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Toxins

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781673/dynamic-ochratoxin-a-production-by-strains-of-aspergillus-niger-intended-used-in-food-industry-of-china
#1
Xiaomin Han, Hongru Jiang, Fengqin Li
Thirty strains of Aspergillus niger , including 27 intended used in the food industry of China, were studied for their ochratoxin A (OTA) production on the three natural substrates-corn, rice, and wheat bran-at different time intervals by high-performance liquid chromatography. It was found that the frequencies of OTA for the studied 27 industrial strains ranged from 14.8% (4/27) at day 28 to 25.9% (7/27) at day 7 on corn, 14.8% (4/27) at day 7 to 33.3% (9/27) at day 21 on rice, and 22.2% (6/27) at day 7, 14, and 28 to 44...
February 18, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781456/evaluation-of-cellulosic-polymers-and-curcumin-to-reduce-aflatoxin-b1-toxic-effects-on-performance-biochemical-and-immunological-parameters-of-broiler-chickens
#2
Bruno Solis-Cruz, Daniel Hernandez-Patlan, Victor M Petrone, Karine P Pontin, Juan D Latorre, Eric Beyssac, Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco, Ruben Merino-Guzman, Casey Owens, Billy M Hargis, Raquel Lopez-Arellano, Guillermo Tellez-Isaias
To evaluate the effect of cellulosic polymers (CEL) and curcumin (CUR) on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) toxic effects on performance, and the biochemical and immunological parameters in broiler chickens, 150 one-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated into five groups with three replicates of 10 chickens per pen: Negative Control (feed); AFB1 (feed + 2 ppm AFB1); CUR (feed + 2 ppm AFB1 + Curcumin 0.2%); CEL (feed + 2 ppm AFB1 + 0.3% Cellulosic polymers); and, CEL + CUR (feed + 2 ppm AFB1 + 0.3% Cellulose polymers + 0...
February 16, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781381/the-toxins-of-nemertean-worms
#3
REVIEW
Ulf Göransson, Erik Jacobsson, Malin Strand, Håkan S Andersson
Most ribbon worms (phylum: Nemertea) are found in marine environments, where they act as predators and scavengers. They are characterized by an eversible proboscis that isused to hunt for prey and thick mucus covering their skin. Both proboscis and epidermal mucus mediate toxicity to predators and preys. Research into the chemical nature of the substances that render toxicity has not been extensive, but it has nevertheless led to the identification of several compounds of potential medicinal use or for application in biotechnology...
February 15, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769958/investigating-common-pathogenic-mechanisms-between-homo-sapiens-and-different-strains-of-candida-albicans-for-drug-design-systems-biology-approach-via-two-sided-ngs-data-identification
#4
Shan-Ju Yeh, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Chung-Yu Lan, Bor-Sen Chen
Candida albicans ( C. albicans ) is the most prevalent fungal species. Although it is a healthy microbiota, genetic and epigenetic alterations in host and pathogen, and microenvironment changes would lead to thrush, vaginal yeast infection, and even hematogenously disseminated infection. Despite the fact that cytotoxicity is well-characterized, few studies discuss the genome-wide genetic and epigenetic molecular mechanisms between host and C. albicans . The aim of this study is to identify drug targets and design a multiple-molecule drug to prevent the infection from C...
February 15, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769930/nacl-inhibits-citrinin-and-stimulates-monascus-pigments-and-monacolin-k-production
#5
Zhixin Zhen, Xiaoqian Xiong, Yingbao Liu, Jialan Zhang, Shaojin Wang, Li Li, Mengxiang Gao
Applications of beneficial secondary metabolites produced by Monascus purpureus ( M. purpureus ) could be greatly limited for citrinin, a kidney toxin. The link of NaCl with cell growth and secondary metabolites in M. purpureus was analyzed with supplementations of different concentrations of NaCl in medium. The content of citrinin was reduced by 48.0% but the yellow, orange, red pigments and monacolin K productions were enhanced by 1.7, 1.4, 1.4 and 1.4 times, respectively, compared with those in the control using NaCl at 0...
February 15, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769880/correction-mauro-a-et-al-biological-control-products-for-aflatoxin-prevention-in-italy-commercial-field-evaluation-of-atoxigenic-aspergillus-flavus-active-ingredients-toxins-2018-10-30
#6
Antonio Mauro, Esther Garcia-Cela, Amedeo Pietri, Peter J Cotty, Paola Battilani
The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper [...].
February 14, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769779/distinctive-distribution-of-secretory-phospholipases-a%C3%A2-in-the-venoms-of-afro-asian-cobras-subgenus-naja-afronaja-boulengerina-and-uraeus
#7
Choo Hock Tan, Kin Ying Wong, Nget Hong Tan, Tzu Shan Ng, Kae Yi Tan
The protein abundances of phospholipases A₂ in cobra venom proteomes appear to vary among cobra species. To determine the unique distribution of snake venom phospholipases A₂ (svPLA₂) in the cobras, the svPLA₂ activities for 15 cobra species were examined with an acidimetric and a colorimetric assay, using egg yolk suspension and 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxy benzoic acid (NOBA) as the substrate. The colorimetric assay showed significant correlation between svPLA₂ enzymatic activities with the svPLA₂ protein abundances in venoms...
February 14, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781899/correction-field-m-et-al-abobotulinumtoxina-dysport-%C3%A2-onabotulinumtoxina-botox-%C3%A2-and-incobotulinumtoxina-xeomin-%C3%A2-neurotoxin-content-and-potential-implications-for-duration-of-response-in-patients
#8
Malgorzata Field, Andrew Splevins, Philippe Picaut, Marcel van der Schans, Jan Langenberg, Daan Noort, Daniel Snyder, Keith Foster
The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [...].
February 13, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781891/developmental-toxicity-of-mycotoxin-fumonisin-b%C3%A2-in-animal-embryogenesis-an-overview
#9
REVIEW
Chompunut Lumsangkul, Hsin-I Chiang, Neng-Wen Lo, Yang-Kwang Fan, Jyh-Cherng Ju
A teratogenic agent or teratogen can disturb the development of an embryo or a fetus. Fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum , is among the most commonly seen mycotoxins and contaminants from stale maize and other farm products. It may cause physical or functional defects in embryos or fetuses, if the pregnant animal is exposed to mycotoxin FB₁. Due to its high similarity in chemical structure with lipid sphinganine (Sa) and sphingosine (So), the primary component of sphingolipids, FB₁ plays a role in competitively inhibiting Sa and So, which are key enzymes in de novo ceramide synthase in the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway...
February 13, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781866/mutagenesis-of-%C3%AE-conotoxins-for-enhancing-activity-and-selectivity-for-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors
#10
REVIEW
Matthew W Turner, Leanna A Marquart, Paul D Phillips, Owen M McDougal
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are found throughout the mammalian body and have been studied extensively because of their implication in a myriad of diseases. α-Conotoxins (α-CTxs) are peptide neurotoxins found in the venom of marine snails of genus Conus . α-CTxs are potent and selective antagonists for a variety of nAChR isoforms. Over the past 40 years, α-CTxs have proven to be valuable molecular probes capable of differentiating between closely related nAChR subtypes and have contributed greatly to understanding the physiological role of nAChRs in the mammalian nervous system...
February 13, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781814/the-effect-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-performance-and-the-histopathological-changes-in-liver-and-kidneys-in-broiler-chickens-fed-diets-with-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2
#11
Katarzyna Śliżewska, Bożena Cukrowska, Stefania Smulikowska, Joanna Cielecka-Kuszyk
The aim of the study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) and efficacy of a probiotic preparation containing L. reuteri , L. plantarum , L. pentosus , L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts to ameliorate their effects in broiler chickens. A total of 168 one-day-old female Ross 308 broilers were randomly allocated to six groups. Three wheat and soybean meal-based diets were prepared: Control diet and diets contaminated with 1 or 5 mg/kg AFB₁ supplied in moldy wheat...
February 13, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781809/the-adenylate-cyclase-cyaa-toxin-from-bordetella-pertussis-has-no-detectable-phospholipase-a-pla-activity-in-vitro
#12
Alexis Voegele, Mirko Sadi, Dorothée Raoux-Barbot, Thibaut Douché, Mariette Matondo, Daniel Ladant, Alexandre Chenal
The adenylate cyclase (CyaA) toxin produced in Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough. CyaA exhibits the remarkable capacity to translocate its N-terminal adenyl cyclase domain (ACD) directly across the plasma membrane into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Once translocated, calmodulin binds and activates ACD, leading to a burst of cAMP that intoxicates the target cell. Previously, Gonzalez-Bullon et al. reported that CyaA exhibits a phospholipase A activity that could destabilize the membrane to facilitate ACD membrane translocation...
February 13, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781806/aflatoxin-contamination-of-milk-marketed-in-pakistan-a-longitudinal-study
#13
Agha Waqar Yunus, Nida Imtiaz, Haider Khan, Mohammed Nawaz Mohammed Ibrahim, Yusuf Zafar
A longitudinal one-year study was conducted to determine aflatoxin M₁ levels in different types of milk marketed in Pakistan. Processed and raw liquid milk from 21 sources, two milk powder and six tea whitener brands were sampled on monthly basis from Islamabad. The aflatoxin M₁ levels in liquid milk were lower ( p < 0.05) in summer (April to July) compared with the levels in winter (January, November and December). The mean aflatoxin M₁ levels were 254.9, 939.5, and 1535.0 ng/L in UHT, pasteurized, and raw milk, respectively (differing at p < 0...
February 13, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30781776/biocontrol-of-aspergillus-and-fusarium-mycotoxins-in-africa-benefits-and-limitations
#14
Victor Kagot, Sheila Okoth, Marthe De Boevre, Sarah De Saeger
Fungal contamination and the consequent mycotoxin production is a hindrance to food and feed safety, international trade and human and animal health. In Africa, fungal contamination by Fusarium and Aspergillus is heightened by tropical climatic conditions that create a suitable environment for pre- and postharvest mycotoxin production. The biocontrol of Fusarium and its associated fusariotoxins has stagnated at laboratory and experimental levels with species of Trichoderma , Bacillus and atoxigenic Fusarium being tested as the most promising candidates...
February 13, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759862/design-and-production-of-a-recombinant-hybrid-toxin-to-raise-protective-antibodies-against-loxosceles-spider-venom
#15
Paula A L Calabria, Lhiri Hanna A L Shimokava-Falcao, Monica Colombini, Ana M Moura-da-Silva, Katia C Barbaro, Eliana L Faquim-Mauro, Geraldo S Magalhaes
Human accidents with spiders of the genus Loxosceles are an important health problem affecting thousands of people worldwide. Patients evolve to severe local injuries and, in many cases, to systemic disturbances as acute renal failure, in which cases antivenoms are considered to be the most effective treatment. However, for antivenom production, the extraction of the venom used in the immunization process is laborious and the yield is very low. Thus, many groups have been exploring the use of recombinant Loxosceles toxins, particularly phospholipases D (PLDs), to produce the antivenom...
February 12, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759855/inhibition-of-aflatoxin-production-by-paraquat-and-external-superoxide-dismutase-in-aspergillus-flavus
#16
Tomohiro Furukawa, Shohei Sakuda
Aflatoxin contamination of crops is a worldwide problem, and elucidation of the regulatory mechanism of aflatoxin production, for example relative to the oxidative⁻antioxidative system, is needed. Studies have shown that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species promotes aflatoxin production. However, superoxide has been suggested to have the opposite effect. Here, we investigated the effects of the superoxide generator, paraquat, and externally added superoxide dismutase (SOD) on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus flavus ...
February 12, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759797/a-recurrent-motif-diversity-and-evolution-of-shkt-domain-containing-proteins-in-the-vampire-snail-cumia-reticulata
#17
Marco Gerdol, Manuela Cervelli, Paolo Mariottini, Marco Oliverio, Sébastien Dutertre, Maria Vittoria Modica
Proteins of the ShK superfamily are characterized by a small conserved domain (ShKT), first discovered in small venom peptides produced by sea anemones, and acting as specific inhibitors of voltage-dependent and calcium-activated K⁺ channels. The ShK superfamily includes both small toxic peptides and larger multifunctional proteins with various functions. ShK toxins are often important components of animal venoms, where they perform different biological functions including neurotoxic and immunosuppressive effects...
February 12, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30754708/photocatalytic-degradation-of-deoxynivalenol-over-dendritic-like-%C3%AE-fe%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-under-visible-light-irradiation
#18
Huiting Wang, Jin Mao, Zhaowei Zhang, Qi Zhang, Liangxiao Zhang, Peiwu Li
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium , which is a trichothecene mycotoxin. As the main mycotoxin with high toxicity, wheat, barley, corn and their products are susceptible to contamination of DON. Due to the stability of this mycotoxin, traditional methods for DON reduction often require a strong oxidant, high temperature and high pressure with more energy consumption. Therefore, exploring green, efficient and environmentally friendly ways to degrade or reduce DON is a meaningful and challenging issue...
February 11, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30754700/exploring-the-diversity-and-novelty-of-toxin-genes-in-naja-sumatrana-the-equatorial-spitting-cobra-from-malaysia-through-de-novo-venom-gland-transcriptomics
#19
Ho Phin Chong, Kae Yi Tan, Nget Hong Tan, Choo Hock Tan
The equatorial spitting cobra, Naja sumatrana , is a distinct species of medically important venomous snakes, listed as WHO Category 1 in Southeast Asia. The diversity of its venom genes has not been comprehensively examined, although a few toxin sequences annotated to Naja sputatrix were reported previously through cloning studies. To investigate this species venom genes' diversity, de novo venom-gland transcriptomics of N. sumatrana from West Malaysia was conducted using next-generation sequencing technology...
February 11, 2019: Toxins
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744127/-pseudomonas-putida-responds-to-the-toxin-grat-by-inducing-ribosome-biogenesis-factors-and-repressing-tca-cycle-enzymes
#20
Andres Ainelo, Rando Porosk, Kalle Kilk, Sirli Rosendahl, Jaanus Remme, Rita Hõrak
The potentially self-poisonous toxin-antitoxin modules are widespread in bacterial chromosomes, but despite extensive studies, their biological importance remains poorly understood. Here, we used whole-cell proteomics to study the cellular effects of the Pseudomonas putida toxin GraT that is known to inhibit growth and ribosome maturation in a cold-dependent manner when the graA antitoxin gene is deleted from the genome. Proteomic analysis of P. putida wild-type and Δ graA strains at 30 °C and 25 °C, where the growth is differently affected by GraT, revealed two major responses to GraT at both temperatures...
February 9, 2019: Toxins
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