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Thoracic Cancer

Peng Song, Jingcheng Zhang, Congcong Shang, Li Zhang
Immunotherapy has considerably changed the treatment of lung cancer. As immunotherapy has a special mechanism of action, the disease remission that it can induce is unique. Recently, Immune Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (iRECIST), which focus on assessing the apparent curative effect of immunotherapy, have become widely accepted. Based on iRECIST criteria, if the response to immunotherapy is determined to be immunity-confirmed progressive disease or immunity-unconfirmed progressive disease, and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score is worse than before treatment, immunotherapy should be discontinued...
February 19, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Yang Qiu, Qiao Chen, Wei Wu, Shixin Zhang, Meng Tang, Ya Chen, Chao Zhang, Ni Zhou, Nan Jiang, Jianping Feng, Mei Xia, Haidong Wang
Carina resection and reconstruction is required when a tracheal tumor invades the tracheal carina. It is a relatively complicated surgical procedure that requires complex reconstruction to maintain airway continuity. The technical difficulty lies in minimizing the influence of anesthetic endotracheal intubation and maintaining good ventilation function during surgery by establishing appropriate ventilation channels, which are contradictory in many cases. Therefore, in order to achieve the optimal surgical outcome, we performed intratracheal tumor resection and carina reconstruction with the help of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation...
February 19, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Lei Deng, ZongMei Zhou, ZeFen Xiao, DongFu Chen, QinFu Feng, Jun Liang, JiMa Lv, XiaoZhen Wang, Nan Bi, Xin Wang, Tao Zhang, WenQing Wang, LvHua Wang
BACKGROUND: The role of thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) after chemotherapy (CHT) in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC) has not been well defined. We investigated whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) improves outcomes in ES-SCLC after CHT compared to CHT alone. METHODS: A total of 292 patients who reached a complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease (SD) after CHT were assigned into groups: CHT + TRT and CHT alone. Propensity score matching was used to balance patient groups (n = 72 each)...
February 18, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Zhihua Guo, Zhanhong Xie, Huifang Shi, Wei Du, Lijun Peng, Wei Han, Feidie Duan, Xin Zhang, Mingyan Chen, Junli Duan, Jing Lin, Xuewei Chen, Analyn Ang Lizaso, Han Han-Zhang, Jianxing He, Weiqiang Yin
BACKGROUND: The clinical utility of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) to detect mutation has been well documented; however, routine practice of the use of MPE involves collection of the cell pellet to detect mutation, and limited studies have interrogated the MPE supernatant as an alternative source of tumor-derived DNA for mutation profiling. In this study, we investigated the potential of MPE supernatant as a liquid biopsy specimen by comparing its mutation profile with that of matched MPE cell pellets, tissue, and plasma samples...
February 18, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Xue Wang, Qingyu Zeng, Ziming Li, Xiao Yang, Weiliang Xia, Zhiwei Chen
BACKGROUND: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), a malignant tumor, is usually widely metastatic when diagnosed. The lack of important therapeutic clinical advances makes it difficult to treat. Previous studies showed that Adjudin had anticancer effects in many other human cancers, and it was synergetic with cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer. However, the mechanism on SCLC was unclear. METHODS: We investigated the potential mechanism and effect of Adjudin on SCLC both in vitro and in vivo...
February 18, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Lei Zhu, Guotao Yin, Wei Chen, Xiaofeng Li, Xiaozhou Yu, Xiang Zhu, Wei Jiang, Chaoyang Jia, Peihe Chen, Yufan Zhang, Di Lu, Lijuan Yu, Xubin Li, Wengui Xu
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate an association between EGFR mutation status and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET-CT) image features in lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the data of 139 patients with lung adenocarcinoma confirmed by surgical pathology who underwent preoperative 18 F-FDG PET-CT was conducted. Correlations between EGFR mutation status, clinical characteristics, and PET-CT parameters, including the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), the mean of the SUV (SUVmean), the peak of the SUV (SUVpeak) of the primary tumor, and the ratio of SUVmax between the primary tumor and the mediastinal blood pool (SUVratio), were statistically analyzed...
February 18, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Ying Chen, Guangjian Li, Yujie Lei, Kaiyun Yang, Huatao Niu, Jie Zhao, Rui He, Huanqi Ning, Qiubo Huang, Qinghua Zhou, Yunchao Huang
BACKGROUND: Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of cancer and its mutant spectrum. Lung cancer has familial aggregation. Lung cancer caused by non-tobacco factors has unique pathological and molecular characteristics. The interaction between genetic lung cancer susceptibility and carcinogens from coal burning remains complex and understudied. METHODS: We selected 410 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with a family history of lung cancer (FLC) and exposure to coal combustion between 2014 and 2017...
February 18, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Dong Qiu, Yu Zhang, Ying-Bo Xue, Qi Shen, Hang Li, Ping Huang, Jian-Jun Hu, Yong-Sheng Wang
EGFR-activating mutations have been recognized as the most important predictor of response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs); however, 20-30% of patients harboring EGFR-activating mutations show poor responses. The mechanisms of such EGFR-TKI primary resistance are still poorly understood. In our case, a non-small cell lung cancer patient developed intrinsic EGFR-TKI resistance and was then confirmed to simultaneously harbor an L858R mutation and ROS1 rearrangement. Salvage chemotherapy plus Endostar showed enduring therapeutic effects, achieving a disease-free survival period of 24 months and overall survival of 30 months...
February 18, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Ryota Shibaki, Shuji Murakami, Yuki Shinno, Yuji Matsumoto, Yasushi Goto, Shintaro Kanda, Hidehito Horinouchi, Yutaka Fujiwara, Noriko Motoi, Noboru Yamamoto, Yuichiro Ohe
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the presence of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) as a negative predictor of anti-PD-1 antibody efficacy. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with advanced or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer treated with an anti-PD-1 antibody between December 2015 and March 2018 at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Japan, was conducted. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between patients with and without MPE...
February 14, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Nan Song, Liang Duan, Zhiyong Fang, Gening Jiang
Uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) segmentectomy is a demanding technique but is safe and feasible in selected patients and confers favorable efficacy. It presents an acceptable alternative to conventional VATS. Lingulectomy is usually performed with left S4 + S5 segmentectomy. This report describes a case of uniportal VATS of left S4 anatomical segmentectomy alone.
February 13, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Yongjian Liu, Yan Xu, Xinlun Tian, Hui Huang, Xiaomeng Hou, Minjiang Chen, Wei Zhong, Jing Zhao, Jinming Gao, Jinglan Wang, Juhong Shi, Mengzhao Wang
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a rare complication in patients with thymic neoplasm. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and radiological manifestations, laboratory tests, pathologic features, and outcome of treatment of bronchiectasis in patients with thymic neoplasm. METHODS: From January 2000 to January 2018, 20 patients with a diagnosis of thymic neoplasm and bronchiectasis were hospitalized at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Clinical data was retrospectively analyzed...
February 13, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Huizhu Gan, Lin Lin, Nanjun Hu, Yang Yang, Yu Gao, Yu Pei, Kang Chen, Butong Sun
BACKGROUND: Aspirin, an anti-inflammatory drug, has been widely investigated in the treatment of many cancer types, including colorectal, ovarian, breast, and prostate cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the most well studied noncoding RNAs in cancers. In the current study, we were interested in defining the function of aspirin in lung cancer treatment and the related noncoding RNAs involved in this process. METHODS: The function of aspirin in lung cancer growth was evaluated by cell viability and colony formation assays...
February 12, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Zhoujunyi Tian, Xizhao Sui, Fan Yang, Jun Wang
BACKGROUND: The role of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in mediastinal lymph node dissection (MLND) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) following neoadjuvant therapy remains controversial. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the sufficiency of VATS by evaluating perioperative and long-term outcomes. METHODS: Patients with locally advanced NSCLC and treated with radical surgery after neoadjuvant therapy were identified in our database. The thoroughness of MLND was compared by approach...
February 12, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Xiaoying Guan, Ying Fang, Jie Long, Yajie Zhang
BACKGROUND: Annexin 1 (ANXA1) expression is associated with the malignant tumor phenotype, making it an attractive therapeutic target. However, little is known about the regulation of ANXA1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: We investigated the biological roles of ANXA1 in tumor growth, migration, and invasion, and explored the possibility of ANXA1 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC. RESULTS: Our findings revealed that ANXA1 enhanced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation in NSCLC cells by interaction with inhibitor of NF-κB kinase complex subunit, IKKγ...
February 12, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Yusuke Taniyama, Tadashi Sakurai, Makoto Hikage, Hiroshi Okamoto, Chiaki Sato, Kai Takaya, Michiaki Unno, Takashi Kamei
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of treatments for recurrent esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), particularly chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy (CRT), remains unclear in patients who have previously been administered the same drugs during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 117 patients with recurrent thoracic ESCCs who had undergone curative resection were included. Patients were divided into two groups based on presurgical treatment: no presurgical treatment (n = 74), and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 43)...
February 12, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Dong-Hui Hou, Shi-Jun Zhao, Ju-Fang Shi, Le Wang, De-Bin Wang, Yun-Chao Huang, Xian-Zhen Liao, Xiao-Jing Xing, Ling-Bin Du, Li Yang, Yu-Qin Liu, Yong-Zhen Zhang, Dong-Hua Wei, Yun-Yong Liu, Kai Zhang, Ni Li, Wan-Qing Chen, You-Lin Qiao, Jie He, Min Dai, Ning Wu
BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to examine changes in diagnostic and staging imaging methods for lung cancer in China over a 10-year period and to determine the relationships between such changes and socioeconomic development. METHODS: This was a hospital-based, nationwide, multicenter retrospective study of primary lung cancer cases. The data were extracted from the 10-year primary lung cancer databases at eight tertiary hospitals from various geographic areas in China...
February 8, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Yuki Shinno, Yasushi Goto, Jun Sato, Ryo Morita, Yuji Matsumoto, Shuji Murakami, Shintaro Kanda, Hidehito Horinouchi, Yutaka Fujiwara, Noboru Yamamoto, Yuichiro Ohe
BACKGROUND: Although non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) harboring EGFR mutations initially respond well to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), they typically progress after approximately one year. The EGFR T790M mutation is the most common resistance mechanism. NSCLCs with T790M respond well to osimertinib; however, the heterogeneity of NSCLCs may limit the efficacy. Some patients exhibit a mixed response (MR), in which some lesions shrink and others progress, but little is known of the incidence and characteristics of such a response...
February 8, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Hong Ge, Yamei Zhao, Xinyan Shi, Zhen Tan, Xiaorui Chi, Man He, Guohui Jiang, Lixia Ji, Hongmei Li
BACKGROUND: The biological function of squalene epoxidase (SQLE), an important rate-limiting enzyme in downstream cholesterol synthesis, is to convert squalene to 2-3 oxacin squalene. The expression of SQLE in lung cancer is abnormal. We conducted this study to investigate the effect of SQLE expression on lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) proliferation, migration, and invasion and its role in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. METHODS: Cell Counting Kit 8, wound healing, and Transwell assays; Western blotting; and quantitative real-time PCR were used to investigate the effect of SQLE in a lung SCC H520 cell line...
February 7, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Wei Guo, Songhua Cai, Fan Zhang, Fei Shao, Guochao Zhang, Yang Zhou, Liang Zhao, Fengwei Tan, Shugeng Gao, Jie He
BACKGROUND: The systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) is correlated with patient survival in various types of solid tumors. However, only a few studies have focused on the prognostic value of the SII in patients with surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: This study was a single center retrospective analysis of 569 NSCLC patients who underwent curative lobectomy at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College between 2006 and 2012...
February 7, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Eun Young Kim, Inkeun Park, Young Saing Kim, Hee Kyung Ahn, Hee Young Lee, Jeong Ho Kim
Durvalumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor that blocks PD-L1. Unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy or molecularly targeted agents, immune checkpoint inhibitors occasionally present distinct response patterns, including radiologic pseudoprogression (initial tumor enlargement with subsequent tumor regression) and immune-related adverse events in normal tissues. We report a case of unusual computed tomography (CT) findings of pseudoprogression of pulmonary metastases in a patient with metastatic bladder cancer after durvalumab treatment: multiple pulmonary metastases turned into ground-glass opacity on first follow-up CT; on second follow-up CT, and after sustained treatment of the PD-L1 inhibitor, the lesion was resolved...
February 7, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
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