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Advances in Pharmacological Sciences

Silpi Chanda, Raj Kumar Tiwari, Arun Kumar, Kuldeep Singh
Nutraceuticals are the pharmaceutically blended products that possess both nutritional as well as the medicinal value. Such a product is designed to improve the physical health, fight against day-to-day challenges such as stress, increase longevity, etc. Nowadays, emphasis is given to those herbs which are used as food and medicine due to its greater acceptance. Due to dynamic action, the popularity of nutraceuticals among people as well as healthcare providers has been increased over medicines and health supplements...
2019: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Kerem Canlı, Ali Yetgin, Atakan Benek, Mustafa Eray Bozyel, Ergin Murat Altuner
The aim of this study was to test antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Lavandula stoechas against 22 bacteria and 1 yeast. Also, biochemical composition of the extract was investigated. A wide range of Gram-positive, Gram-negative microorganisms, and multidrug resistant bacteria were selected to test the antimicrobial activity. As a result, the extract is observed to contain fenchone (bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, 1,3,3-trimethyl-, (1R )-) and camphor (+)-2-bornanone) as major components and showed antimicrobial activity against all studied microorganisms except Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ...
2019: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Priyankar Dey, Manas Ranjan Saha, Sumedha Roy Choudhuri, Indrani Sarkar, Biswajit Halder, Mousumi Poddar-Sarkar, Arnab Sen, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri
The extracts of different parts of Nerium oleander L. are used as antidiabetic remedy in the traditional medicinal systems of different parts of the world. Despite these uses in ethnomedicinal system, the antihyperglycemic potentials of oleander stem (NOSE) and root (NORE) extracts have not been pharmacologically evaluated. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the antidiabetic ethnomedicinal claims of NOSE and NORE, primarily focusing on glucose homeostasis and associated metabolic implications. Alloxan-treated mice with hyperglycaemia (blood glucose >200 mg/dL) were treated with oleander 70% hydromethanolic extracts (200 mg/kg) for 20 consecutive days, and the results were compared with positive control glibenclamide...
2019: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Mervin Chávez-Castillo, Victoria Núñez, Manuel Nava, Ángel Ortega, Milagros Rojas, Valmore Bermúdez, Joselyn Rojas-Quintero
Depression is currently recognized as a crucial problem in everyday clinical practice, in light of ever-increasing rates of prevalence, as well as disability, morbidity, and mortality related to this disorder. Currently available antidepressant drugs are notoriously problematic, with suboptimal remission rates and troubling side-effect profiles. Their mechanisms of action focus on the monoamine hypothesis for depression, which centers on the disruption of serotonergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission in the brain...
2019: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Mas Athira Johari, Heng Yen Khong
Different solvent extracts of Pereskia bleo leaves were evaluated for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities based on the Folin-Ciocalteu test and DPPH scavenging activities. The antibacterial activities against four bacteria, namely, Gram-positive bacteria: Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 (SP) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29737 (SA) and Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 (EC) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 (PA), were also performed based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays...
2019: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Fatin Aina Zulkhairi Amin, Suriana Sabri, Salma Malihah Mohammad, Maznah Ismail, Kim Wei Chan, Norsharina Ismail, Mohd Esa Norhaizan, Norhasnida Zawawi
Both honeybees ( Apis spp.) and stingless bees ( Trigona spp.) produce honeys with high nutritional and therapeutics value. Until recently, the information regarding potential health benefits of stingless bee honey (SBH) in medical databases is still scarce as compared to the common European bee honey (EBH) which is well known for their properties as therapeutic agents. Although there have been very few reports on SBH, empirically these products would have similar therapeutic quality as the EBH. In addition, due to the structure of the nest, few studies reported that the antimicrobial activity of SBH is a little bit stronger than EBH...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Sebastian Noe, Silke Heldwein, Carmen Wiese, Rita Pascucci, Ariane von Krosigk, Farhad Schabaz, Celia Jonsson-Oldenbuettel, Hans Jaeger, Eva Wolf
Background: Higher levels of parathyroid hormone have been associated with the use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in people with and without HIV infection. Yet, alterations in calcium levels have never been elucidated in detail. Objective: To compare the association of parathyroid hormone with serum calcium levels and other markers of calcium and bone metabolism in people living with HIV on TDF- and non-TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy. Patients and Methods: A retrospective single center cohort study in Munich, Germany...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Subhankar Biswas, Neetinkumar D Reddy, B S Jayashree, C Mallikarjuna Rao
Alteration of epigenetic enzymes is associated with the pathophysiology of colon cancer with an overexpression of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) enzyme in this tissue. Numerous reports suggest that targeting HDAC8 is a viable strategy for developing new anticancer drugs. Flavonols provide a rich source of molecules that are effective against cancer; however, their clinical use is limited. The present study investigated the potential of quercetin and synthetic 3-hydroxyflavone analogues to inhibit HDAC8 enzyme and evaluated their anticancer property...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Mahmoud Gharbavi, Jafar Amani, Hamidreza Kheiri-Manjili, Hossein Danafar, Ali Sharafi
Niosomes (the nonionic surfactant vesicles), considered as novel drug delivery systems, can improve the solubility and stability of natural pharmaceutical molecules. They are established to provide targeting and controlled release of natural pharmaceutical compounds. Many factors can influence on niosome construction such as the preparation method, type and amount of surfactant, drug entrapment, temperature of lipids hydration, and the packing factor. The present review discusses about the most important features of niosomes such as their diverse structures, the different preparation approaches, characterization techniques, factors that affect their stability, their use by various routes of administration, their therapeutic applications in comparison with natural drugs, and specially the brain targeting with niosomes-ligand conjugation...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Jigni Mishra, Anivesh Joshi, Rakhee Rajput, Kaushlesh Singh, Anju Bansal, Kshipra Misra
Ganoderma lucidum ( G. lucidum ) fungus (Family Ganodermataceae) is widely used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and many Asian countries on account of its numerous medicinal properties such as antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, energy enhancing, and immunostimulatory. This broad spectrum of therapeutic effects exhibited by G. lucidum is ascribed to its abundance in several classes of chemical constituents, namely, carbohydrates, flavonoids, minerals, phenolics, proteins, and steroids which possess substantial bioactivities...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Janaina K L Campos, Tiago F da S Araújo, Thaíse G da S Brito, Ana P S da Silva, Rebeca X da Cunha, Mônica B Martins, Nicácio H da Silva, Bianka S Dos Santos, César A da Silva, Vera L de M Lima
Indigoferasuffruticosa Mill. (Fabaceae) is known as anil or anileira and also with other names, due to the production of a blue pigment, which is commonly used for yarn dyeing. It is distributed in some states of Brazil (Pernambuco, Paraíba, Mato Grosso, São Paulo, Bahia, Pará, and others) and is used in the popular medicine as a febrifuge, antispasmodic, diuretic, abortive, analgesic, purgative, or soothing agent against stomach and urinary problems, jaundice, and ulcers and also as an insecticide. In addition, I...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Alesandra R Nunes, Ícaro G P Vieira, Dinalva B Queiroz, Antonio Linkoln Alves Borges Leal, Selene Maia Morais, Débora Feitosa Muniz, João Tavares Calixto-Junior, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho
Many pathological problems are initiated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), such as skin cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. The UVA (320-400 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) wavelengths may cause effects such as photoaging, DNA damage, and a series of cellular alterations. The UVA radiation can damage the DNA, oxidize the lipids, and produce dangerous free radicals, which can cause inflammation, modify the gene expression in response to stress, and weaken the skin immune response. With a minor penetration, the UVB radiation is more harmful, being responsible for immediate damage...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Ali Yetgin, Kerem Canlı, Ergin Murat Altuner
In this study, antimicrobial activities of two different samples of Allium sativum L. from Turkey (TR) (Taşköprü, Kastamonu, Turkey) and China (CN) were determined. A broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (17 bacteria) including species of Bacillus , Enterobacter , Enterococcus , Escherichia , Klebsiella , Listeria , Pseudomonas , Salmonella , and Staphylococcus were used for testing antibacterial activity. In addition, antifungal activity against Candida albicans was also investigated...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Ruchi Yadav, Prachi Srivastava
Neuronal developmental disorder is a class of diseases in which there is impairment of the central nervous system and brain function. The brain in its developmental phase undergoes tremendous changes depending upon the stage and environmental factors. Neurodevelopmental disorders include abnormalities associated with cognitive, speech, reading, writing, linguistic, communication, and growth disorders with lifetime effects. Computational methods provide great potential for betterment of research and insight into the molecular mechanism of diseases...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Raman Preet, Raghbir Chand Gupta
In the present study, HPTLC is used to detect the presence and amount of triterpenoids and phytosterols in different plant parts (fruit, stem, leaf, and root) of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. and Wendl.; such analysis is done for the first time. Each plant part has its own medicinal value and is used as Siddha medicinal herb. The employed statistical analysis ensures that the developed method is reproducible and selective. The results show that the fruit samples contain highest amount of tested phytochemicals...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Jonathan Emeka Emordi, Esther Oluwatoyin Agbaje, Ibrahim Adekunle Oreagba, Osede Ignis Iribhogbe
Diabetes mellitus has been a menace to mankind from time immemorial. However, a natural product such as U. chamae P. Beauv (Annonaceae) offers alternative treatment for diabetes mellitus. The study aimed at evaluating antidiabetic activity of the ethanolic root extract of U. chamae in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats after overnight fast with 150 mg/kg alloxan intraperitoneally. After 72 h, those with plasma glucose levels >200 mg/dl were classified as diabetic...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Mustafa Sevindik
In the present study, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the Lentinus tigrinus (Bull.) Fr. mushroom was determined. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) of the mushroom were measured with Rel Assay kits. Antimicrobial activities were tested on 9 standard bacterial and fungal strains ( Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus aureus MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acinetobacter baumannii , Candida albicans , Candida krusei , and Candida glabrata ) with a modified agar dilution method...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Raman Preet, Raghbir Chand Gupta
During the present study, an endeavor has been made to produce a simple, rapid, and simultaneous method for determination of phenolic compounds by using high-performance liquid chromatography in aerial parts of Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne. collected from the Indian Thar Desert. The optimized process was used for the quantification of ten phenolic compounds. The chromatographic separation was accomplished on an Atlantis T3 column at 25°C with isocratic elution. A mixture of acetonitrile and water was used as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih, Manikya Pramudya, Intan Permata Putri, Dwi Winarni, Nadyatul Ilma Indah Savira, Win Darmanto
Okra pods were widely consumed by Indonesians to maintain health. The aim of this study was at investigating the potential of crude polysaccharides from okra pods on immune response in mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Thirty male Balb/C mice were divided into six groups: normal control, negative control, and treatment groups (administration of crude polysaccharides at doses of 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/kg). Crude polysaccharides were administrated for fourteen days. Furthermore, mice were exposed to S...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Vesara Ardhe Gatera, Rizky Abdulah, Ida Musfiroh, Raden Tina Dewi Judistiani, Budi Setiabudiawan
To update the guidelines regarding vitamin D status in respiratory distress syndrome, we reviewed recent human and animal studies on the benefits of vitamin D in respiratory distress. We searched PubMed and ProQuest for studies on the use of vitamin D from 2009 to 2017. The common parameters in these studies included the use of lung tissue, phospholipids, blood, and plasma to assess the effects of vitamin D on respiratory syndrome. The metabolized form of vitamin D used in these studies was 1,25(OH)2 D3 in animal studies and 25(OH)D in human studies...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
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