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Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

Styliani Douka, Vasiliki I Zilidou, Olympia Lilou, Magda Tsolaki
One of the major problems that elderly people are facing is dementia. For scientist's dementia is a medical, social and economic problem, as it has been characterized as the epidemic of the 21st century. Prevention and treatment in the initial stages of dementia are essential, and community awareness and specialization of health professionals are required, with the aim of early and valid diagnosis of the disease. Activities are recommended to the senior citizens to improve their physical and mental health. Dance has been suggested as an appropriate recreational activity for the elderly that brings functional adjustments to the various systems of the body, psychological benefits, and makes exercise to seem interesting and entertaining as it combines the performance of multiple animations with musical accompaniment...
2019: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Tino Prell, Beatrice Stubendorff, Thanh Tu Le, Nayana Gaur, Vedrana Tadić, Annekathrin Rödiger, Otto W Witte, Julian Grosskreutz
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a multisystemic neurodegenerative disorder. Given that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) serve as a "window to the central nervous system" we aimed to answer whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in ALS-PBMCs is related to disease aggressiveness. We studied ER stress in the PBMCs of 49 patients with ALS and 31 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The expression of a main ER stress marker, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), was significantly higher in ALS compared to controls, but did not correlate with age, disease severity, disease duration and disease progression rate...
2019: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Weiyun Li, Shanshan Li, Lianghua Shen, Junbo Wang, Xuewei Wu, Jing Li, Chunlong Tu, Xuesong Ye, Shucai Ling
Olfactory dysfunction is an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying the AD-related changes in the olfactory bulb (OB) remains unknown. Granule cells (GCs) in the OB regulate the activity of mitral cells (MCs) through reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses, which is crucial for olfactory signal processing and odor discrimination. Nevertheless, the relationships between the morphological and functional changes of dendrodendritic synapses, particularly the local field potentials (LFPs) as a consequence of olfactory disorders in patients with AD have not been investigated...
2019: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Roxana Aldea, Roy O Weller, Donna M Wilcock, Roxana O Carare, Giles Richardson
The human brain is the organ with the highest metabolic activity but it lacks a traditional lymphatic system responsible for clearing waste products. We have demonstrated that the basement membranes of cerebral capillaries and arteries represent the lymphatic pathways of the brain along which intramural periarterial drainage (IPAD) of soluble metabolites occurs. Failure of IPAD could explain the vascular deposition of the amyloid-beta protein as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), which is a key pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease...
2019: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yu Wang, Jia Xia, Mengjun Shen, Yifan Zhou, Zhe Wu, Yuhuan Shi, Jianrong Xu, Lina Hou, Rui Zhang, Zhuibai Qiu, Qiong Xie, Hongzhuan Chen, Yongfang Zhang, Hao Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main type of dementia and is characterized by progressive memory loss and a notable decrease in cholinergic neuron activity. As classic drugs currently used in the clinic, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) restore acetylcholine levels and relieve the symptoms of AD, but are insufficient at delaying the onset of AD. Based on the multi-target-directed ligand (MTDL) strategy, bis-(-)-nor-meptazinol (BIS-MEP) was developed as a multi-target AChEI that mainly targets AChE catalysis and the β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation process...
2019: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Emily Witek, Debra Hickman, Debomoy K Lahiri, Mythily Srinivasan
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones secreted as the end-product of the neuroendocrine stress cascade. Both absence and elevated GC mediate neurotoxic responses, suggesting that a narrow window ranging from physiological to slightly high GC mediate protective responses. The beneficial effects of GC are attributed to the transactivation of regulatory proteins and inhibition mediated by glucocorticoid receptor (GR) interactions with other co-factors. The glucocorticoid induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a gene strongly upregulated by GC and mediates many of the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects of GC...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Daniel Kroneberg, Morad Elshehabi, Anne-Christiane Meyer, Karen Otte, Sarah Doss, Friedemann Paul, Susanne Nussbaum, Daniela Berg, Andrea A Kühn, Walter Maetzler, Tanja Schmitz-Hübsch
Background: Gait variability is an established marker of gait function that can be assessed using sensor-based approaches. In clinical settings, spatial constraints and patient condition impede the execution of longer distance walks for the recording of gait parameters. Turning paradigms are often used to overcome these constraints and commercial gait analysis systems algorithmically exclude turns for gait parameters calculations. We investigated the effect of turns in sensor-based assessment of gait variability...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Alyse Brown, Molly Corner, David Crewther, Sheila Crewther
As the visual system ages, flicker sensitivity decreases and the latencies of cortical visual evoked potentials (VEP) increase. However, the extent to which these effects reflect age-related changes in the magnocellular (M) and or parvocellular (P) pathways remain unclear. Here, we investigated the relation between flicker fusion frequencies and VEP non-linearities induced by rapid stimulation, as a function of age over 6 decades. The approach, using Wiener kernel analysis of multifocal flash (mf)VEP, allows the extraction of signatures of both M and P processing and hence establishing a neural basis of the known decline in flicker fusion threshold...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Paloma García-Casas, Jessica Arias-Del-Val, Pilar Alvarez-Illera, Aneta Wojnicz, Cristobal de Los Ríos, Rosalba I Fonteriz, Mayte Montero, Javier Alvarez
The benzothiazepine CGP37157 has shown neuroprotective effects in several in vitro models of excitotoxicity involving dysregulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Although its mechanism of neuroprotection is unclear, it is probably related with some of its effects on Ca2+ homeostasis. CGP37157 is a well-known inhibitor of the mitochondrial Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger (mNCX). However, it is not very specific and also blocks several other Ca2+ channels and transporters, including voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, plasma membrane Na+ /Ca2+ exchanger and the Ca2+ homeostasis modulator 1 channel (CALHM1)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Virginia Boccardi, Eric Westman, Luca Pelini, Olof Lindberg, J-Sebastian Muehlboeck, Andrew Simmons, Roberto Tarducci, Piero Floridi, Pietro Chiarini, Hilkka Soininen, Iwona Kloszewska, Magda Tsolaki, Bruno Vellas, Christian Spenger, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Simon Lovestone, Patrizia Mecocci
Background/Aims: We aimed to assess the association between in volumetric measures of hippocampal sub-regions - in healthy older controls (HC), subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD- with circulating levels of IL-4. Methods: From AddNeuroMed Project 113 HC, 101 stable MCI (sMCI), 22 converter MCI (cMCI) and 119 AD were included. Hippocampal subfield volumes were analyzed using Freesurfer 6.0.0 on high-resolution sagittal 3D-T1W MP-RAGE acquisitions. Plasmatic IL-4 was measured using ELISA assay...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Zhigang Liang, Zhuli Liu, Xuwen Sun, Manli Tao, Xiao Xiao, Guoping Yu, Xiaomin Wang
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of fucoidan (FUC) on the oxidative stress response and lysosomal apoptotic pathways in the Parkinson disease (PD) cell model. Methods: The Dopaminergic nerve precursor cell line(MN9D) cells that served as a PD model in this study underwent damage induced by 100 μM 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridine (MPP+ ). Cell viability was assessed after FUC treatment and intracellular SOD GSH was measured via immunofluorescence assay. Cellular changes in cathepsin D, Autophagy marker Light Chain 3-II (LC3-II), and apoptotic protein Bax were assessed by Western blot...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Angela Guarino, Francesca Favieri, Ilaria Boncompagni, Francesca Agostini, Micaela Cantone, Maria Casagrande
Alzheimer's disease is a severe irreversible syndrome, characterized by a slow and progressive cognitive decline that interferes with the standard instrumental and essential functions of daily life. Promptly identifying the impairment of particular cognitive functions could be a fundamental condition to limit, through preventive or therapeutic interventions, the functional damages found in this degenerative dementia. This study aims to analyse, through a systematic review of the studies, the sensitivity of four experimental paradigms (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop Task, Go/No-Go Task, and Flanker Task) considered as golden standard instruments for executive functions assessment in elderly subjects affected by Alzheimer dementia...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Zhen-Hua Zhao, Zhi-Ting Chen, Rui-Ling Zhou, Xu Zhang, Qin-Yong Ye, Yin-Zhou Wang
The diagnosis of PD might be in difficulty, especially in the early stages. Therefore, the identification of novel biomarkers is imperative for the diagnosis and monitoring disease progression in PD. DJ-1 and α-synuclein, are two proteins that are critically involved in the pathogenesis of PD, and they have been examined as disease biomarkers in studies. However, no study exists regarding DJ-1 in plasma neural-derived exosomes. In the present study, the levels of DJ-1 and α-synuclein in plasma neural-derived exosomes were studied together in order to investigate novel biomarkers for PD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Chantel D Mayo, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera, Erin L Mazerolle, Lesley J Ritchie, John D Fisk, Jodie R Gawryluk
Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a clinical presentation characterized by memory impairment and executive dysfunction. Our group previously demonstrated significant alterations in white matter microstructural metrics in AD compared to healthy older adults. We aimed to further investigate the relationship between white matter microstructure in AD and cognitive function, including memory and executive function. Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neuropsychological data were downloaded from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative database for 49 individuals with AD and 48 matched healthy older adults...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Janusz K Rybakowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Mengmeng You, Yongming Pan, Yichen Liu, Yifan Chen, Yuqi Wu, Juanjuan Si, Kai Wang, Fuliang Hu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized clinically by progressive cognitive decline and pathologically by the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain. Royal jelly (RJ), a secretion of honeybee hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands, has previously been shown to have anti-aging and neuromodulatory activities. In this study, we discovered that 3 months of RJ treatment substantially ameliorated behavioral deficits of APP/PS1 mice in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test and step-down passive avoidance test. Our data also showed that RJ significantly diminished amyloid plaque pathology in APP/PS1 mice...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Xiuqin Jia, Ying Li, Kuncheng Li, Peipeng Liang, Xiaolan Fu
Background : Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) frequently occurs in Parkinson's disease (PD). Neurovascular changes interact with neurodegenerative processes in PD. However, the deficits of cerebral blood flow (CBF) perfusion and the associated functional connectivity (FC) in PD patients with MCI (PD-MCI) remain unclear. Purpose : This study aimed to explore the specific neurovascular perfusion alterations in PD-MCI compared to PD with normal cognition (PD-NC) and healthy controls (HCs), and to further examine the resultant whole brain FC changes in the abnormal perfusion regions...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Bettina Wollesen, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
Objectives : Studies using the dual-task (DT) paradigm to explain age-related performance decline due to cognitive-motor interference (CMI) which causes DT costs (DTCs) revealed contradictory results for performances under DT conditions. This cross-sectional study analyzed whether differences in demographics, physical functioning, concerns of falling (CoF), and other mental factors can explain positive and negative DTCs in older adults while walking in DT situations. Methodology : N = 222 participants (57-89 years) performed a single task (ST) and a DT walking condition (visual-verbal Stroop task) in randomized order on a treadmill...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yuzhong Zhang, Zhou Liu, Bing Ji, Lijian Liu, Shaoxiong Wu, Xiaowu Liu, Silun Wang, Liya Wang
Background: Investigation on neurochemical changes in the frontal cortex in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and different Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes, using ex vivo solid-state high-resolution NMR analysis, may lead to a better understanding of the neurochemistry associated with AD as well as new AD-specific metabolite biomarkers that might potentially improve the clinical diagnosis of AD. Methods: Intact tissue samples of the frontal cortex were obtained from 11 patients and 11 age-matched non-demented controls...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Caroline Bouter, Philipp Henniges, Timon N Franke, Caroline Irwin, Carsten Oliver Sahlmann, Marius E Sichler, Nicola Beindorff, Thomas A Bayer, Yvonne Bouter
The evaluation of new therapeutic strategies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) relies heavily on in vivo imaging and suitable animal models that mimic the pathological changes seen in patients. 18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG)-positron-emission tomography (PET) is a well-established non-invasive imaging tool for monitoring changes in cerebral brain glucose metabolism in vivo . 18 F-FDG-PET is used as a functional biomarker for AD as patients show an early and progressive reduction of cerebral glucose metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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