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Stem Cells International

Haojiang Li, Shi Shen, Haitao Fu, Zhenyong Wang, Xu Li, Xiang Sui, Mei Yuan, Shuyun Liu, Guiqin Wang, Quanyi Guo
The inflammatory response to chronic injury affects tissue regeneration and has become an important factor influencing the prognosis of patients. In previous stem cell treatments, it was revealed that stem cells not only have the ability for direct differentiation or regeneration in chronic tissue damage but also have a regulatory effect on the immune microenvironment. Stem cells can regulate the immune microenvironment during tissue repair and provide a good "soil" for tissue regeneration. In the current study, the regulation of immune cells by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the local tissue microenvironment and the tissue damage repair mechanisms are revealed...
2019: Stem Cells International
Ihsène Taïhi, Ali Nassif, Juliane Isaac, Benjamin Philippe Fournier, François Ferré
A large array of therapeutic procedures is available to treat cartilage disorders caused by trauma or inflammatory disease. Most are invasive and may result in treatment failure or development of osteoarthritis due to extensive cartilage damage from repeated surgery. Despite encouraging results of early cell therapy trials that used chondrocytes collected during arthroscopic surgery, these approaches have serious disadvantages, including morbidity associated with cell harvesting and low predictive clinical outcomes...
2019: Stem Cells International
Quan Zhuang, Ruoyu Ma, Yanshuang Yin, Tianhao Lan, Meng Yu, Yingzi Ming
Renal fibrosis, as the fundamental pathological process of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a pathologic extension of the normal wound healing process characterized by endothelium injury, myofibroblast activation, macrophage migration, inflammatory signaling stimulation, matrix deposition, and remodelling. Yet, the current method of treating renal fibrosis is fairly limited, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, angiotensin receptor blockade, optimal blood pressure control, and sodium bicarbonate for metabolic acidosis...
2019: Stem Cells International
Eduardo Branco de Sousa, Gilson Costa Dos Santos Junior, Ramon Pinheiro Aguiar, Rafaela da Costa Sartore, Ana Carolina Leal de Oliveira, Fabio Ceneviva Lacerda Almeida, Vivaldo Moura Neto, Diego Pinheiro Aguiar
Synovial fluid holds a population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that could be used for clinical treatment. Our goal was to characterize the inflammatory and metabolomic profile of the synovial fluid from osteoarthritic patients and to identify its modulatory effect on synovial fluid cells. Synovial fluid was collected from non-OA and OA patients, which was centrifuged to isolate cells. Cells were cultured for 21 days, characterized with specific markers for MSC, and exposed to a specific cocktail to induce chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic differentiation...
2019: Stem Cells International
June Seok Heo, Ja-Yun Lim, Sangshin Pyo, Dae Wui Yoon, Dongsook Lee, Wen Xiu Ren, Seung Gwan Lee, Gi Jin Kim, Jinkwan Kim
The toxic effects of particulate matter have been linked to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzopyrene. PAHs are potent inducers of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which is an expressed nuclear receptor that senses environmental stimuli and modulates gene expression. Even though several studies have shown that the benzopyrene (BP) of chemical pollutants significantly impaired stem cell activity, the exact molecular mechanisms were not clearly elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of BP on placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PD-MSCs) in vitro ...
2019: Stem Cells International
Tackla S Winston, Kantaphon Suddhapas, Chenyan Wang, Rafael Ramos, Pranav Soman, Zhen Ma
Combination of stem cell technology and 3D biofabrication approaches provides physiological similarity to in vivo tissues and the capability of repairing and regenerating damaged human tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used for regenerative medicine applications because of their immunosuppressive properties and multipotent potentials. To obtain large amount of high-quality MSCs without patient donation and invasive procedures, we differentiated MSCs from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) using serum-free E6 media supplemented with only one growth factor (bFGF) and two small molecules (SB431542 and CHIR99021)...
2019: Stem Cells International
Antonella Bordin, Francesca Pagano, Eleonora Scaccia, Matteo Saccucci, Iole Vozza, Noemi Incerti, Antonella Polimeni, Elena Cavarretta, Isotta Chimenti, Elena De Falco
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major metabolic disease and a key epigenetic risk factor for the development of additional clinical complications. Among them, periodontitis (PD), a severe inflammatory disease ascribable to a dysregulated physiology and composition of the oral microbiota, represents one of the most relevant complications. Periodontitis can impact the structure of the tooth and likely the stem and progenitor cell pool, which actively contributes to the periodontal microenvironment and homeostasis...
2019: Stem Cells International
Enrico Conserva, Alessandra Pisciotta, Francesco Borghi, Milena Nasi, Simone Pecorini, Laura Bertoni, Anto de Pol, Ugo Consolo, Gianluca Carnevale
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can be easily isolated form craniofacial bones during routine dentistry procedures. Due to their embryological origin from neural crest, they represent a suitable cell population to study cell-biomaterial interaction in the craniofacial field, including osteoinductive/osteointegrative processes. The biological and immunomodulatory properties of MSCs may be influenced by chemistry and topography of implant surfaces. We investigated if and how three different titanium surfaces, machined (MCH), sandblasted with resorbable blasting medium (RBM), and Ca++ -nanostructured (NCA), may affect biological activity, osseointegration, and immunomodulatory properties of craniofacial MSCs...
2019: Stem Cells International
Giuseppe Vassalli
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a superfamily of enzymes that detoxify a variety of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes and are required for the biosynthesis of retinoic acid (RA) and other molecular regulators of cellular function. Over the past decade, high ALDH activity has been increasingly used as a selectable marker for normal cell populations enriched in stem and progenitor cells, as well as for cell populations from cancer tissues enriched in tumor-initiating stem-like cells. Mounting evidence suggests that ALDH not only may be used as a marker for stem cells but also may well regulate cellular functions related to self-renewal, expansion, differentiation, and resistance to drugs and radiation...
2019: Stem Cells International
Yi Wang, Xibo Ma, Wei Chai, Jie Tian
The last couple of decades have seen brilliant progress in stem cell therapies, including native, genetically modified, and engineered stem cells, for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). In vitro studies evaluate the effect of endogenous or exogenous factor or gene regulation on osteogenic phenotype maintenance and/or differentiation towards osteogenic lineage. The preclinical and clinical outcomes accelerate the clinical translation. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and adipose-derived stem cells have demonstrated better effects in the treatment of femoral head necrosis...
2019: Stem Cells International
Bo Huang, Tao He, Qianqian Yao, Liang Zhang, Yang Yao, Hua Tang, Ping Gong
This study is aimed at investigating the effect of amifostine (AMI) on rat bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) exposed to 2 Gy radiation. The BMSCs were divided into four groups, namely, group A that received 0 Gy radiation, group B that received 0 Gy radiation and AMI, group C that received 2 Gy radiation, and group D that received 2 Gy radiation and AMI. The proliferation, apoptosis, and distribution of BMSCs in the cell cycle, along with their osteogenesis ability, adipogenesis ability, and ROS production, were subsequently examined...
2019: Stem Cells International
Riham M Fliefel, Saleh A Entekhabi, Michael Ehrenfeld, Sven Otto
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the keystone to treat bone disorders. Despite the great benefits of BPs, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) arouse as a potential side effect. Nitrogen-containing BPs (N-BPs) as zoledronate (ZA) act by the inhibition of specific enzymes of the mevalonate pathway resulting in altering protein prenylation which is required for the posttranslational maturation of the small GTP-binding proteins. Geranylgeraniol (GGOH) is an intermediate product in the mevalonate pathway having positive effects on different cell types treated with BPs by salvaging protein prenylation improving cell viability and proliferation in tissue regeneration, thus overcoming N-BP-induced apoptosis...
2019: Stem Cells International
Jiaojiao Zhou, Qishan Chen, Yiheng Zou, Shu Zheng, Yiding Chen
Evidences have supported the pivotal roles of stem cells in mammary gland development. Many molecular markers have been identified to characterize mammary stem cells. Cellular fate mapping of mammary stem cells by lineage tracing has put unprecedented insights into the mammary stem cell biology, which identified two subtypes of mammary stem cells, including unipotent and multipotent, which specifically differentiate to luminal or basal cells. The emerging single-cell sequencing profiles have given a more comprehensive understanding on the cellular hierarchy and lineage signatures of mammary epithelium...
2019: Stem Cells International
Fatemeh Sharifpanah, Hossein A Ghofrani, Suk Ying Tsang, Heinrich Sauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Stem Cells International
Simona Ceccarelli, Francesca Megiorni, Diana Bellavia, Cinzia Marchese, Isabella Screpanti, Saula Checquolo
Notch signaling is frequently activated in ovarian cancer (OC) and contributes to the proliferation and survival of cultured OC cells as well as to tumor formation and angiogenesis in xenograft models. Several studies demonstrate that Notch3 expression renders cancer cells more resistant to carboplatin, contributing to chemoresistance and poor survival of OC-bearing patients. This suggests that Notch3 can represent both a biomarker and a target for therapeutic interventions in OC patients. Although it is still unclear how chemoresistance arises, different lines of evidence support a critical role of cancer stem cells (CSCs), suggesting that CSC targeting by innovative therapeutic approaches might represent a promising tool to efficiently reduce OC recurrence...
2019: Stem Cells International
R I Dmitrieva, T A Lelyavina, M Y Komarova, V L Galenko, O A Ivanova, P A Tikanova, N V Khromova, A S Golovkin, M A Bortsova, A Sergushichev, M Yu Sitnikova, A A Kostareva
Background and Purpose: In heart failure (HF), metabolic alterations induce skeletal muscle wasting and decrease of exercise capacity and quality of life. The activation of skeletal muscle regeneration potential is a prospective strategy to reduce muscle wasting; therefore, the aim of this project was to determine if functional properties of skeletal muscle mesenchymal progenitor cells (SM-MPC) were affected by HF-induced functional and metabolic dysregulations. Methods: Gastrocnemius muscle biopsy samples were obtained from 3 healthy donors (HD) and 12 HF patients to purify mRNA for further analysis and to isolate SM-MPC...
2019: Stem Cells International
Feiyan Zhao, Wei Liu, Shaojie Yue, Lei Yang, Qingzhong Hua, Yan Zhou, Haipeng Cheng, Ziqiang Luo, Siyuan Tang
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can promote the repair of a variety of damaged tissues, but the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) play an important role in the repair of damaged tissue. The aim of this study was to explore whether pretreating BM-MSCs with G-CSF can promote their ability of homing to the lung after in vitro transplantation via upregulating the CXCR4 expression, potentially markedly increasing the antifibrotic effect of BM-MSCs...
2019: Stem Cells International
Jiheng Zhan, Jianbo He, Meihui Chen, Dan Luo, Dingkun Lin
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are considered as transplants for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) trauma, but the therapeutic effect is restricted by their finite mobility and homing capacity. Fasudil (FAS), a potent Rho kinase inhibitor, has been reported to alleviate nerve damage and induce the differentiation of BMSCs into neuron-like cells. However, the effect of FAS on the migration of BMSCs remains largely unknown. The present study revealed that FAS significantly enhanced the migration ability and actin stress fiber formation of BMSCs in vitro with an optimal concentration of 30  μ mol/L...
2018: Stem Cells International
Dajeong Yoon, Dogeon Yoon, Heejoong Sim, Inseok Hwang, Ji-Seon Lee, Wook Chun
Fibroblasts synthesize and secrete dermal collagen, matrix proteins, growth factors, and cytokines. These characteristics of fibroblasts provide a potential way for fibroblast therapy to treat skin ulcers more effectively than conventional therapies such as cytokine therapy and negative pressure wound therapy. However, the obstacle to the commercialization of fibroblast therapy is the limited supply of cells with consistent quality. In this study, we tested whether human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hESC-MSCs) could be differentiated into fibroblasts considering that they have characteristics of high differentiation rates, unlimited proliferation possibility from a single colony, and homogeneity...
2018: Stem Cells International
Hong Kiat Lim, Pravin Periasamy, Helen C O'Neill
There are very few model systems which demonstrate hematopoiesis in vitro . Previously, we described unique splenic stromal cell lines which support the in vitro development of hematopoietic cells and particularly myeloid cells. Here, the 5G3 spleen stromal cell line has been investigated for capacity to support the differentiation of hematopoietic cells from progenitors in vitro . Initially, 5G3 was shown to express markers of mesenchymal but not endothelial or hematopoietic cells and to resemble perivascular reticular cells in the bone marrow through gene expression...
2018: Stem Cells International
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