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Acta Naturae

A Mathlouthi, E Pennacchietti, D De Biase
Acid resistance (AR) in Escherichia coli is an important trait that protects this microorganism from the deleterious effect of low-pH environments. Reports on biofilm formation in E. coli K12 showed that the genes participating in AR were differentially expressed. Herein, we investigated the relationship between AR genes, in particular those coding for specific transcriptional regulators, and their biofilm-forming ability at the phenotypic level. The latter was measured in 96-well plates by staining the bacteria attached to the well, following 24-hour growth under static conditions, with crystal violet...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
V A Palikov, S S Terekhov, Yu A Palikova, O N Khokhlova, V A Kazakov, I A Dyachenko, S V Panteleev, Yu A Mokrushina, V D Knorre, O G Shamborant, I V Smirnov, A G Gabibov
The development of antidotes to organophosphate poisons is an important aspect of modern pharmacology. Recombinant acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase are effective DNA-encoded acceptors of organophosphate poisons and, in particular, pesticides. Here, we present the results of a study on the effectiveness of recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in modeling organophosphate poisoning caused by oral administration of paraoxon at a dose of 2 mg / kg. The study showed a high activity of BChE as a protective agent for subchronic anticholinesterase poisoning in an in vivo model...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
A S Zlobin, A O Zalevsky, Yu A Mokrushina, O V Kartseva, A V Golovin, I V Smirnov
In this paper, we, for the first time, describe the interaction between the butyrylcholinesterase enzyme and echothiophate, a popular model compound and an analogue of the chemical warfare agents VX and VR, at the atomistic level. Competition between the two echothiophate conformations in the active site was found using molecular modeling techniques. The first one is close to the mode of binding of the substrates of choline series (butyrylcholine and butyrylthiocholine) and is inhibitory, since it is unable to react with the enzyme...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
T N Sharapova, E A Romanova, L P Sashchenko, D V Yashin
The discovery of new chemokines that induce the migration of lymphocytes to the infection site is important for the targeted search for therapeutic agents in immunotherapy. We recently showed that Tag7 (PGLYRP1), an innate immunity protein, forms a stable complex with the Ca2+ -binding protein Mts1 (S100A4), which is able to induce lymphocyte movement, although the individual Tag7 and Mts1 do not have this activity. The purpose of this study is to identify receptors that induce the migration of lymphocytes along the concentration gradient of the Tag7-Mts1 complex, and the components of this complex capable of interacting with these receptors...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
N A Fursova, J V Nikolenko, N V Soshnikova, M Y Mazina, N E Vorobyova, A N Krasnov
In previous studies, we showed that the insulator protein Su(Hw) containing zinc finger domains interacts with the ENY2 protein and recruits the ENY2-containing complexes on Su(Hw)-dependent insulators, participating in the regulation of transcription and in the positioning of replication origins. Here, we found interaction between ENY2 and CG9890 protein, which also contains zinc finger domains. The interaction between ENY2 and CG9890 was confirmed. It was established that CG9890 protein is localized in the nucleus and interacts with the SAGA, ORC, dSWI/SNF, TFIID, and THO protein complexes...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
N P Fadeeva, N V Antipova, V O Shender, K S Anufrieva, G A Stepanov, S Bastola, M I Shakhparonov, M S Pavlyukov
In response to the wide variety of external and internal signals, mammalian cells undergo apoptosis, programmed cell death. Dysregulation of apoptosis is involved in multiple human diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity, and ischemic injuries. Two types of apoptosis have been described: the caspase-dependent one, leading to digestion of cellular proteins, and caspase-independent apoptosis, resulting in DNA fragmentation. The latter type of apoptosis is executed by AIF protein and is believed to have appeared first during evolution...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
A A Nikonova, A V Pichugin, M M Chulkina, E S Lebedeva, A R Gaisina, I P Shilovskiy, R I Ataullakhanov, M R Khaitov, R M Khaitov
In the study, the effect of the TLR4 agonist Immunomax was investigated in vitro and in vivo . In particular, Immunomax was shown to polarize mouse bone marrow macrophages from the M0 and M2 states into the M1 state ( ARG1 and iNOS mRNA expression levels were used to identify the mouse M1 and M2 phenotypes). Next, we investigated the prophylactic antiviral effect of Immunomax in both a model of mouse respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and a model of RSV-induced bronchial asthma (BA) exacerbation. In the experiment with RSV-induced BA exacerbation, Immunomax-treated mice were characterized by a significant decrease of the viral load in lung homogenates, an increased amount of M1 macrophages in the lung, a tendency toward Th2-dependent ovalbumin-specific IgG1 antibodies decrease in blood serum, a significant increase in RSV-activated CD4+ T cells secreting IFNγ (Th1 cells), and a simultaneous significant decrease in the amount of CD4+ cells secreting IL-4 (Th2 cells) in the mouse spleen, which were detected by ELISPOT 1...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
E O Kuzichkina, O N Shilova, S M Deyev
The protein photosensitizer miniSOG is a promising agent for photodynamic therapy. The genetically encoded phototoxins 4D5scFv-miniSOG and DARPin-miniSOG specifically bind to the HER2 receptor overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells and promote receptor-mediated internalization of HER2. We show that ingestion of proteins in a complex with the receptor reduces the fluorescent signal of the phototoxic module in endosomes. In order to clarify the mechanism of decrease in the fluorescence intensity of miniSOG-based proteins as they enter a cancer cell during internalization, we analyzed the influence of different factors, including low pH, proteolysis, cofactor reduction, and shielding, on changes in the fluorescence of photosensitizers...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
M S Kozin, O G Kulakova, I S Kiselev, O P Balanovsky, A N Boyko, O O Favorova
For the first time in the history of ethnic Russians, an association analysis the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) was performed for the mitochondrial haplogroups H, J, K, and U, as well as for the individual mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms discriminating these haplogroups (m.1719G > A, m. 7028C > T, m.9055G > A, m.10398A > G, m.12308A > G). A total of 283 unrelated patients with the relapsing-remitting form of MS and 290 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Association of haplogroup J with MS was observed (P = 0...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
M V Igotti, S B Svetlikova, V A Pospelov
The adenoviral E1A protein induces cell proliferation, transformation, and tumor formation in rodents, on the one hand. On the other hand, E1A expression increases cell sensitivity to a number of cytotoxic agents. Therefore, E1A is a candidate for use as a component of combination therapy for malignant tumors. The highest augmentation in the cytotoxic effect was achieved by a combined use of E1A expression and histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors. However, HDAC inhibitors do not induce apoptosis in cells transformed with E1A and cHa-ras oncogenes...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
I V Gordeychuk, A I Tukhvatulin, S P Petkov, M A Abakumov, S A Gulyaev, N M Tukhvatulina, T V Gulyaeva, M I Mikhaylov, D Y Logunov, M G Isaguliants
Common marmosets are small New World primates that have been increasingly used in biomedical research. This report presents efficient protocols for assessment of the parameters of adaptive cell-mediated immunity in common marmosets, including the major subpopulations of lymphocytes and main markers of T- and B-cell maturation and activation using flow cytometry with a multicolor panel of fluorescently labelled antibodies. Blood samples from eight common marmosets were stained with fluorescently labeled monoclonal antibodies against their population markers (CD45, CD3, CD20, CD4, CD8) and lymphocyte maturation and activation markers (CD69, CD62L, CD45RO, CD107a and CD27) and analyzed by flow cytometry...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
V I Skvortsova, S O Bachurin, A A Ustyugov, M S Kukharsky, A V Deikin, V L Buchman, N N Ninkina
Uncontrolled protein aggregation, accompanied by the formation of specific inclusions, is a major component of the pathogenesis of many common neurodegenerative diseases known as proteinopathies. The intermediate products of this aggregation are toxic to neurons and may be lethal. The development strategy of pathogenic therapy for proteinopathy is based on the design of drugs capable of both inhibiting proteinopathy progression and increasing the survival of affected neurons. The results of a decade-long research effort at leading Russian and international laboratories have demonstrated that Dimebon (Latrepirdine), as well as a number of its derivatives from a gamma-carboline group, show a strong neuroprotective effect and can modulate the course of a neurodegenerative process in both in vitro and in vivo model systems...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
M V Kalyakin, A P Seregin, A E Solovchenko, P A Kamenski, V A Sadovnichiy
The "Noah's Ark" project, afoot at M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University since 2015 and aimed at studying biodiversity, is the largest ongoing Russian project in life sciences. During its implementation, several hundred new species have been described; a comprehensive genetic and biochemical characterization of these species, as well as that of the pre-existing specimens in Moscow University's collections, has been performed. A consolidated IT system intended to house the knowledge generated by the project has been developed...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
A M Egorov, M M Ulyashova, M Yu Rubtsova
The resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics has been developing for more than 2 billion years and is widely distributed among various representatives of the microbiological world. Bacterial enzymes play a key role in the emergence of resistance. Classification of these enzymes is based on their participation in various biochemical mechanisms: modification of the enzymes that act as antibiotic targets, enzymatic modification of intracellular targets, enzymatic transformation of antibiotics, and the implementation of cellular metabolism reactions...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
K V Dergilev, V V Stepanova, I B Beloglazova, Z I Tsokolayev, E V Parfenova
Proliferation, subsequent migration to the damaged area, differentiation into appropriate cell types, and/or secretion of biologically active molecules and extracellular vesicles are important processes that underlie the involvement of stem/progenitor cells in the repair and regeneration of tissues and organs. All these functions are regulated through the interaction between stem cells and the microenvironment in the tissue cell niches that control these processes through direct cell-cell interactions, production of the extracellular matrix, release of extracellular vesicles, and secretion of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and proteases...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
D A Gryadunov, B L Shaskolskiy, T V Nasedkina, A Yu Rubina, A S Zasedatelev
 Biological microarrays (biochips) are analytical tools that can be used to implement complex integrative genomic and proteomic approaches to the solution of problems of personalized medicine (e.g., patient examination in order to reveal the disease long before the manifestation of clinical symptoms, assess the severity of pathological or infectious processes, and choose a rational treatment). The efficiency of biochips is predicated on their ability to perform multiple parallel specific reactions and to allow one to study the interactions of biopolymer molecules, such as DNA, proteins, glycans, etc...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
S E Proskurina, K A Petrov, E E Nikolsky
Impaired function or insufficient expression of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors underlies a number of brain pathologies; these receptors are, therefore, regarded as a pharmacological target for many neuroactive drugs. It was shown that in the CNS, this type of glutamate receptors participate in the processes of neuronal excitation, synaptic plasticity [1, 2], and excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative diseases and are also involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy and seizures. However, until recently, the presence and activity of NMDA receptors beyond the CNS had never been considered...
July 2018: Acta Naturae
M I Shakhparonov, N V Antipova, V O Shender, P V Shnaider, G P Arapidi, N B Pestov, M S Pavlyukov
PON2 belongs to the paraoxonase protein family that consists of lactone hydrolyzing enzymes with different substrate specificities. Unlike other members of the family, PON2 exhibits substantial antioxidant activity, is localized predominantly inside the cell, and is ubiquitously expressed in all human tissues. Previously, it was proffered that defense against pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa , is the main function of paraoxonases. However, recent findings have highlighted the important role played by PON2 in protection against oxidative stress, inhibition of apoptosis, and progression of various types of malignancies...
July 2018: Acta Naturae
A M Sapozhnikov, A V Klinkova, O A Shustova, M V Grechikhina, M S Kilyachus, O A Stremovskiy, E I Kovalenko, S M Deyev
One important distinction between many tumor cell types and normal cells consists in the translocation of a number of intracellular proteins, in particular the 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), to the surface of the plasma membrane. It has been demonstrated that such surface localization of HSP70 on tumor cells is recognized by cytotoxic effectors of the immune system, which increases their cytolytic activity. The mechanisms behind this interaction are not fully clear; however, the phenomenon of surface localization of HSP70 on cancer cells can be used to develop new approaches to antitumor immunotherapy...
July 2018: Acta Naturae
P Y Povarnina, T L Garibova, T A Gudasheva, S B Seredenin
Involvement of BDNF in the regulation of neuroplasticity and neurogenesis in the hippocampus, impairment of which underlies the pathophysiology of depression, makes this endogenous protein a promising object for the development of new-generation antidepressants with a neurophysiologically based mechanism of action. A low-molecular-weight BDNF mimetic, GSB-106 (a substituted dimeric dipeptide, bis-(N-monosuccinyl- L-seryl-L-lysine) hexamethylenediamide), was designed and synthesized at the Zakusov Institute of Pharmacology...
July 2018: Acta Naturae
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