Journals Current Topics in Behavioral N...

Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Alice Chirico, Andrea Gaggioli
Empirical research has explored the potential of the emotion of awe to shape creativity, while theoretical work has sought to understand the link between this emotion and transformation in terms of imagining new possible worlds. This branch of study relies on the transformative potential of virtual reality (VR) to examine and invite cognitive and emotional components of transformative experiences (TEs) within the interdisciplinary model of Transformative Experience Design (TED) and the Appraisal-Tendency Framework (ATF)...
February 18, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
David M Lovinger, Marisa Roberto
Ethanol (EtOH) has effects on numerous cellular molecular targets, and alterations in synaptic function are prominent among these effects. Acute exposure to EtOH activates or inhibits the function of proteins involved in synaptic transmission, while chronic exposure often produces opposing and/or compensatory/homeostatic effects on the expression, localization, and function of these proteins. Interactions between different neurotransmitters (e.g., neuropeptide effects on release of small molecule transmitters) can also influence both acute and chronic EtOH actions...
February 11, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Paul B Hibbard
Virtual reality (VR) allows us to create visual stimuli that are both immersive and reactive. VR provides many new opportunities in vision science. In particular, it allows us to present wide field-of-view, immersive visual stimuli; for observers to actively explore the environments that we create; and for us to understand how visual information is used in the control of behaviour. In contrast with traditional psychophysical experiments, VR provides much greater flexibility in creating environments and tasks that are more closely aligned with our everyday experience...
February 2, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Esi Domi, Riccardo Barchiesi, Estelle Barbier
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is characterized by loss of control over intake and drinking despite harmful consequences. At a molecular level, AUD is associated with long-term neuroadaptations in key brain regions that are involved in reward processing and decision-making. Over the last decades, a great effort has been made to understand the neurobiological basis underlying AUD. Epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as an important mechanism in the regulation of long-term alcohol-induced gene expression changes. Here, we review the literature supporting a role for epigenetic processes in AUD...
January 31, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Nicola C Anderson, Walter F Bischof, Alan Kingstone
This chapter explores the current state of the art in eye tracking within 3D virtual environments. It begins with the motivation for eye tracking in Virtual Reality (VR) in psychological research, followed by descriptions of the hardware and software used for presenting virtual environments as well as for tracking eye and head movements in VR. This is followed by a detailed description of an example project on eye and head tracking while observers look at 360° panoramic scenes. The example is illustrated with descriptions of the user interface and program excerpts to show the measurement of eye and head movements in VR...
January 30, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Anne Beck, Claudia Ebrahimi, Annika Rosenthal, Katrin Charlet, Andreas Heinz
Brain-imaging studies show that the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is determined by a complex interaction of different neurotransmitter systems and multiple psychological factors. In this context, the dopaminergic reinforcement system appears to be of fundamental importance. We focus on the excitatory and depressant effects of acute versus chronic alcohol intake and its impact on dopaminergic neurotransmission. Furthermore, we describe alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission as associated with symptoms of alcohol dependence...
January 28, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Eef Hogervorst, Sophie Temple, Emma O'Donnell
BackgroundWomen in many cohorts have a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia. Sex is a biological construct whereby differences in disease manifestation and prevalence are rooted in genetic differences between XX and XY combinations of chromosomes. This chapter focuses specifically on sex-driven differences in dementia, as opposed to differences driven by gender - a social construct referring to the societal norms that influence people's roles, relationships, and positional power throughout their lifetime...
January 26, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Patrick Bach, Philippe de Timary, Gerhard Gründer, Paul Cumming
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a serious public health problem in many countries, bringing a gamut of health risks and impairments to individuals and a great burden to society. Despite the prevalence of a disease model of AUD, the current pharmacopeia does not present reliable treatments for AUD; approved treatments are confined to a narrow spectrum of medications engaging inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission and possibly excitatory N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and opioid receptor antagonists...
January 14, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Segev Barak, Koral Goltseker
Relapse to alcohol seeking and drinking is a major clinical challenge in alcohol use disorder and is frequently brought about by cue-induced craving, caused by exposure to cues that evoke alcohol-related memories. It has been postulated that memories become labile for manipulation shortly after their retrieval and then restabilize in a "memory reconsolidation" process. Disruption or interference with the reconsolidation of drug-associated memories has been suggested as a possible strategy to reduce or even prevent cue-induced craving and relapse...
January 11, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Mathew V Chafee
In this chapter, I review studies in nonhuman primates that emulate the circuit failure in prefrontal cortex responsible for working memory and cognitive control deficits in schizophrenia. These studies have characterized how synaptic malfunction, typically induced by blockade of NMDAR, disrupts neural function and computation in prefrontal networks to explain errors in cognitive tasks that are seen in schizophrenia. This work is finding causal relationships between pathogenic events of relevance to schizophrenia at vastly different levels of scale, from synapses, to neurons, local, circuits, distributed networks, computation, and behavior...
January 7, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Henrike Scholz
Humans consume ethanol-containing beverages, which may cause an uncontrollable or difficult-to-control intake of ethanol-containing liquids and may result in alcohol use disorders. How the transition at the molecular level from "normal" ethanol-associated behaviors to addictive behaviors occurs is still unknown. One problem is that the components contributing to normal ethanol intake and their underlying molecular adaptations, especially in neurons that regulate behavior, are not clear. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the earthworm Caenorhabditis elegans show behavioral similarities to humans such as signs of intoxication, tolerance, and withdrawal...
January 5, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
David Checa, Andres Bustillo
The consumer age of the Personal Computer and mobile devices has opened up a new world of opportunities for innovative teaching methodologies, many based on serious games and virtual worlds. Similar levels of market penetration are expected for the use of Immersive Virtual Reality (iVR) over upcoming decades, once all the core technologies for game engines and head-mounted displays are available on the market at affordable prices. In this chapter, a general overview of the state of the art of iVR learning experiences is presented...
January 3, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Marta Andreatta, Markus H Winkler, Peter Collins, Daniel Gromer, Dominik Gall, Paul Pauli, Matthias Gamer
Emotions are frequently considered as the driving force of behavior, and psychopathology is often characterized by aberrant emotional responding. Emotional states are reflected on a cognitive-verbal, physiological-humoral, and motor-behavioral level but to date, human research lacks an experimental protocol for a comprehensive and ecologically valid characterization of such emotional states. Virtual reality (VR) might help to overcome this situation by allowing researchers to study mental processes and behavior in highly controlled but reality-like laboratory settings...
January 3, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Keisuke Suzuki, Alberto Mariola, David J Schwartzman, Anil K Seth
Extended reality (XR), encompassing various forms of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR), has become a powerful experimental tool in consciousness research due to its capability to create holistic and immersive experiences of oneself and surrounding environments through simulation. One hallmark of a successful XR experience is when it elicits a strong sense of presence, which can be thought of as a subjective sense of reality of the self and the world. Although XR research has shed light on many factors that may influence presence (or its absence) in XR environments, there remains much to be discovered about the detailed and diverse phenomenology of presence, and the neurocognitive mechanisms that underlie it...
January 3, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Marta Matamala-Gomez, Tony Donegan, Justyna Świdrak
The present chapter explores how immersive virtual reality (VR) systems can be used for pain research and treatment. Pain is a universal, yet entirely subjective and multifaceted unpleasant experience. One of the earliest VR studies on pain highlighted the role of attention in pain modulation. However, the role of body representation in pain modulation has also been described as a crucial factor. Through virtual reality systems, it is possible to modulate both attention to pain and body representation. In this chapter, first we define how immersive VR can be used to create the illusion of being present in immersive VR environments and argue why VR can be an effective tool for distracting patients from acute pain...
January 3, 2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Sheida Koohsari, Yanghong Yang, David Matuskey
This chapter encapsulates a short introduction to positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and the information gained by using this technology to detect changes of the dopamine 3 receptor (D3R) at the molecular level in vivo. We will discuss available D3R radiotracers, emphasizing [11C]PHNO. The focus, however, will be on PET findings in conditions including substance abuse, obesity, traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and aging. Finally, there is a discussion about progress in producing next-generation selective D3R radiotracers...
2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Amy Hauck Newman, Zheng-Xiong Xi, Christian Heidbreder
Over three decades of evidence indicate that dopamine (DA) D3 receptors (D3 R) are involved in the control of drug-seeking behavior and may play an important role in the pathophysiology of substance use disorders (SUD). The expectation that a selective D3 R antagonist/partial agonist would be efficacious for the treatment of SUD is based on the following key observations. First, D3 R are distributed in strategic areas belonging to the mesolimbic DA system such as the ventral striatum, midbrain, and ventral pallidum, which have been associated with behaviors controlled by the presentation of drug-associated cues...
2023: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Shannon L Delaney, Lilly A Murray, Brian A Fallon
In North America, Lyme disease (LD) is primarily caused by the spirochetal bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted to humans by Ixodes species tick bites, at an estimated rate of 476,000 patients diagnosed per year. Acute LD often manifests with flu-like symptoms and an expanding rash known as erythema migrans (EM) and less often with neurologic, neuropsychiatric, arthritic, or cardiac features. Most acute cases of Lyme disease are effectively treated with antibiotics, but 10-20% of individuals may experience recurrent or persistent symptoms...
December 14, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Sein Jeung, Christopher Hilton, Timotheus Berg, Lukas Gehrke, Klaus Gramann
Immersive virtual reality (VR) allows its users to experience physical space in a non-physical world. It has developed into a powerful research tool to investigate the neural basis of human spatial navigation as an embodied experience. The task of wayfinding can be carried out by using a wide range of strategies, leading to the recruitment of various sensory modalities and brain areas in real-life scenarios. While traditional desktop-based VR setups primarily focus on vision-based navigation, immersive VR setups, especially mobile variants, can efficiently account for motor processes that constitute locomotion in the physical world, such as head-turning and walking...
December 14, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Yash B Joshi
Acetylcholine (ACh) signaling is critical for central nervous function and is known to be abnormal in schizophrenia (SZ), a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder in which cognitive deficits persist, despite treatment. This review provides a summary of the clinical evidence linking ACh abnormalities to SZ-associated cognitive deficits, an overview of ACh-based pro-cognitive strategies attempted in SZ, and a survey of recent studies that describe the impact of anticholinergic medication burden on cognitive outcomes in SZ...
November 29, 2022: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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