Journals Current Topics in Behavioral N...

Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Keisuke Suzuki, Alberto Mariola, David J Schwartzman, Anil K Seth
Extended reality (XR), encompassing various forms of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR), has become a powerful experimental tool in consciousness research due to its capability to create holistic and immersive experiences of oneself and surrounding environments through simulation. One hallmark of a successful XR experience is when it elicits a strong sense of presence, which can be thought of as a subjective sense of reality of the self and the world. Although XR research has shed light on many factors that may influence presence (or its absence) in XR environments, there remains much to be discovered about the detailed and diverse phenomenology of presence, and the neurocognitive mechanisms that underlie it...
January 3, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Marta Matamala-Gomez, Tony Donegan, Justyna Świdrak
The present chapter explores how immersive virtual reality (VR) systems can be used for pain research and treatment. Pain is a universal, yet entirely subjective and multifaceted unpleasant experience. One of the earliest VR studies on pain highlighted the role of attention in pain modulation. However, the role of body representation in pain modulation has also been described as a crucial factor. Through virtual reality systems, it is possible to modulate both attention to pain and body representation. In this chapter, first we define how immersive VR can be used to create the illusion of being present in immersive VR environments and argue why VR can be an effective tool for distracting patients from acute pain...
January 3, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
I-Wei Shu, Eric L Granholm, Fiza Singh
Optimal working memory (WM), the mental ability to internally maintain and manipulate task-relevant information, requires coordinated activity of dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortical (DLPFC) neurons. More specifically, during delay periods of tasks with WM features, DLPFC microcircuits generate persistent, stimulus-specific higher-frequency (e.g., gamma) activity. This activity largely depends on recurrent connections between parvalbumin positive inhibitory interneurons and pyramidal neurons in more superficial DLPFC layers...
2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Sheida Koohsari, Yanghong Yang, David Matuskey
This chapter encapsulates a short introduction to positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and the information gained by using this technology to detect changes of the dopamine 3 receptor (D3R) at the molecular level in vivo. We will discuss available D3R radiotracers, emphasizing [11C]PHNO. The focus, however, will be on PET findings in conditions including substance abuse, obesity, traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and aging. Finally, there is a discussion about progress in producing next-generation selective D3R radiotracers...
2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Amy Hauck Newman, Zheng-Xiong Xi, Christian Heidbreder
Over three decades of evidence indicate that dopamine (DA) D3 receptors (D3 R) are involved in the control of drug-seeking behavior and may play an important role in the pathophysiology of substance use disorders (SUD). The expectation that a selective D3 R antagonist/partial agonist would be efficacious for the treatment of SUD is based on the following key observations. First, D3 R are distributed in strategic areas belonging to the mesolimbic DA system such as the ventral striatum, midbrain, and ventral pallidum, which have been associated with behaviors controlled by the presentation of drug-associated cues...
2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Shannon L Delaney, Lilly A Murray, Brian A Fallon
In North America, Lyme disease (LD) is primarily caused by the spirochetal bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted to humans by Ixodes species tick bites, at an estimated rate of 476,000 patients diagnosed per year. Acute LD often manifests with flu-like symptoms and an expanding rash known as erythema migrans (EM) and less often with neurologic, neuropsychiatric, arthritic, or cardiac features. Most acute cases of Lyme disease are effectively treated with antibiotics, but 10-20% of individuals may experience recurrent or persistent symptoms...
December 14, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Sein Jeung, Christopher Hilton, Timotheus Berg, Lukas Gehrke, Klaus Gramann
Immersive virtual reality (VR) allows its users to experience physical space in a non-physical world. It has developed into a powerful research tool to investigate the neural basis of human spatial navigation as an embodied experience. The task of wayfinding can be carried out by using a wide range of strategies, leading to the recruitment of various sensory modalities and brain areas in real-life scenarios. While traditional desktop-based VR setups primarily focus on vision-based navigation, immersive VR setups, especially mobile variants, can efficiently account for motor processes that constitute locomotion in the physical world, such as head-turning and walking...
December 14, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Yash B Joshi
Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling is critical for central nervous function and is known to be abnormal in schizophrenia (SZ), a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder in which cognitive deficits persist, despite treatment. This review provides a summary of the clinical evidence linking ACh abnormalities to SZ-associated cognitive deficits, an overview of ACh-based pro-cognitive strategies attempted in SZ, and a survey of recent studies that describe the impact of anticholinergic medication burden on cognitive outcomes in SZ...
November 29, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Siân Lowri Griffiths, Rachel Upthegrove, Fabiana Corsi-Zuelli, Bill Deakin
It is well known that schizophrenia is associated with cognitive impairment, reduced cortical grey matter and increased circulating concentrations of inflammatory cytokines. However, the relationship between these findings is not clear. We outline the influential neuroinflammatory hypotheses that raised cytokines provoke a damaging immune response in microglia that results in reduced grey matter and associated cognitive performance. We investigated whether such an interaction might be detectable in the prodromal period as illness emerges from the Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P)...
November 22, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Stephen L Buka, Younga Heather Lee, Jill M Goldstein
For the past 40 years, our team has conducted a unique program of research investigating the prenatal risks for schizophrenia and related adult psychiatric disorders. The New England Family Study is a long-term prospective cohort study of over 16,000 individuals followed from the prenatal period for over 50 years. This chapter summarizes several major phases and findings from this work, highlighting recent results on maternal prenatal bacterial infections and brain imaging. Implications regarding the causes and potential prevention of major psychotic disorders are discussed...
November 15, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Hakan Kayir, Jessica Ruffolo, Patrick McCunn, Jibran Y Khokhar
The consequences of cannabis use, especially in the context of schizophrenia, have gained increased importance with the legalization of cannabis in North America and across the globe. Cannabis use has multifaceted impacts on cognition in schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects. Healthy subjects, particularly those who initiated cannabis use at earlier ages and used high-potency cannabis for longer durations, exhibited poorer cognition mainly in working memory and attention. Cannabis use in schizophrenia has been associated with symptom exacerbation, longer and more frequent psychotic episodes, and poorer treatment outcomes...
November 2, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Urs Meyer
The epidemiological literature reporting increased risk for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders after prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) is still evolving, and so are the attempts to model this association in animals. Epidemiological studies of MIA offer the advantage of directly evaluating human populations but are often limited in their ability to uncover pathogenic mechanisms. Animal models, on the other hand, are limited in their generalizability to psychiatric disorders but have made significant strides toward discovering causal relationships and biological pathways between MIA and neurobiological phenotypes...
October 29, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Keith H Nuechterlein, Michael F Green, Robert S Kern
Through a series of NIMH-supported consensus-building meetings of experts and empirical comparisons of candidate tests, the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative developed a battery of standardized cognitive measures to allow reliable evaluation of results from clinical trials of promising interventions for core cognitive deficits in this disorder. Ten tests in seven cognitive domains were selected for the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). The MCCB has now been translated into 39 languages/dialects and has been employed in more than 145 clinical trials...
October 29, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Anne Giersch, Vincent Laprévote
Perceptual disorders are not part of the diagnosis criteria for schizophrenia. Yet, a considerable amount of work has been conducted, especially on visual perception abnormalities, and there is little doubt that visual perception is altered in patients. There are several reasons why such perturbations are of interest in this pathology. They are observed during the prodromal phase of psychosis, they are related to the pathophysiology (clinical disorganization, disorders of the sense of self), and they are associated with neuronal connectivity disorders...
October 29, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Hyun Bin Freeman, Junghee Lee
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia. This selective review examines whether schizophrenia patients show preserved sexual dimorphism in cognition. Existing studies using performance tasks largely show comparable sex effects between schizophrenia patients and healthy populations. This pattern appears to be similar across multiple cognitive domains and across phase of illness. Our selective review also identifies several unresolved questions about sex differences in cognition in schizophrenia...
October 22, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Deanna M Barch, Megan Ann Boudewyn, Cameron C Carter, Molly Erickson, Michael J Frank, James M Gold, Steven J Luck, Angus W MacDonald, J Daniel Ragland, Charan Ranganath, Steven M Silverstein, Andy Yonelinas
The development of treatments for impaired cognition in schizophrenia has been characterized as the most important challenge facing psychiatry at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) project was designed to build on the potential benefits of using tasks and tools from cognitive neuroscience to better understanding and treat cognitive impairments in psychosis. These benefits include: (1) the use of fine-grained tasks that measure discrete cognitive processes; (2) the ability to design tasks that distinguish between specific cognitive domain deficits and poor performance due to generalized deficits resulting from sedation, low motivation, poor test taking skills, etc...
September 30, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Kevin Butler, Bernard Le Foll, Patricia Di Ciano
Tobacco smoking is a significant cause of preventable morbidity and mortality globally. Current pharmacological approaches to treat tobacco use disorder (TUD) are only partly effective and novel approaches are needed. Dopamine has a well-established role in substance use disorders, including TUD, and there has been a long-standing interest in developing agents that target the dopaminergic system to treat substance use disorders. Dopamine has 5 receptor subtypes (DRD1 to DRD5). Given the localization and safety profile of the dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3), it is of therapeutic potential for TUD...
September 30, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Taitum O Cothren, Christopher J Evonko, David A MacQueen
Though understudied relative to perturbations in the auditory and visual domains, olfactory dysfunction is a common symptom of schizophrenia. Over the past two decades, the availability of standardized assessments to quantify human olfactory abilities, and enhance understanding of the neurophysiology supporting olfaction, has increased, enabling a more thorough characterization of these deficits. In contrast to other psychiatric conditions for which olfactory dysfunction has been observed (e.g., major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease), the impairments observed in schizophrenia are particularly global and profound...
September 5, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Ernesto T A Marques, Matthew Demers, Leonardo D'Aiuto, Priscila M S Castanha, Jason Yeung, Joel A Wood, Kodavali V Chowdari, Wenxiao Zheng, Robert H Yolken, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar
BACKGROUND: Herpesviruses alter cognitive functions in humans following acute infections; progressive cognitive decline and dementia have also been suggested. It is important to understand the pathogenic mechanisms of such infections. The complement system - comprising functionally related proteins integral for systemic innate and adaptive immunity - is an important component of host responses. The complement system has specialized functions in the brain. Still, the dynamics of the brain complement system are still poorly understood...
September 5, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Sahith Kaki, Holly DeRosa, Brian Timmerman, Susanne Brummelte, Richard G Hunter, Amanda C Kentner
Schizophrenia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with as-yet no identified cause. The use of animals has been critical to teasing apart the potential individual and intersecting roles of genetic and environmental risk factors in the development of schizophrenia. One way to recreate in animals the cognitive impairments seen in people with schizophrenia is to disrupt the prenatal or neonatal environment of laboratory rodent offspring. This approach can result in congruent perturbations in brain physiology, learning, memory, attention, and sensorimotor domains...
August 28, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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