestication for grain production needs to be soundly evaluated. In this study, we investigated the seed characteristic variations and genetic structure of 15 Z...
December 2018: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30591830/a-review-of-european-studies-on-pollination-networks-and-pollen-limitation-and-a-case-study-designed-to-fill-in-a-gap
#15
Joanne M Bennett, Amibeth Thompson, Irina Goia, Reinart Feldmann, Valentin Ştefan, Ana Bogdan, Demetra Rakosy, Mirela Beloiu, Inge-Beatrice Biro, Simon Bluemel, Milena Filip, Anna-Maria Madaj, Alina Martin, Sarah Passonneau, Denisa P Kalisch, Gwydion Scherer, Tiffany M Knight
Anthropogenic environmental change disrupts interactions between plants and their animal pollinators. To assess the importance of different drivers, baseline information is needed on interaction networks and plant reproductive success around the world. We conducted a systematic literature review to determine the state of our knowledge on plant-pollinator interactions and the ecosystem services they provide for European ecosystems. We focussed on studies that published information on plant-pollinator networks, as a community-level assessment of plant-pollinator interactions and pollen limitation, which assesses the degree to which plant reproduction is limited by pollinator services...
December 2018: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30568764/the-influence-of-environmental-factors-on-breeding-system-allocation-at-large-spatial-scales
#16
Beth H Ansaldi, Steven J Franks, Jennifer J Weber
Plant breeding systems can vary widely among populations, yet few studies have investigated abiotic factors contributing to variation across a broad geographic range. Here we investigate variation in reproductive traits of Triodanis perfoliata (Campanulaceae), a species that exhibits dimorphic cleistogamy, a condition in which individual plants have both closed (selfing: cleistogamous: CL) and open (selfing or outcrossing: chasmogamous: CH) flowers. Chasmogamous production is theorized to be more costly because CH flowers have a larger exposed surface area and thus are more likely to lose more water than CL flowers...
December 2018: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30538811/an-overview-on-reproductive-isolation-in-oryza-sativa-complex
#17
REVIEW
Sadia Nadir, Sehroon Khan, Qian Zhu, Doku Henry, Li Wei, Dong Sun Lee, LiJuan Chen
Reproductive isolation is generally regarded as the essence of the speciation process. Studying closely related species is convenient for understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation. Therefore, the present review is restricted to the species and subspecies of the Oryza sativa complex, which includes the two domestic rice cultivars and six wild species. Although closely related, these rice species are separated from each other by a range reproductive barriers. This review presents a comprehensive understanding of the forces that shaped the formation of reproductive barriers among and between the species of the O...
December 2018: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30487965/exploration-of-cotton-leaf-curl-virus-resistance-genes-and-their-screening-in-gossypium-arboreum-by-targeting-resistance-gene-analogues
#18
Rakhshanda Mushtaq, Khurram Shahzad, Shahid Mansoor, Zahid Hussain Shah, Hameed Alsamadany, Tahir Mujtaba, Yahya Al-Zahrani, Hind A S Alzahrani, Zaheer Ahmed, Aftab Bashir
Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) disease is one of the major limiting factors in cotton production, particularly in widely cultivated Gossypium hirsutum varieties that are susceptible to attack by this virus. Several approaches have been employed to explore putative resistance genes in another cotton species, G. arboreum . However, the exact mechanisms conferring disease resistance in cotton are still unknown. In the current study, we used various approaches to identify possible resistance genes against CLCuV infection...
December 2018: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30455860/flood-tolerance-in-two-tree-species-that-inhabit-both-the-amazonian-floodplain-and-the-dry-cerrado-savanna-of-brazil
#19
Hérica Ribeiro Almeida Pires, Augusto Cesar Franco, Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade, Veridiana Vizoni Scudeller, Bart Kruijt, Cristiane Silva Ferreira
Comparing plants of the same species thriving in flooded and non-flooded ecosystems helps to clarify the interplay between natural selection, phenotypic plasticity and stress adaptation. We focussed on responses of seeds and seedlings of Genipa americana and Guazuma ulmifolia to substrate waterlogging or total submergence. Both species are commonly found in floodplain forests of Central Amazonia and in seasonally dry savannas of Central Brazil (Cerrado). Although seeds of Amazonian and Cerrado G. americana were similar in size, the germination percentage of Cerrado seeds was decreased by submergence (3 cm water) and increased in Amazonian seeds...
December 2018: AoB Plants
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30425822/understanding-biogeographical-patterns-in-the-western-balkan-peninsula-using-environmental-niche-modelling-and-geostatistics-in-polymorphic-edraianthus-tenuifolius
#20
Peter Glasnović, Martina Temunović, Dmitar Lakušić, Tamara Rakić, Valentina Brečko Grubar, Boštjan Surina
The Balkan Peninsula represents one of the three southern European glacial refugia where biodiversity persisted throughout the climatically unstable Quaternary. This study considered the 'refugia within refugia' model, which assumes the environmental heterogeneity over time and space in larger refugia. To better understand patterns shaped during the Quaternary climatic oscillations, the present and last glacial maximum (LGM) environmental conditions and current morphological variability of Edraianthus tenuifolius , an endemic plant of the western Balkans with a well-known therphical structure, were considered...
December 2018: AoB Plants
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