journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36760104/the-defective-gut-colonization-of-candida-albicans-hog1-mapk-mutants-is-restored-by-overexpressing-the-transcriptional-regulator-of-the-white-opaque-transition-wor1
#21
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Elvira Román, Daniel Prieto, Susana Hidalgo-Vico, Rebeca Alonso-Monge, Jesús Pla
The transcriptional master regulator of the white opaque transition of Candida albicans WOR1 is important for the adaptation to the commensal lifestyle in the mammalian gut, a major source of invasive candidiasis. We have generated cells that overproduce Wor1 in mutants defective in the Hog1 MAP kinase, defective in several stress responses and unable to colonize the mice gut. WOR1 overexpression allows hog1 to be established as a commensal in the murine gut in a commensalism model and even compete with wild-type C...
December 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36752587/pathogenicity-and-virulence-of-aspergillus-fumigatus
#22
REVIEW
Kayleigh Earle, Clara Valero, Daniel P Conn, George Vere, Peter C Cook, Michael J Bromley, Paul Bowyer, Sara Gago
Pulmonary infections caused by the mould pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus are a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Compromised lung defences arising from immunosuppression, chronic respiratory conditions or more recently, concomitant viral or bacterial pulmonary infections are recognised risks factors for the development of pulmonary aspergillosis. In this review, we will summarise our current knowledge of the mechanistic basis of pulmonary aspergillosis with a focus on emerging at-risk populations...
December 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36723437/crm197-conjugated-peptides-vaccine-of-hcmv-pp65-and-gh-induce-maturation-of-dc-and-effective-viral-specific-t-cell-responses
#23
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Shuyun Zhang, Fulong Nan, Shasha Jiang, Xiaoqiong Zhou, Delei Niu, Jun Li, Hui Wang, Xueming Zhang, Xianjuan Zhang, Bin Wang
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is prevalent worldwide, and there is currently no licenced HCMV vaccine to control it. Therefore, developing an effective HCMV vaccine is a significant priority. Because of their excellent immunogenicity, the crucial components of HCMV, phosphoprotein 65 (pp65) and glycoproteins H (gH) are potential target proteins for HCMV vaccine design. In this study, we predicted and screened the dominant antigenic epitopes of B and T cells from pp65 and gH conjugated with the carrier protein cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197) to form three peptide-CRM197 vaccines (pp65-CRM197, gH-CRM197, and pp65-CRM197+gH-CRM197)...
December 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36694274/the-crosstalk-between-microbial-sensors-elmo1-and-nod2-shape-intestinal-immune-responses
#24
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Aditi Sharma, Sajan Chandrangadhan Achi, Stella-Rita Ibeawuchi, Mahitha Shree Anandachar, Hobie Gementera, Uddeep Chaudhury, Fatima Usmani, Kevin Vega, Ibrahim M Sayed, Soumita Das
Microbial sensors play an essential role in maintaining cellular homoeostasis. Our knowledge is limited on how microbial sensing helps in differential immune response and its link to inflammatory diseases. Recently we have confirmed that ELMO1 (Engulfment and Cell Motility Protein-1) present in cytosol is involved in pathogen sensing, engulfment, and intestinal inflammation. Here, we show that ELMO1 interacts with another sensor, NOD2 (Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2), that recognizes bacterial cell wall component muramyl dipeptide (MDP)...
December 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36602152/monkeypox-as-a-warning-to-preserve-global-herd-immunities
#25
EDITORIAL
Daniel Miranda, David Jesse Sanchez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36600181/epithelial-cell-invasion-by-salmonella-typhimurium-induces-modulation-of-genes-controlled-by-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-signaling-and-involved-in-extracellular-matrix-biogenesis
#26
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Anne-Marie Chaussé, Sylvie M Roche, Marco Moroldo, Christelle Hennequet-Antier, Sébastien Holbert, Florent Kempf, Emilie Barilleau, Jérome Trotereau, Philippe Velge
Salmonella is the only bacterium able to enter a host cell by the two known mechanisms: trigger and zipper. The trigger mechanism relies on the injection of bacterial effectors into the host cell through the Salmonella type III secretion system 1. In the zipper mechanism, mediated by the invasins Rck and PagN, the bacterium takes advantage of a cellular receptor for invasion. This study describes the transcriptomic reprogramming of the IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cell line to Salmonella Typhimurium strains that invaded cells by a trigger, a zipper, or both mechanisms...
December 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36600180/nomogram-for-evaluating-obvious-liver-inflammation-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-patients-with-normal-alt
#27
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Lu Zhang, Liu Yang, Yuanjiao Gao, Xiaoyue Bi, Yanjie Lin, Wen Deng, Tingting Jiang, Yao Lu, Hongxiao Hao, Gang Wan, Wei Yi, Yao Xie, Minghui Li
The purpose of this study was to develop an effective and non-invasive nomogram for evaluating liver obvious inflammation in untreated HBeAg positive patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. A nomogram was established on a model cohort of 292 treatment-naïve HBeAg positive patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT ≤40 U/L) at Beijing Ditan Hospital from January 2008 to March 2018. Then the nomogram was prospectively validated in a cohort of 88 patients from July 2019 to May 2021...
December 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36599840/temporal-dynamics-of-the-bat-wing-transcriptome-insight-into-gene-expression-changes-that-enable-protection-against-pathogen
#28
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Aoqiang Li, Haixia Leng, Zhongle Li, Longru Jin, Keping Sun, Jiang Feng
Skin acts as a mechanical barrier between the body and its surrounding environment and plays an important role in resistance to pathogens. However, we still know little regarding skin responses to physiological changes, particularly with regard to responses against potential pathogens. We herein executed RNA-seq on the wing of the Rhinolophus ferrumequinum to assess gene-expression variations at four physiological stages: pre-hibernation, hibernation (early-hibernation and late-hibernation), and post-hibernation, as well as the gene-expression patterns of infected and uninfected bats with the Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( Pd )...
December 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36599832/langya-henipavirus-is-it-a-potential-cause-for-public-health-concern
#29
EDITORIAL
Shania Sanchez, Hinh Ly
A new virus, named Langya henipavirus (LayV), has recently been identified in Shandong and Henan provinces in China and has so far infected 35 individuals between April 2018 and August 2021. It is closely related to other known henipaviruses (Nipah and Hendra viruses) that can cause up to 70% human case fatality. Even though LayV has not been shown to be fatal in humans and does not appear to be transmitted from human-to-human, it is an RNA virus with the capacity to evolve genetically in the infected hosts (e...
December 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36599817/role-of-paracoccin-on-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-virulence-and-susceptibility-to-antifungal-drugs-in-the-galleria-mellonella-larvae-model
#30
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nayla de Souza Pitangui, Fabrício Freitas Fernandes, Thiago Aparecido da Silva, Relber Aguiar Gonçales, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira
Paracoccin (PCN), a Paracoccidioides brasiliensis glycoprotein, has been reported to play roles in fungal biology and paracoccidioidomycosis pathogenesis. Lectin and chitinase domains account for the PCN's dual roles as an immunomodulatory agent and virulence factor. Soluble PCN injected in P. brasiliensis infected mice, by interacting with TLRs' N-glycans, drives the host immune response toward a protective Th1 axis. Otherwise, mice infection with yeasts overexpressing PCN (ov-PCN) revealed that PCN acts as a fungal virulence factor, thanks to its chitinase activity on the cell wall, resulting in resistance to phagocytes' fungicidal activity and development of severe paracoccidioidomycosis...
December 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36529894/emergence-of-mcr-8-2-harboring-hypervirulent-st412-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strain-from-pediatric-sepsis-a-comparative-genomic-survey
#31
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Ruishan Liu, Hao Xu, Junhui Zhao, Xinjun Hu, Lingjiao Wu, Jie Qiao, Haoyu Ge, Xiaobing Guo, Jianjun Gou, Beiwen Zheng
Emerging mobile colistin resistance ( mcr ) genes pose a significant threat to public health for colistin was used as the last resort to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacterial infections. Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) is a clinically significant pathogen resulting in highly invasive infections, often complicated by devastating dissemination. Worryingly, the untreatable and severe infections caused by mcr -harbouring hvKP leave the selection of antibiotics for clinical anti-infective treatment in a dilemma...
December 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36419222/pathogenicity-and-virulence-of-clostridioides-difficile
#32
REVIEW
Jessica E Buddle, Robert P Fagan
Clostridioides difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and is responsible for a spectrum of diseases characterized by high levels of recurrence, morbidity, and mortality. Treatment is complex, since antibiotics constitute both the main treatment and the major risk factor for infection. Worryingly, resistance to multiple antibiotics is becoming increasingly widespread, leading to the classification of this pathogen as an urgent threat to global health. As a consummate opportunist, C...
December 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36864002/monkeypox-at-the-human-animal-ecology-interface-a-comprehensive-review-of-viral-characteristics-transmission-pathobiology-prevention-and-control-strategies
#33
REVIEW
Md Mazharul Islam, Pronesh Dutta, Rijwana Rashid, Syed Shariq Jaffery, Ariful Islam, Elmoubashar Farag, Susu M Zughaier, Devendra Bansal, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan
Monkeypox (Mpox) was mostly limited to Central and Western Africa, but recently it has been reported globally. The current review presents an update on the virus, including ecology and evolution, possible drivers of transmission, clinical features and management, knowledge gaps, and research priorities to reduce the disease transmission. The origin, reservoir(s) and the sylvatic cycle of the virus in the natural ecosystem are yet to be confirmed. Humans acquire the infection through contact with infected animals, humans, and natural hosts...
March 2, 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36862000/establishing-galleria-mellonella-as-an-invertebrate-model-for-the-emerging-multi-host-pathogen-helcococcus-ovis
#34
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Federico Cunha, Alexandra Burne, Segundo Casaro, Mary B Brown, Rafael S Bisinotto, Klibs N Galvao
Helcococcus ovis (H. ovis) can cause disease in a broad range of animal hosts, including humans, and has been described as an emerging bacterial pathogen in bovine metritis, mastitis, and endocarditis. In this study we developed an infection model that showed H. ovis can proliferate in the hemolymph and induce dose-dependent mortality in the invertebrate model organism Galleria mellonella (G. mellonella) . We applied the model and identified H. ovis isolates with attenuated virulence originating from the uterus of a healthy post-partum dairy cow (KG38) and hypervirulent isolates (KG37, KG106) originating from the uterus of cows with metritis...
March 2, 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36813781/extracellular-vesicle-signatures-and-protein-citrullination-are-modified-in-shore-crabs-carcinus-maenas-infected-with-hematodinium-sp
#35
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Christopher J Coates, Igor Kraev, Andrew F Rowley, Sigrun Lange
Epizootiologists recurrently encounter symbionts and pathobionts in the haemolymph (blood equivalent) of shellfish. One such group is the dinoflagellate genus Hematodinium , which contains several species that cause debilitating disease in decapod crustaceans. The shore crab Carcinus maenas acts as a mobile reservoir of microparasites, including Hematodinium sp. thereby posing a risk to other co-located commercially important species, e.g. velvet crabs ( Necora puber ). Despite the widespread prevalence and documented seasonality of Hematodinium infection dynamics, there is a knowledge gap regarding host-pathogen antibiosis, namely, how Hematodinium avoids the host's immune defences...
February 22, 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36803528/fructose-promotes-ampicillin-killing-of-antibiotic-resistant-streptococcus-agalactiae
#36
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Xuan-Wei Chen, Jia-Han Wu, Ying-Li Liu, Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu, Bo Peng
Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is an important pathogenic bacteria that infected both of human and animals, causing huge economic loss. The increasing cases of antibiotic-resistant GBS impose challenges to treat such infection by antibiotics. Thus, it is highly demanded for the approach to tackle antibiotic resistance in GBS. In this study, we adopte a metabolomic approach to identify the metabolic signature of ampicillin-resistant GBS (AR-GBS) that ampicillin is the routine choice to treat infection by GBS...
February 20, 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36799069/-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-protein-moxr1-enhances-virulence-by-inhibiting-host-cell-death-pathways-and-disrupting-cellular-bioenergetics
#37
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Neha Quadir, Mohd Shariq, Javaid Ahmad Sheikh, Jasdeep Singh, Neha Sharma, Seyed Ehtesham Hasnain, Nasreen Zafar Ehtesham
Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ) utilizes the multifunctionality of its protein factors to deceive the host. The unabated global incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains warrant the discovery of novel drug targets that can be exploited to manage TB. This study reports the role of M. tb AAA+ family protein MoxR1 in regulating host-pathogen interaction and immune system functions. We report that MoxR1 binds to TLR4 in macrophage cells and further reveal how this signal the release of proinflammatory cytokines...
February 17, 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36794396/extracellular-vesicles-in-bacterial-and-fungal-diseases-pathogenesis-to-diagnostic-biomarkers
#38
REVIEW
Jnana A, Sadiya S S, Satyamoorthy K, Murali T S
Intercellular communication among microbes plays an important role in disease exacerbation. Recent advances have described small vesicles, termed as "extracellular vesicles" (EVs), previously disregarded as "cellular dust" to be vital in the intracellular and intercellular communication in host-microbe interactions. These signals have been known to initiate host damage and transfer of a variety of cargo including proteins, lipid particles, DNA, mRNA and miRNAs. Microbial EVs, referred to generally as "membrane vesicles" (MVs) play a key role in disease exacerbation suggesting their importance in pathogenicity...
February 15, 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36748843/the-major-role-of-sara-in-limiting-staphylococcus-aureus-extracellular-protease-production-in-vitro-is-correlated-with-decreased-virulence-in-diverse-clinical-isolates-in-osteomyelitis
#39
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Mara J Campbell, Karen E Beenken, Aura M Ramirez, Mark S Smeltzer
We previously demonstrated that MgrA, SarA, SarR, SarS, SarZ, and Rot bind at least three of the four promoters associated with genes encoding primary extracellular proteases in Staphylococcus aureus (Aur, ScpA, SspA/SspB, SplA-F). We also showed that mutation of sarA results in a greater increase in protease production, and decrease in biofilm formation, than mutation of the loci encoding any of these other proteins. However, these conclusions were based on in vitro studies. Thus, the goal of the experiments reported here was to determine the relative impact of the regulatory loci encoding these proteins in vivo ...
February 7, 2023: Virulence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/36748841/emergence-of-deadly-viral-hemorrhagic-fever-disease-outbreaks-in-west-africa
#40
EDITORIAL
Widaliz Vega-Rodriguez, Hinh Ly
Recent viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) disease outbreaks caused by Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) in West Africa are unique and alarming. The intents of this editorial are to highlight what is known about these viruses and the disease outbreaks that they cause in the African continent and elsewhere and to raise awareness of a related virus called Lassa virus (LASV) that causes endemic viral hemorrhagic fever infections and frequent outbreaks in West Africa.
February 7, 2023: Virulence
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