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Clinical Epidemiology

Brian D Nicholson, Paul Aveyard, Willie Hamilton, Clare R Bankhead, Constantinos Koshiaris, Sarah Stevens, Frederick Dr Hobbs, Rafael Perera
Purpose: To use recorded weight values to internally validate weight status and weight change coding in the primary care Electronic Health Record (EHR). Patients and methods: We included adult patients with weight-related Read codes recorded in the UK's Clinical Practice Research Datalink EHR between 2000 and 2017. Weight status codes were compared to weight values recorded on the same day and positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated for commonly used codes...
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
Lukas Löfling, Anders Sundström, Helle Kieler, Shahram Bahmanyar, Marie Linder
Introduction: One out of six adults has symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). Antimuscarinic medication is the main pharmacological group used in the treatment of OAB. In preclinical studies, antimuscarinic compounds have been found to inhibit cell proliferation in lung cancer and colon cancer. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to anti-muscarinic medication and the risk of lung cancer and colon cancer. Methods: Individuals in Sweden who first filled a prescription for an antimuscarinic medication used to treat OAB (ie, oxybutynin, solifenacin, darifenacin, fesoterodine, or tolterodine) between July 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012, were identified and classified as exposed...
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
Imre Janszky, Johan Håkon Bjørngaard, Pål Romundstad, Lars Vatten, Nicola Orsini
Currently used methods to express random error are often misinterpreted and consequently misused by biomedical researchers. Previously we proposed a simple approach to quantify the amount of random error in epidemiological studies using OR for binary exposures. Expressing random error with the number of random error units (REU) does not require solid background in statistics for a proper interpretation and cannot be misused for making oversimplistic interpretations relying on statistical significance. We now expand the use of REU to the most common measures of associations in epidemiology and to continuous variables, and we have developed a Stata program, which greatly facilitates the calculation of REU...
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
Inayat Hussain Khan, Tasnim Chowdhury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
Mattias Hedegaard Kristensen, Sigrún Alba Jóhannesdóttir Schmidt, Line Kibsgaard, Mette Mogensen, Mette Sommerlund, Uffe Koppelhus
Purpose: Congenital epidermolysis bullosa (CEB) is a group of rare monogenic genodermatoses. Phenotypically, the diseases vary in both severity and dissemination, which complicates studies of their epidemiology. To investigate the potential of using the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR) for epidemiological research on CEB, we examined the positive predictive value (PPV) of a first-time diagnosis of CEB. Methods: We identified patients with a record of CEB in DNPR and the Danish Pathology Registry (DPR) during January 1, 1977, until December 31, 2015...
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
Jonas F Ludvigsson, Mariam Lashkariani
The ESPRESSO study constitutes a novel approach to examine the etiology and prognosis of gastrointestinal disease in which histopathology plays a prominent role. Between 2015 and 2017, all pathology departments (n=28) in Sweden were contacted and asked to procure histopathology record data from the gastrointestinal tract (pharynx to anus), liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. For each individual, local histopathology IT personnel retrieved data on personal identity number, date of histopathology, topography (where the biopsy is taken), morphology (biopsy appearance), and where available free text...
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
Jes Sloth Mathiesen, Jens Peter Kroustrup, Peter Vestergaard, Kirstine Stochholm, Per Løgstrup Poulsen, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Sten Schytte, Stefano Christian Londero, Henrik Baymler Pedersen, Christoffer Holst Hahn, Jens Bentzen, Sören Möller, Mette Gaustadnes, Maria Rossing, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Kim Brixen, Anja Lisbeth Frederiksen, Christian Godballe
Background: The completeness of RE arranged during T ransfection ( RET ) testing in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) was recently reported as 60%. However, the completeness on a population level is unknown. Similarly, it is unknown if the first Danish guidelines from 2002, recommending RET testing in all MTC patients, improved completeness in Denmark. We conducted a nationwide retrospective cohort study aiming to evaluate the completeness of RET testing in the Danish MTC cohort...
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
Giorgio Tettamanti, Rickard Ljung, Anders Ahlbom, Mats Talbäck, Birgitta Lannering, Tiit Mathiesen, Jenny Pettersson Segerlind, Maria Feychting
Background: The Swedish Cancer Register (SCR) is characterized by excellent quality and completeness overall, but the quality of the reporting may vary according to tumor site and age, and may change over time. The aim of the current study was to investigate the completeness of the reporting of central nervous system (CNS) tumor cases to the SCR. Materials and methods: Individuals hospitalized for a CNS tumor between 1990 and 2014 were identified using the Inpatient Register; the proportion of identified cases that did not have any cancer diagnosis reported to the SCR was subsequently assessed...
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
Greg Ridgeway, Mette Nørgaard, Thomas Bøjer Rasmussen, William D Finkle, Lars Pedersen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Henrik Toft Sørensen
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine hospital performance measures that account more comprehensively for unique mixes of patients' characteristics. Design: Nationwide cohort registry-based study within a population-based health care system. Participants: In this study, 331,513 patients discharged with a primary cardiovascular diagnosis from 1 of 26 Danish hospitals during 2011-2015 were included. Data covering all Danish hospitals were drawn from the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish National Health Service Prescription Database...
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
Aurélien Belot, Aminata Ndiaye, Miguel-Angel Luque-Fernandez, Dimitra-Kleio Kipourou, Camille Maringe, Francisco Javier Rubio, Bernard Rachet
Survival data analysis results are usually communicated through the overall survival probability. Alternative measures provide additional insights and may help in communicating the results to a wider audience. We describe these alternative measures in two data settings, the overall survival setting and the relative survival setting, the latter corresponding to the particular competing risk setting in which the cause of death is unavailable or unreliable. In the overall survival setting, we describe the overall survival probability, the conditional survival probability and the restricted mean survival time (restricted to a prespecified time window)...
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
Kevin B Laupland, Kelsey Pasquill, Elizabeth C Parfitt, Gabrielle Dagasso, Kaveri Gupta, Lisa Steele
Purpose: Inhospital death is commonly used as an outcome measure. However, it may be a biased measure of overall fatal outcome. The objective of this study was to evaluate inhospital death as a measure of all-cause 30-day case fatality in patients with bloodstream infection (BSI). Patients and methods: A population-based surveillance cohort study was conducted, and patients who died in hospital within 30 days (30-day inhospital death) were compared with those who died in any location by day 30 post BSI diagnosis (30-day all-cause case fatality)...
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
Aji Gopakumar, Anusha Sreejith, Shatha Al Sharbatti, Jayadevan Sreedharan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
Manuj Sharma, Irwin Nazareth, Irene Petersen
Observational studies which evaluate effectiveness are often viewed with skepticism owing to the fact that patients are not randomized to treatment, meaning that results are more prone to bias. Therefore, randomized controlled trials remain the gold standard for evaluating treatment effectiveness. However, it is not always possible to conduct randomized trials. This may be due to financial constraints, for example, in identifying funding for a randomized trial for medicines that have already gained market authorization...
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
Nana Brochmann, Esben Meulengracht Flachs, Anne Illemann Christensen, Marie Bak, Christen Lykkegaard Andersen, Knud Juel, Hans Carl Hasselbalch, Ann-Dorthe Zwisler, Nina Rottmann
Objective: We sought to determine the prevalence and severity of anxiety and depression among patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and respective associations of anxiety and depression with demographic and lifestyle factors, comorbidity burden, duration of MPN disease, financial difficulties, and health-related quality of life (QoL). Methods: This study used data from a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey of health-related QoL in MPN patients in Denmark called the MPNhealthSurvey...
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
Chelsea A Isom, Martha J Shrubsole, Qiuyin Cai, Walter E Smalley, Reid M Ness, Wei Zheng, Harvey J Murff
Background: Previous studies have shown a link between increased dietary intake of arachidonic acid (ARA) and colorectal neoplasms. It has been shown that erythrocyte phospholipid membrane concentrations of ARA are strongly determined by genetic variation. Fatty acid desaturase (FADS) controls the rate limiting step in ARA production, and FADS variant rs174537 has been shown to be responsible for up to 18.6% of the variation seen. To determine if a causal association exists between erythrocyte membrane ARA concentrations and colorectal adenomas, we conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis using rs174537 as an instrumental variable (IV)...
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
Jeremy A Rassen, Dorothee B Bartels, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Amanda R Patrick, William Murk
Background: Health care databases are natural sources for estimating prevalence and incidence of chronic conditions, but substantial variation in estimates limits their interpretability and utility. We evaluated the effects of design choices when estimating prevalence and incidence in claims and electronic health record databases. Methods: Prevalence and incidence for five chronic diseases at increasing levels of expected frequencies, from cystic fibrosis to COPD, were estimated in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and MarketScan databases from 2011 to 2014...
2019: Clinical Epidemiology
John M Dennis, Beverley M Shields, Angus G Jones, Ewan R Pearson, Andrew T Hattersley, William E Henley
Objective: Precision medicine drug therapy seeks to maximize efficacy and minimize harm for individual patients. This will be difficult if drug response and side effects are positively associated, meaning that patients likely to respond best are at increased risk of side effects. We applied joint longitudinal-survival models to evaluate associations between drug response (longitudinal outcome) and the risk of side effects (survival outcome) for patients initiating type 2 diabetes therapy...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Sarah El-Heis, Sarah R Crozier, Eugene Healy, Sian M Robinson, Nicholas C Harvey, Cyrus Cooper, Hazel M Inskip, Janis Baird, Keith M Godfrey
Background: Infants with atopic eczema have an increased risk of impaired growth, but the origin of this impairment is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine fetal and infant growth in relation to infantile atopic eczema. Methods: Within the UK Southampton Women's Survey, 1,759 infants with known maternal menstrual data had anthropometric measurements at 11, 19, and 34 weeks' gestation, birth, and ages 6 and 12 months, enabling derivation of growth velocity SD scores...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Romina Pace, Elham Rahme, Deborah Da Costa, Kaberi Dasgupta
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and depression incidence in mothers and fathers during prenatal and postnatal periods. Patients and methods: Matched pairs (GDM vs no GDM) of randomly selected mothers with singleton live births (matched by age group, delivery year, and health region) and their partners (Quebec, Canada; cohort inception 1990-2007) were assessed for a composite outcome of depression/self-harm/suicide using a health administrative database...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
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