Journals Current Topics in Behavioral N...

Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Marco Helbich, Yi Zeng, Abeed Sarker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Christopher C Lapish
Alcohol impacts neural circuitry throughout the brain and has wide-ranging effects on the biophysical properties of neurons in these circuits. Articulating how these wide-ranging effects might eventually result in altered computational properties has the potential to provide a tractable working model of how alcohol alters neural encoding. This chapter reviews what is currently known about how acute alcohol influences neural activity in cortical, hippocampal, and dopaminergic circuits as these have been the primary focus of understanding how alcohol alters neural computation...
June 11, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
C Elizabeth Shaaban, Andrea L Rosso
In this chapter, we consider lack of racial, ethnic, and geographic diversity in research studies from a public health perspective in which representation of a target population is critical. We review the state of the research field with respect to racial, ethnic, and geographic diversity in study participants. We next focus on key factors which can arise from the lack of diversity and can negatively impact external validity. Finally, we argue that the public's health, and future research, will ultimately be served by approaches from both recruitment and representation science and population neuroscience, and we close with recommendations from these two fields to improve diversity in studies...
June 7, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Jonathan Downar, Shan H Siddiqi, Anish Mitra, Nolan Williams, Conor Liston
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is entering increasingly widespread use in treating depression. The most common stimulation target, in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), emerged from early neuroimaging studies in depression. Recently, more rigorous casual methods have revealed whole-brain target networks and anti-networks based on the effects of focal brain lesions and focal brain stimulation on depression symptoms. Symptom improvement during therapeutic DLPFC-TMS appears to involve directional changes in signaling between the DLPFC, subgenual and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and salience-network regions...
June 7, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Anders Martin Fjell
Research during the last two decades has shown that the brain undergoes continuous changes throughout life, with substantial heterogeneity in age trajectories between regions. Especially, temporal and prefrontal cortices show large changes, and these correlate modestly with changes in the corresponding cognitive abilities such as episodic memory and executive function. Changes seen in normal aging overlap with changes seen in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease; differences between what reflects normal aging vs...
May 26, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Johannes Jungilligens, David L Perez
The contemporary neuroscience understanding of the brain as an active inference organ supports that our conscious experiences, including sensorimotor perceptions, depend on the integration of probabilistic predictions with incoming sensory input across hierarchically organized levels. As in other systems, these complex processes are prone to error under certain circumstances, which may lead to alterations in their outcomes (i.e., variations in sensations and movements). Such variations are an important aspect of functional neurological disorder, a complex disorder at the interface of brain-mind-body interactions...
May 17, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Sascha P Woelk, Sarah N Garfinkel
Dissociative symptoms and disorders of dissociation are characterised by disturbances in the experience of the self and the surrounding world, manifesting as a breakdown in the normal integration of consciousness, memory, identity, emotion, and perception. This paper aims to provide insights into dissociative symptoms from the perspective of interoception, the sense of the body's internal physiological state, adopting a transdiagnostic framework.Dissociative symptoms are associated with a blunting of autonomic reactivity and a reduction in interoceptive precision...
May 17, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Erin E Reilly, Tiffany A Brown, Guido K W Frank
Eating disorders (EDs) are characterized by abnormal responses to food and weight-related stimuli and are associated with significant distress, impairment, and poor outcomes. Because many of the cardinal symptoms of EDs involve disturbances in perception of one's body or abnormal affective or cognitive reactions to food intake and how that affects one's size, there has been longstanding interest in characterizing alterations in sensory perception among differing ED diagnostic groups. Within the current review, we aimed to critically assess the existing research on exteroceptive and interoceptive perception and how sensory perception may influence ED behavior...
May 11, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Lindsey Smith
Population neuroscience recognises the role of the environment in shaping brain, behaviour, and mental health. An overview of current evidence from neuroscientific and epidemiological studies highlights the protective effects of nature on cognitive function and stress reduction, the detrimental effects of urban living on mental health, and emerging concerns relating to extreme weather events and eco-anxiety. Despite the growing body of evidence in this area, knowledge gaps remain due to inconsistent measures of exposure and a reliance on small samples...
May 2, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Joel P Diaz-Fong, Jamie D Feusner
Phenomenological observations of individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), coupled with evidence from neuropsychological, psychophysical, and neuroimaging studies, support a model of aberrant visual perception characterized by deficient global/holistic, enhanced detail/local processing, and selective visual-attentional biases. These features may contribute to the core symptomatology of distorted perception of their appearance, in addition to misinterpretation of others' facial expressions and poor insight regarding their misperceived appearance defects...
May 2, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Negar Fani, Travis Fulton, Boris Botzanowski
In the aftermath of psychological trauma, many individuals experience perturbations in interoception, a term that broadly references the ability to accurately detect body signals and integrate these signals with emotional states. These interoceptive disruptions can manifest in different ways, including blunting or amplification of sensitivity to internal physiological signals. In this chapter we review extant neurophysiological research on interoception in trauma-exposed populations, with a particular focus on the effects of chronic interpersonal trauma, such as childhood maltreatment and racial discrimination...
April 28, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Daniel Franco-O'Byrne, Hernando Santamaría-García, Joaquín Migeot, Agustín Ibáñez
Recent integrative multilevel models offer novel insights into the etiology and course of neurodegenerative conditions. The predictive coding of allostatic-interoception theory posits that the brain adapts to environmental demands by modulating internal bodily signals through the allostatic-interoceptive system. Specifically, a domain-general allostatic-interoceptive network exerts adaptive physiological control by fine-tuning initial top-down predictions and bottom-up peripheral signaling. In this context, adequate adaptation implies the minimization of prediction errors thereby optimizing energy expenditure...
April 19, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Tomáš Paus
In population neuroscience, three disciplines come together to advance our knowledge of factors that shape the human brain: neuroscience, genetics, and epidemiology (Paus, Human Brain Mapping 31:891-903, 2010). Here, I will come back to some of the background material reviewed in more detail in our previous book (Paus, Population Neuroscience, 2013), followed by a brief overview of current advances and challenges faced by this integrative approach.
April 9, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Katherine M Keyes, Diana Pakserian, Kara E Rudolph, Giovanni Salum, Elizabeth A Stuart
In population neuroscience, samples are not often selected with equal or known probability from an underlying population of interest; in other words, samples are not often formally representative of a specified underlying population. This chapter provides an overview of an epidemiological approach to considering the implications of selective participation on the value of our results for population health. We discuss definitions of generalizability and transportability, given the growing recognition that generalizability and transportability are central for interpreting data that are aiming to be population-based...
April 9, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Christopher R K Ching, Melody J Y Kang, Paul M Thompson
Neuroimaging has provided important insights into the brain variations related to mental illness. Inconsistencies in prior studies, however, call for methods that lead to more replicable and generalizable brain markers that can reliably predict illness severity, treatment course, and prognosis. A paradigm shift is underway with large-scale international research teams actively pooling data and resources to drive consensus findings and test emerging methods aimed at achieving the goals of precision psychiatry...
March 31, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Zdenka Pausova, Eeva Sliz
Metabolomics technologies enable the quantification of multiple metabolomic measures simultaneously, which provides novel insights into molecular aspects of human health and disease. In large-scale, population-based studies, blood is often the preferred biospecimen. Circulating metabolome may relate to brain health either by affecting or reflecting brain metabolism. Peripheral metabolites may act at or cross the blood-brain barrier and, subsequently, influence brain metabolism, or they may reflect brain metabolism if similar pathways are engaged...
March 21, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Daniel E Vosberg
To understand psychiatric and neurological disorders and the structural and functional properties of the human brain, it is essential to consider the roles of sex and gender. In this chapter, I first define sex and gender and describe studies of sex differences in non-human animals. In humans, I describe the sex differences in behavioral and clinical phenotypes and neuroimaging-derived phenotypes, including whole-brain measures, regional subcortical and cortical measures, and structural and functional connectivity...
March 21, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Adrian Thorogood
Population neuroscience aims to advance our understanding of how genetic and environmental factors influence brain development and brain health over the life span, by integrating genomics, epidemiology, and neuroscience at population scale. This big data approach depends on data sharing strategies at both the micro- and macro-level, as well as attention to effective data management and protection of participant privacy. At the micro-level, researchers participate in international consortia that support collaboration, standards, and data sharing...
March 21, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Marco Helbich, Yi Zeng, Abeed Sarker
People's mental health is intertwined with the social environment in which they reside. This chapter explores approaches for quantifying the area-level social environment, focusing specifically on socioeconomic deprivation and social fragmentation. We discuss census data and administrative units, egocentric and ecometric approaches, neighborhood audits, social media data, and street view-based assessments. We close the chapter by discussing possible paths forward from associations between social environments and health to establishing causality, including longitudinal research designs and time-series social environmental indices...
March 8, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Howard C Becker, Marcelo F Lopez
The development of animal models that demonstrate excessive levels of alcohol consumption has played an important role in advancing our knowledge about neurobiological underpinnings and environmental circumstances that engender such maladaptive behavior. The use of these preclinical models has also provided valuable opportunities for discovering new and novel therapeutic targets that may be useful in the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD). While no single model can fully capture the complexities of AUD, the goal is to develop animal models that closely approximate characteristics of heavy alcohol drinking in humans to enhance their translational value and utility...
February 11, 2024: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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