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World Journal of Hepatology

Charlotte Maulat, Léopoldine Lapierre, Isabelle Migueres, Xavier Chaufour, Guillaume Martin-Blondel, Fabrice Muscari
BACKGROUND: Caval vein thrombosis after hepatectomy is rare, although it increases mortality and morbidity. The evolution of this thrombosis into a septic thrombophlebitis responsible for persistent septicaemia after a hepatectomy has not been reported to date in the literature. We here report the management of a 54-year-old woman operated for a peripheral cholangiocarcinoma who developed a suppurated thrombophlebitis of the vena cava following a hepatectomy. CASE SUMMARY: This patient was operated by left lobectomy extended to segment V with bile duct resection and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy...
January 27, 2019: World Journal of Hepatology
Yasser M Sammour, Haitham M Saleh, Mohamed M Gad, Brayden Healey, Melissa Piliang
BACKGROUND: Calciphylaxis is a form of vascular calcification more commonly associated with renal disease. While the exact mechanism of calciphylaxis is poorly understood, most cases are due to end stage kidney disease. However, it can also be found in patients without kidney disease and in such cases is termed non-uremic calciphylaxis for which have multiple proposed etiologies. CASE SUMMARY: We describe a case of a thirty-year-old morbidly obese Caucasian female who had a positive history of alcoholic hepatitis and presented with painful calciphylaxis wounds of the abdomen, hips, and thighs...
January 27, 2019: World Journal of Hepatology
Kevin P Labadie, Stephanie K Schaub, Derek Khorsand, Guy Johnson, Smith Apisarnthanarax, James O Park
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most lethal malignancy worldwide. There has been virtually no change in the survivability of HCC in spite of improvement in therapies. Surgery is considered the ideal first, curative intervention, however most patients present in advanced stages with unresectable disease. Therefore, systemic and liver-directed non-operative therapies are initially offered to downstage the disease. To ensure optimal management, a multidisciplinary team approach is often warranted...
January 27, 2019: World Journal of Hepatology
Luís Henrique Bezerra Cavalcanti Sette, Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida Lopes, Nathália Campello Guedes Dos Anjos, Lucila Maria Valente, Sávio Augusto Vieira de Oliveira, Norma Lucena-Silva
BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (OCI) may be associated with extrahepatic diseases and it is known that the patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are on hemodialysis (HD) present a higher prevalence of this type of infection than the general population, with a worse clinical outcome. However, there are no data in the literature to assess the presence of OCI in patients prior to the initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and epidemiological aspects of OCI in patients with Predialysis CKD...
January 27, 2019: World Journal of Hepatology
Pedro Beltrame, Santiago Rodriguez, Ajacio Bandeira de Mello Brandão
BACKGROUND: The impact of platelets on liver transplantation (LT) is well recognized, but not completely understood. Platelets exert dichotomous effects on the graft and on the patient. On the one hand, they are essential for primary hemostasis and tissue repair and regeneration. On the other hand, they support ischemia/reperfusion injury and inflammatory processes. Recent evidence has shown a new role for platelet count (PC) in predicting outcomes after LT. AIM: To evaluate if low PC is a predictor of short- and long-term outcomes after LT...
January 27, 2019: World Journal of Hepatology
Rotimi Ayoola, Sebastian Larion, David M Poppers, Renee Williams
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus is a viral infection that can lead to acute and/or chronic liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatitis B vaccination is 95% effective in preventing infection and the development of chronic liver disease and HCC due to hepatitis B. In 2011, the Centers for Disease Control updated their guidelines recommending that adults at high-risk for hepatitis B infection be vaccinated against hepatitis B including those with diabetes mellitus (DM). We hypothesize that adults at high-risk for hepatitis B infection are not being adequately screened and/or vaccinated for hepatitis B in a large urban healthcare system...
January 27, 2019: World Journal of Hepatology
Tomoki Sempokuya, Guangxiang Zhang, Kazuma Nakagawa
BACKGROUND: Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States. Patients with decompensated-cirrhosis, especially with hepatic encephalopathy/coma (HC), have a higher rate of early readmission and contribute to higher healthcare cost. AIM: To evaluate the national inpatient trends of discharges, mortalities and financial impacts associated with four common conditions of cirrhosis. METHODS: The publicly available Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample database was utilized to examine the temporal trends of total number of discharges, mortalities and inpatient costs related to hospitalization with a primary diagnosis of HC, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), esophageal varices with bleeding (EV) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) from 2005 to 2014...
January 27, 2019: World Journal of Hepatology
Brianna J Shinn, Aaron Martin, Robert M Coben, Mitchell I Conn, Jorge Prieto, Howard Kroop, Anthony J DiMarino, Hie-Won Hann
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most significant hepatocarcinogens. The ultimate goal of anti-HBV treatment is to prevent the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). During the last two decades, with the use of currently available anti-HBV therapies (lamivudine, entecavir and tenofovir disoproxil fumatate), there has been a decrease in the incidence of HBV-associated HCC (HBV-HCC). Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated a reduction in recurrent or new HCC development after initial HCC tumor ablation...
January 27, 2019: World Journal of Hepatology
Maria J Citores, Jose L Lucena, Sara de la Fuente, Valentin Cuervas-Mons
Liver transplantation (LT) is the only potentially curative treatment for selected patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who are not candidates for resection. When the Milan criteria are strictly applied, 75% to 85%of 3- to 4-year actuarial survival rates are achieved, but up to 20% of the patients experience HCC recurrence after transplantation. The Milan criteria are based on the preoperative tumor macromorphology, tumor size and number on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging that neither correlate well with posttransplant histological study of the liver explant nor accurately predict HCC recurrence after LT, since they do not include objective measures of tumor biology...
January 27, 2019: World Journal of Hepatology
Hassan Tariq, Muhammad Umar Kamal, Jasbir Makker, Sara Azam, Usman Ali Pirzada, Vaniza Mehak, Kishore Kumar, Harish Patel
Slaughterhouse workers (SHW) are at increased risk of hepatitis which can occur due to different organisms and should be investigated for viral, bacterial, and parasitic organisms. Slaughter house personnel including butchers are at a higher risk of infections from cuts and blood-letting, with the possible risk of the transmission of blood-borne pathogens to their colleagues. The objective of this review is to evaluate the common etiologies of hepatitis in SHW which will assist in the assessment of these patients presenting with transaminitis...
January 27, 2019: World Journal of Hepatology
Trevor J Laborda, M Kyle Jensen, Marianne Kavan, Mark Deneau
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare disease of stricturing and destruction of the biliary tree with a complex genetic and environmental etiology. Most patients have co-occurring inflammatory bowel disease. Children generally present with uncomplicated disease, but undergo a variable progression to end-stage liver disease. Within ten years of diagnosis, 50% of children will develop clinical complications including 30% requiring liver transplantation. Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare but serious complication affecting 1% of children...
January 27, 2019: World Journal of Hepatology
Aakash Desai, Sonia Sandhu, Jin-Ping Lai, Dalbir Singh Sandhu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer, which in turns accounts for the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Despite being the 6th most common cancer it is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths. HCC typically arises in the background of cirrhosis, however, about 20% of cases can develop in a non-cirrhotic liver. This particular subgroup of HCC generally presents at an advanced stage as surveillance is not performed in a non-cirrhotic liver. HCC in non-cirrhotic patients is clinically silent in its early stages because of lack of symptoms and surveillance imaging; and higher hepatic reserve in this population...
January 27, 2019: World Journal of Hepatology
Ann Robinson, Ajay Ohri, Benny Liu, Taft Bhuket, Robert J Wong
AIM: To evaluate trends and disparities in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) outcomes among Hispanic patients in the United States with a focus on tumor stage at diagnosis. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated all Hispanic adults (age > 20) with HCC diagnosed from 2004 to 2014 using United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry data. Tumor stage was assessed by SEER-specific staging systems and whether HCC was within Milan criteria at diagnosis...
December 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Fakhar Ali Qazi Arisar, Shahab Abid, Preet Ayoub Shaikh, Safia Awan
AIM: To evaluate the impact of sepsis and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on the outcome of decompensated chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, medical records of patients with CLD admitted to the Gastroenterology unit at the Aga Khan University Hospital were reviewed. Patients older than 18 years with decompensation of CLD ( i.e ., jaundice, ascites, encephalopathy, and/or upper gastrointestinal bleed) as the primary reason for admission were included, while those who were admitted for reasons other than decompensation of CLD were excluded...
December 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Daisuke Uehara, Yoichi Hayashi, Yosuke Seki, Satoru Kakizaki, Norio Horiguchi, Hiroki Tojima, Yuichi Yamazaki, Ken Sato, Kazuki Yasuda, Masanobu Yamada, Toshio Uraoka, Kazunori Kasama
AIM: To construct a non-invasive prediction algorithm for predicting non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), we investigated Japanese morbidly obese patients using artificial intelligence with rule extraction technology. METHODS: Consecutive patients who required bariatric surgery underwent a liver biopsy during the operation. Standard clinical, anthropometric, biochemical measurements were used as parameters to predict NASH and were analyzed using rule extraction technology...
December 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Duanghathai Pasanta, Montree Tungjai, Sirirat Chancharunee, Warayuth Sajomsang, Suchart Kothan
AIM: To assess the association between liver fat content (LFC) and weight status in young adults using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) technique. METHODS: Seventy-eight healthy young adults, between 19-30 years of age participated in this study. This group was then separated into a control of 39 subjects and an overweight/obese group (OW/OB group) consisting of 39 subjects. Blood biochemical quantity and 1 H MRS was performed for LFC assessment...
December 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Dhruv Lowe, Savio John
Autoimmune hepatitis affects patients of all ages and gender, across all geographic regions. Although still rare, its incidence and prevalence are increasing. Genetic predisposition conveyed by human leucocyte antigen is a strong risk factor for the disease and may be responsible in part for the wide variation in presentation in different geographic regions. Our understanding of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms is evolving and may lead to development of more targeted immunotherapies. Diagnosis is based on elevated levels of serum aminotransferases, gamma globulins, autoantibodies and characteristic findings on histology...
December 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Dong-Bo Wu, En-Qiang Chen, Hong Tang
The past two decades have witnessed an explosion of research and clinical application of stem cells, transforming the field of regenerative medicine. Stem cell transplantation has already been performed to treat patients with cancer, liver diseases, and various types of chronic diseases. Indeed, stem cell-based therapies are effective in many diseases, and provide novel insights into the treatment of end-stage liver disease. Several clinical trials have indicated the efficacy profiles of stem cell transplantation in patients with end-stage liver disease, including liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver tumors...
December 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Reina Sasaki, Tatsuo Kanda, Naoya Kato, Osamu Yokosuka, Mitsuhiko Moriyama
The introduction of a direct-acting antiviral (DAA) for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, could lead to higher sustained virologic response (SVR) rates with fewer adverse events, and it could shorten the treatment duration relative to the interferon era. Although most recent clinical studies have demonstrated that the occurrence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are decreased by SVR with both interferon-based and interferon-free-regimens, there are several reports about the unexpected observation of high rates of early tumor occurrence and recurrence in patients with HCV-related HCC undergoing interferon-free therapy despite SVR...
December 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Melisa Dirchwolf, Sebastián Marciano, José Martínez, Andrés Eduardo Ruf
Bacterial infections are highly prevalent and a frequent cause of hospitalization and short-term mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Due to their negative impact on survival, antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in high-risk subgroups of patients with cirrhosis has been the standard of care for decades. Patients with prophylaxis indications include those at risk for a first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) due to a low ascitic fluid protein count and impaired liver and kidney function, patients with a prior episode of SBP and those with an episode of gastrointestinal bleeding...
December 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
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