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Anatomy & Cell Biology

Dong-Seok Sohn, Yong-Suk Moon
The purpose of this animal study is to evaluate, by histomorphometric analysis, bone regeneration in rabbit's maxillary sinuses with blood clots alone, Bio-Oss, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), and demineralized tooth dentin (DTD) grafting. Bilateral sinus augmentation procedures were performed in 18 adult male rabbits. Rectangular replaceable bony windows were made with a piezoelectric thin saw insert. In the group 1, blood clots were filled; group 2, anorganic bovine graft (Bio-Oss) was grafted; group 3, β-TCP was grafted; group 4, DTD was grafted, and covered by replaceable bony windows...
December 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Satheesha B Nayak
In this report, four unusual communications between external and internal iliac veins of the left side have been presented. The lowest communication was the narrowest measuring about 2 mm in diameter, the second measured 6 mm, the third had a diameter of 7 mm and the last communication measured 5 mm in breadth. The upper three communications were twisted in a helical manner. The internal iliac vein had its normal tributaries except that the iliolumbar vein drained into the external iliac vein at the level of the third communication...
December 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Graham Dupont, Joe Iwanaga, Juan J Altafulla, Stefan Lachkar, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
Anatomical variations of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) have been observed to occupy multiple origins and insertion points and have supernumerary heads, sometimes varying in thickness. During routine dissection, a SCM was observed to have six distinct insertions that interface with the course of the superior nuchal line, ending at the midline, bilaterally. This variation was also seen to receive innervation from the accessory nerve as well as the great auricular nerve. To our knowledge, this variant of supernumerary insertions and nerve innervations has not yet been reported...
December 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Monica Baxla, Chiman Kumari, Saroj Kaler
Prior knowledge of arterial supply to the head and neck is of substantial importance for well-planned surgeries involving the concerned region. We are reporting an unusual and rare variation in the branching pattern of external carotid artery in a 60-year-old female cadaver. A common trunk known as thyrolinguofacial trunk, originating from the anterior surface of the external carotid artery (right and left) giving of superior thyroid artery and a linguofacial trunk during a routine neck dissection. The linguofacial trunk then divided into a lingual and a facial artery...
December 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Min-Kyoung Cha, Seung Weon Kang, Young Hee Maeng, Jinu Kim, Sang-Pil Yoon
Killian-Jamieson diverticulum is a permanent protrusion of anterolateral proximal esophagus through anatomically weak muscular gap, known as Killian-Jamieson area, into adjacent area. During a routine educational dissection, we found a well-defined lateral diverticulum just inferior to the transverse fibers of the cricopharyngeus muscle in a Korean male cadaver. It had a dimension of 1.8×1.4×1.0 cm with two types of epithelial cells, stratified squamous and simple cuboidal to low-columnar epithelium, and attenuated and haphazardly arranged muscle fibers...
December 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Meejung Ahn, Jeongtae Kim, Wonjun Yang, Yuna Choi, Poornima Ekanayake, Hyunju Ko, Youngheun Jee, Taekyun Shin
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune central nervous system disease characterized by inflammation with oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate an anti-inflammatory effect of Ishige okamurae on EAE-induced paralysis in rats. An ethanolic extract of I. okamurae significantly delayed the first onset and reduced the duration and severity of hind-limb paralysis. The neuropathological and immunohistochemical findings in the spinal cord were in agreement with these clinical results...
December 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Isaac Cheruiyot, Beda Olabu, Martin Kamau, Kevin Ongeti, Pamela Mandela
The role of androgens in the development of cardiovascular diseases remains controversial. The current study therefore sought to determine the changes in the histomorphology of the common carotid artery of the male rat in orchidectomy-induced hypogonadism. Twenty-two Rattus norvegicus male rats aged 2 months were used. The rats were randomly assigned into baseline (n=4), experimental (n=9), and control (n=9) groups. Hypogonadism was surgically induced in the experimental group by bilateral orchiectomy under local anesthesia...
December 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Akhtar Ali, Min Jun Kim, Min Young Kim, Han Ju Lee, Gu Seob Roh, Hyun Joon Kim, Gyeong Jae Cho, Wan Sung Choi
Hyper-O-GlcNAcylation is a general feature of cancer which contributes to various cancer phenotypes, including cell proliferation and cell growth. Quercetin, a naturally occurring dietary flavonoid, has been reported to reduce the proliferation and growth of cancer. Several reports of the anticancer effect of quercetin have been published, but there is no study regarding its effect on O-GlcNAcylation. The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect of quercetin on HeLa cells and compare this with its effect on HaCaT cells...
December 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Ji Hyun Kim, Kwang Ho Cho, Zhe Wu Jin, Gen Murakami, Hiroshi Abe, Ok Hee Chai
The ganglion cardiacum or juxtaductal body is situated along the left recurrent laryngeal nerve in the aortic window and is an extremely large component of the cardiac nerve plexus. This study was performed to describe the morphologies of the ganglion cardiacum or juxtaductal body in human fetuses and to compare characteristics with intracardiac ganglion. Ganglia were immunostained in specimens from five fetuses of gestational age 12-16 weeks and seven fetuses of gestational age 28-34 weeks. Many ganglion cells in the ganglia were positive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; sympathetic nerve marker) and chromogranin A, while a few neurons were positive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS; parasympathetic nerve marker) or calretinin...
December 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Suresh Narayanan, Vimala Ananthy
Undergraduate students struggle to comprehend embryology because of its dynamic nature. Studies have recommended using a combination of teaching methods to match the student's learning style. But there has been no study to describe the effect of such teaching strategy over the different types of learners. In the present study, an attempt has been made to teach embryology using the combination of analogies and simple 2D animations made with Microsoft powerpoint software. The objective of the study is to estimate the difference in academic improvement and perception scale between the different types of learners after introducing analogies and 2D animation in a lecture environment...
December 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Won-Hee Kim, Shin-Eun Nam, Young-Seok Park, Seung-Pyo Lee
The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between tooth wear and age by quantitatively measuring maxillary first molar wear in children. A total of 150 maxillary dental models were analyzed in 30 subjects (male, 11; female, 19) with an age range of 6-14 years. Maxillary first molar wear were assessed based on area, volume and the shortest distance from the buccal occlusal plane to the central pit point (BCPH). The area and volume of the tooth cusps were measured at four different offset-plane heights (0...
December 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Meselech Ambaw Dessie
Because of its embryonic origin, the thyroid gland is predisposed to multiple anatomical variations and developmental anomalies. These include the pyramidal lobe, the origin of levator glandular thyroidae, the absence of the isthmus, ectopic thyroid, accessory thyroid tissues, etc. These anatomical variations are clinically significant to surgeons, anatomists, and researchers. The present study was designed to report anatomical variations and developmental anomalies of the thyroid gland in Ethiopian population...
December 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Jung-Hee Bae, Han-Seok Kim, Sung-Yoon Won, Da-Hye Kim, Ui-Won Jung, Hee-Jin Kim, Kyung-Seok Hu
The dog frontal sinus may represent an alternative model dental implant research; its topographical resemblance to the maxillary sinus renders it a potentially favorable experimental environment. The aim of this study was thus to elucidate the anatomical configuration of the canine frontal sinus and histological characteristics, and to determine whether it could be a new canine experimental model for dental implant research. Twenty-four sides of canine frontal bones were harvested. The distance from the nasion to the emerging point of the lateral aspect of the canine frontal sinus was measured with the aid of Lucion software...
December 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Vidya C Shrikantaiah, Manjaunatha Basappa, Sangita Hazrika, Roopa Ravindranath
Portal vein provides about three-fourths of liver's blood supply. Portal vein is formed behind the neck of pancreas, at the level of the second lumbar vertebra and formed from the convergence of superior mesenteric and splenic veins. The purpose of this study is to review the normal distribution and variation, morphometry of portal vein and its branches for their implication in liver surgery and preoperative portal vein embolization. It is also helpful for radiologists while performing radiological procedures...
December 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Deepa Devadas, Minnie Pillay, Tintu Thottiyil Sukumaran
Variations in the vascular anatomy of the carotid triangle have been reported in current scientific literature. The carotid arteries, being the major feeding arteries of the head and neck deserve special importance and protection from iatrogenic injury during radiological evaluations and surgical interventions. The present study was carried out over a period of 4 years from 2012-2016 to assess the variant anatomy of external carotid artery. The external carotid artery and its branches were dissected bilaterally in 40 formalin embalmed cadavers...
December 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 79 in vol. 51, PMID: 29984051.].
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Ji Hyun Kim, Zhe Wu Jin, Gen Murakami, Ok Hee Chai, José Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez
Persistent right umbilical vein (PRUV) is a common anomaly of the venous system. Although candidates for future PRUV were expected to occur more frequently in earlier specimens, evaluation of serial horizontal sections from 58 embryos and fetuses of gestational age 5-7 weeks found that only two of these embryos and fetuses were candidates for anomalies. In a specimen, a degenerating right umbilical vein (UV) joined the thick left UV in a narrow peritoneal space between the liver and abdominal cavity, and in the other specimen, a degenerating left UV joined a thick right UV in the abdominal wall near the liver...
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Eleni Panagouli, Gregory Tsoucalas, Theodoros Papaioannou, Aliki Fiska, Dionysios Venieratos, Panagiotis Skandalakis
The aortic arch may present a plethora of anatomical variations, which my cause a cluster of complications in interventional procedures in surgery and angiography. We present a rare case of a common origin of both the common carotids arteries from the brachiocephalic trunk (anonymous artery), with the left common carotid artery emerging from the initial portion of it, forming a small common trunk. The great importance towards an excellent knowledge of the topographical aortic arch anatomy is stressed out.
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Gregory Tsoucalas, Eleni Panagouli, Aliki Fiska, Theodoros Troupis, Dionysios Venieratos
The profunda femoris artery (PFA) represents the first and largest branch of the femoral artery in the thigh. A series of anatomical variations are reported, mostly concerning its point of origin and its altered trajectories within the lower limb. We present a rare case of a double PFA, where each separate branch followed the expected arterial pattern. Our case aim to alert surgeons and radiologists for the possibility to encounter an unexpected vascular alternation. Knowledge of topographical anatomy of the PFA and its variations is essential for possible complications after interventional procedures to be avoided...
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
Satheesha B Nayak, Ashwini P Aithal, Abhinitha Padavinangadi, Gayathri Prabhu
Gallbladder shows frequent variations in position, shape, interior, and its duct system. These variations may go unnoticed lifelong; however, they may predispose it for cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. We observed a double pouched gallbladder in an adult male cadaver. The gallbladder was folded to have a sigmoid shape. It had two broad pouches: anterior and posterior and a narrow isthmus in between. Its anterior pouch was covered by peritoneum, whereas the posterior pouch was covered by extrahepatic connective tissue...
September 2018: Anatomy & Cell Biology
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