Chris M Maragos, Martha M Vaughan, Susan P McCormick
The fungal infestation of crops can cause major economic losses. Toxins produced by the causative fungi (mycotoxins) represent a potential safety hazard to people and livestock consuming them. One such mycotoxin is deoxynivalenol (DON, also known as vomitoxin), a trichothecene associated with Fusarium Head Blight of wheat. DON is commonly found in cereal crops worldwide. A group of trichothecene mycotoxins closely related to DON, the NX toxins, have been reported to occur in the northeastern United States and southern Canada...
May 18, 2024: Toxins
Juan Blanco, Juan Pablo Lamas, Fabiola Arévalo, Jorge Correa, Tamara Rodríguez-Cabo, Ángeles Moroño
Paralytic shellfish poisoning is an important concern for mollusk fisheries, aquaculture, and public health. In Galicia, NW Iberian Peninsula, such toxicity has been monitored for a long time using mouse bioassay. Therefore, little information exists about the precise toxin analogues and their possible transformations in diverse mollusk species and environments. After the change in the European PSP reference method, a refinement of the Lawrence method was developed, achieving a 75% reduction in chromatogram run time...
May 15, 2024: Toxins
Gang Wang, Mingyue Jiao, Junqiang Hu, Yiren Xun, Longyun Chen, Jianbo Qiu, Fang Ji, Yin-Won Lee, Jianrong Shi, Jianhong Xu
Herbal medicines are widely used for clinical purposes worldwide. These herbs are susceptible to phytopathogenic fungal invasion during the culturing, harvesting, storage, and processing stages. The threat of fungal and mycotoxin contamination requires the evaluation of the health risks associated with these herbal medicines. In this study, we collected 138 samples of 23 commonly used herbs from 20 regions in China, from which we isolated a total of 200 phytopathogenic fungi. Through morphological observation and ITS sequencing, 173 fungal isolates were identified and classified into 24 genera, of which the predominant genera were Fusarium (27...
May 15, 2024: Toxins
Marialuisa Gandolfi, Carlo Alberto Artusi, Gabriele Imbalzano, Serena Camozzi, Mauro Crestani, Leonardo Lopiano, Michele Tinazzi, Christian Geroin
Axial postural abnormalities (APAs), characterized by their frequency, disabling nature, and resistance to pharmacological treatments, significantly impact Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonism patients. Despite advancements in diagnosing, assessing, and understanding their pathophysiology, managing these complications remains a significant challenge. Often underestimated by healthcare professionals, these disturbances can exacerbate disability. This systematic review assesses botulinum toxin treatments' effectiveness, alone and with rehabilitation, in addressing APAs in Parkinson's disease, utilizing MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, and SCOPUS databases for source material...
May 15, 2024: Toxins
Björn Meijers, Ward Zadora, Jerome Lowenstein
Uremia, also known as uremic syndrome, refers to the clinical symptoms in the final stage of renal failure. The definition of the term has changed over time due to an improved comprehension of the kidney's function and the advancement of dialysis technology. Here, we aim to present an overview of the various concepts that have developed regarding uremia throughout the years. We provide a comprehensive review of the historical progression starting from the early days of Kolff and his predecessors, continuing with the initial research conducted by Niwa et al...
May 15, 2024: Toxins
Szabina Kulcsár, Janka Turbók, György Kövér, Krisztián Balogh, Erika Zándoki, Omeralfaroug Ali, András Szabó, Miklós Mézes
The effects of combined short-term (3 days) exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins at both the EU recommended limit (T-2/HT-2 toxin: 0.25 mg/kg; DON/3-AcDON/15-AcDON: 5 mg/kg; FB1 : 20 mg/kg) and twice the dose (T-2/HT-2 toxin: 0.5 mg/kg, DON/3-AcDON/15-AcDON: 10 mg/kg, and FB1 : 40 mg/kg feed) on the kidneys of laying hens were examined. Our study aimed to investigate how these mycotoxins interacted with membrane lipid fatty acid (FA) composition and lipid peroxidation processes. It was observed that the levels of conjugated dienes and trienes were higher than the control in the low-mix group on day 3, and malondialdehyde concentration was higher on days 2 and 3...
May 13, 2024: Toxins
Vincent Martin, Denis Carre, Heloise Bilbault, Sebastien Oster, Lorenzo Limana, Florian Sebal, Christine Favre-Guilmard, Mikhail Kalinichev, Christian Leveque, Virginie Boulifard, Catherine George, Stephane Lezmi
Botulinum neurotoxins E (BoNT/E) and A (BoNT/A) act by cleaving Synaptosome-Associated Protein 25 (SNAP25) at two different C-terminal sites, but they display very distinct durations of action, BoNT/E being short acting and BoNT/A long acting. We investigated the duration of action, spread and neuronal transport of BoNT/E (6.5 ng/kg) and BoNT/A (125 pg/kg) after single intramuscular administrations of high equivalent efficacious doses, in rats, over a 30- or 75-day periods, respectively. To achieve this, we used (i) digit abduction score assay, (ii) immunohistochemistry for SNAP25 (N-ter part; SNAP25N-ter and C-ter part; SNAP25C-ter ) and its cleavage sites (cleaved SNAP25; c-SNAP25E and c-SNAP25A ) and (iii) muscular changes in histopathology evaluation...
May 12, 2024: Toxins
Mónica Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Claudia Clavero-León, Paola Rey-Suarez, Vitelbina Nuñez-Rangel, Ruben Avendaño-Herrera, Stefany Solano-González, Juan F Alzate
Kunitz-type peptide expression has been described in the venom of snakes of the Viperidae, Elapidae and Colubridae families. This work aimed to identify these peptides in the venom gland transcriptome of the coral snake Micrurus mipartitus . Transcriptomic analysis revealed a high diversity of venom-associated Kunitz serine protease inhibitor proteins (KSPIs). A total of eight copies of KSPIs were predicted and grouped into four distinctive types, including short KSPI, long KSPI, Kunitz-Waprin (Ku-WAP) proteins, and a multi-domain Kunitz-type protein...
May 11, 2024: Toxins
Daniela Eliza Marin, Valeria Cristina Bulgaru, AnaMaria Pertea, Iulian Alexandru Grosu, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Ionelia Taranu
Alternariol monomethyl-ether (AME), together with altenuene and alternariol, belongs to the Alternaria mycotoxins group, which can contaminate different substrates, including cereals. The aim of the present study was to obtain a deeper understanding concerning the effects of AME on pig intestinal health using epithelial intestinal cell lines as the data concerning the possible effects of Alternaria toxins on swine are scarce and insufficient for assessing the risk represented by Alternaria toxins for animal health...
May 11, 2024: Toxins
Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Sasikumar Sampath, José R Almeida, Jarred Williams, Harry F Williams, Ketan Patel, Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Sakthivel Vaiyapuri
Snakebite envenoming and its resulting complications are serious threats to the health of vulnerable people living in rural areas of developing countries. The knowledge of the heterogeneity of symptoms associated with snakebite envenoming and their management strategies is vital to treat such life-threatening complications to save lives. Russell's viper envenomation induces a diverse range of clinical manifestations from commonly recognised haemotoxic and local effects to several rare conditions that are often not reported...
May 11, 2024: Toxins
Laura Gómez-Dabó, Edoardo Caronna, Rut Mas-de-Les-Valls, Víctor J Gallardo, Alicia Alpuente, Marta Torres-Ferrus, Patricia Pozo-Rosich
Chronic migraine (CM) significantly affects underage individuals. The study objectives are (1) to analyze the effectiveness and safety of onabotulinumtoxinA (BTX-A) in adolescents with CM; (2) to review the literature on BTX-A use in the pediatric population. This prospective observational study included patients under 18 years old with CM treated with BTX-A (PREEMPT protocol) as compassionate use. Demographic, efficacy (monthly headache days-MHD; monthly migraine days-MMD; acute medication days/month-AMDM) and side effect data were collected...
May 11, 2024: Toxins
Kazuya Yoshida, Merete Bakke
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the exotoxin of Clostridium botulinum , a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium [...].
May 10, 2024: Toxins
Louisa Schlaak, Christoph Weise, Benno Kuropka, Alexander Weng
Saponin-mediated endosomal escape is a mechanism that increases the cytotoxicity of type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (type I RIPs). In order to actualize their cytotoxicity, type I RIPs must be released into the cytosol after endocytosis. Without release from the endosomes, type I RIPs are largely degraded and cannot exert their cytotoxic effects. Certain triterpene saponins are able to induce the endosomal escape of these type I RIPs, thus increasing their cytotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the endosomal escape enhancement of type I RIPs by triterpene saponins has not been fully elucidated...
May 10, 2024: Toxins
Borja Muñoz-Solano, Elena Lizarraga Pérez, Elena González-Peñas
Food-producing animals are exposed to mycotoxins through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact with contaminated materials. This exposure can lead to serious consequences for animal health, affects the cost and quality of livestock production, and can even impact human health through foods of animal origin. Therefore, controlling mycotoxin exposure in animals is of utmost importance. A systematic literature search was conducted in this study to retrieve the results of monitoring exposure to mycotoxins in food-producing animals over the last five years (2019-2023), considering both external exposure (analysis of feed) and internal exposure (analysis of biomarkers in biological matrices)...
May 9, 2024: Toxins
Xin Zhang, Meifang Wen, Guoqi Li, Shihua Wang
The fungal cell wall serves as the primary interface between fungi and their external environment, providing protection and facilitating interactions with the surroundings. Chitin is a vital structural element in fungal cell wall. Chitin deacetylase (CDA) can transform chitin into chitosan through deacetylation, providing various biological functions across fungal species. Although this modification is widespread in fungi, the biological functions of CDA enzymes in Aspergillus flavus remain largely unexplored...
May 9, 2024: Toxins
Jacqueline V Aredo, Hannah K Tandon, Samin Panahi, Vy T Phan, Rezvan Ameli, Barbara I Karp, Pamela Stratton
Botulinum toxin (BoNT) injection can safely be done as an office-based procedure, but can be painful itself, especially when injecting pelvic floor muscles to treat chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Mindfulness interventions may reduce procedure-associated acute anxiety and pain. We applied mindfulness techniques to increase the tolerability of office-based pelvic floor BoNT injections in women with CPP. Women enrolled in a clinical trial of BoNT for endometriosis-associated CPP were offered a brief, guided mindfulness session before and/or after transvaginal injection...
May 9, 2024: Toxins
Tianjiao Ma, Jinqiu Huang, Pengdan Xu, Changlong Shu, Zeyu Wang, Lili Geng, Jie Zhang
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) secretes the nutritional insecticidal protein Vip3Aa11, which exhibits high toxicity against the fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda ). The Bt HD270 extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) enhances the toxicity of Vip3Aa11 protoxin against S. frugiperda by enhancing the attachment of brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs). However, how EPS-HD270 interacts with Vip3Aa11 protoxin in vivo and the effect of EPS-HD270 on the toxicity of activated Vip3Aa11 toxin are not yet clear. Our results indicated that there is an interaction between mannose, a monosaccharide that composes EPS-HD270, and Vip3Aa11 protoxin, with a dissociation constant of Kd = 16...
May 7, 2024: Toxins
Bouchra Darkaoui, Ines Hilal, Soukaina Khourcha, Ayoub Lafnoune, Salma Chakir, Ayoub Aarab, Abdellah Moustaghfir, Ouafaa Aniq Filali, Naoual Oukkache
Scorpion envenomation poses a global public health issue, with an estimated 1,500,000 cases worldwide annually resulting in 2600 deaths. North Africa, particularly Morocco, experiences severe envenomations, mainly attributed to Androctonus mauretanicus and Buthus occitanus in Morocco, and Buthus occitanus and Androctonus australis hector in Algeria and Tunisia, with case numbers often underestimated. Current treatment relies mainly on symptomatic approaches, except in Morocco, where management is limited to symptomatic treatment due to controversies regarding specific treatment...
May 4, 2024: Toxins
Elba Beraza, Maria Serrano-Civantos, Maria Izco, Lydia Alvarez-Erviti, Elena Gonzalez-Peñas, Ariane Vettorazzi
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin commonly found in various food products, which poses potential health risks to humans and animals. Recently, more attention has been directed towards its potential neurodegenerative effects. However, there are currently no fully validated HPLC analytical methods established for its quantification in mice, the primary animal model in this field, that include pivotal tissues in this area of research, such as the intestine and brain. To address this gap, we developed and validated a highly sensitive, rapid, and simple method using HPLC-FLD for OTA determination in mice tissues (kidney, liver, brain, and intestine) as well as plasma samples...
May 3, 2024: Toxins
Yuechi Song, Xiaochang Wang, Xiaohui Lu, Ting Wang
Microcystins (MCs), toxins generated by cyanobacteria, feature microcystin-LR (MC-LR) as one of the most prevalent and toxic variants in aquatic environments. MC-LR not only causes environmental problems but also presents a substantial risk to human health. This study aimed to investigate the impact of MC-LR on APCmin/+ mice, considered as an ideal animal model for intestinal tumors. We administered 40 µg/kg MC-LR to mice by gavage for 8 weeks, followed by histopathological examination, microbial diversity and metabolomics analysis...
April 30, 2024: Toxins
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