Read by QxMD icon Read

Bioengineered Bugs

Jessica Dymond, Jef Boeke
We have recently reported the first partially synthetic eukaryotic genome. Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes synIXR and semi-synVIL are fully synthetic versions of the right arm of chromosome IX and the telomeric segment of the left arm of chromosome VI, respectively, and represent the beginning of the synthetic yeast genome project, Sc2.0, that progressively replaces native yeast DNA with synthetic sequences. We have designed synthetic chromosome sequences according to principles specifying a wild-type phenotype, highly stable genome, and maintenance of genetic flexibility...
May 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
David Gonzalez-Perez, Eva Garcia-Ruiz, Miguel Alcalde
Over the past 20 years, directed evolution has been seen to be the most reliable approach to protein engineering. Emulating the natural selection algorithm, ad hoc enzymes with novel features can be tailor-made for practical purposes through iterative rounds of random mutagenesis, DNA recombination and screening. Of the heterologous hosts used in laboratory evolution experiments, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become the best choice to express eukaryotic proteins with improved properties. S...
May 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Sylvester Holt, Antonio G Cordente, Chris Curtin
Selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are used for wine fermentation. Based on several criteria, winemakers often use a specific yeast to improve the flavor, mouth feel, decrease the alcohol content and desired phenolic content, just to name a few properties. Scientists at the AWRI previously illustrated the potential for increased flavor release from grape must via overexpression of the Escherichia coli Tryptophanase enzyme in wine yeast. To pursue a self-cloning approach for improving the aroma production, we recently characterized the S...
May 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Isak S Pretorius, Christopher D Curtin, Paul J Chambers
The past three decades have seen a global wine glut. So far, well-intended but wasteful and expensive market-intervention has failed to drag the wine industry out of a chronic annual oversupply of roughly 15%. Can yeast research succeed where these approaches have failed by providing a means of improving wine quality, thereby making wine more appealing to consumers? To molecular biologists Saccharomyces cerevisiae is as intriguing as it is tractable. A simple unicellular eukaryote, it is an ideal model organism, enabling scientists to shed new light on some of the biggest scientific challenges such as the biology of cancer and aging...
May 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Yuzheng Zhao, Yi Yang
Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and its oxidized form play central roles in energy and redox metabolisms. For many years, researchers have relied on the weak NADH endogenous fluorescence signal to determine the NADH level in living cells. We recently reported a series of genetically encoded fluorescent sensors highly specific for NADH. These sensors allow real-time, quantitative measurement of this significant molecule in different subcellular compartments. In this study, we provide a more detailed discussion of the benefits and limitations of these genetically encoded fluorescent sensors...
May 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Pat G Casey
The recent moratorium on research using engineered H5N1 influenza viruses is a move which cannot achieve its aims as it ignores the prevalence of molecular biology.
May 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
John G Morgan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Roy D Sleator
Recent recommendations by the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) to redact key methodological details of two studies involving mammal-to-mammal transmission of the H5N1 (H5) subtype influenza viruses, has led to a temporary moratorium on all research involving live H5N1 or H5 HA reassortant viruses shown to be transmissible in ferrets. Herein, I review the events which led to this impasse and comment on their impact.
May 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Michelle Cronin, Aldert Zomer, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Douwe van Sinderen
Iron is an essential growth factor for virtually all organisms. However, iron is not readily available in most environments and microorganisms have evolved specialized mechanisms, such as the use of siderophores and high-affinity transport systems, to acquire iron when confronted with iron-limiting conditions. In general these systems are tightly regulated to prevent iron-induced toxicity and because they are quite costly to the microbe. Because of this tight regulation we chose to explore the response of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 to iron limitation...
May 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Tzong-Yuan Wu, Ying-Ju Chen, Chao-Yi Teng, Wen-Shuo Chen, Oliver Villaflores
Baculoviruses are one of the most studied insect viruses both in basic virology research and in biotechnology applications. Incorporating an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) into the baculovirus genome generates bi-cistronic baculoviruses expression vectors that produce two genes of interest. The bi-cistronic baculoviruses also facilitate recombinant virus isolation and titer determination when the green fluorescent protein was co-expressed. Furthermore, when the secretion proteins were co-expressed with the cytosolic green fluorescent protein, the cell lysis and cytosolic protein released into the culture medium could be monitored by the green fluorescence, thus facilitating purification of the secreted proteins...
March 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Marta Utratna, Eoin Cosgrave, Claas Baustian, Rhodri Ceredig, Conor O'Byrne
A characteristic of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is its tolerance to the harsh conditions found both in minimally processed foods and the human gastrointestinal tract. This trait is partly under the control of the alternative sigma factor sigma B (σ(B)). To study the mechanisms that trigger the activation of σ(B) , and hence the development of stress tolerance, we have developed a fluorescent reporter fusion that allows the real-time activity of σ(B) to be monitored. The reporter, designated Plmo2230::egfp, fuses the strong σ(B)-dependent promoter from the lmo2230 gene (which encodes a putative arsenate reductase) to a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)...
March 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Jiahui Guo, Brid Brosnan, Ambrose Furey, Elke Arendt, Padraigin Murphy, Aidan Coffey
A total of 220 lactic acid bacteria isolates were screened for antifungal activity using Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger as the target strains. Four Lactobacillus strains exhibited strong inhibitory activity on agar surfaces. All four were also identified as having strong inhibitory activity against the human pathogenic fungi Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. One of the four lactobacilli, namely Lb. reuteri ee1p exhibited the most inhibition against dermatophytes...
March 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Upasana Sahu, Sudeshna Kar
The status of E. coli K-12 as an exclusively non-invasive, non-pathogenic bacterium has almost been incontrovertible. Our recent finding that a mutation in one of its main architectural protein, HU, converts E. coli K-12 to an actively invasive form suggests that gaining host cell entry might be an expedient survival tactic for traditional commensals during certain altered host conditions. The mutant E. coli (SK3842) exhibits properties usually associated with pathogenic bacteria: host cell invasion, phagosomal disruption and intracellular replication...
March 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Tal Elad, Shimshon Belkin
Chip-integrated luminescent recombinant reporter bacteria were combined with fluidics and light detection systems to form a real-time water biomonitor. The biomonitor was exposed to a continuous water flow for up to ten days, in the course of which it was challenged with spikes of both model toxic compounds and toxic environmental samples. All simulated contamination events were reported within 0.5-2.5 h. Furthermore, the response pattern of the reporter bacteria was indicative of the nature of the contaminating chemicals...
March 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Paul Britton, Maria Armesto, David Cavanagh, Sarah Keep
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes an infectious respiratory disease of domestic fowl that affects poultry of all ages causing economic problems for the poultry industry worldwide. Although IBV is controlled using live attenuated and inactivated vaccines it continues to be a major problem due to the existence of many serotypes, determined by the surface spike protein resulting in poor cross-protection, and loss of immunogenicity associated with vaccine production. Live attenuated IBV vaccines are produced by the repeated passage in embryonated eggs resulting in spontaneous mutations...
March 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Roy D Sleator
An overwhelming array of structural variants has evolved from a comparatively small number of protein structural domains; which has in turn facilitated an expanse of functional derivatives. Herein, I review the primary mechanisms which have contributed to the vastness of our existing, and expanding, protein repertoires. Protein function prediction strategies, both sequence and structure based, are also discussed and their associated strengths and weaknesses assessed.
March 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Martina Baumann, Marc P Höppner, Michael Meier, Jens Pontiller, Wolfgang Ernst, Reingard Grabherr, Evan Mauceli, Manfred G Grabherr
The promoter is a key element in gene transcription and regulation. We previously reported that artificial sequences rich in the dinucleotide CpG are sufficient to drive expression in vitro in mammalian cell lines, without requiring canonical binding sites for transcription factor proteins. Here, we report that introducing a promoter organization that alternates in CpGs and regions rich in A and T further increases expression strength, as well as how insertion of specific binding sites makes such sequences respond to induced levels of the transcription factor NFκB...
March 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Marco Ventura, Francesca Turroni, Douwe van Sinderen
Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are widely exploited as health-promoting bacteria in many functional foods. However, the molecular mechanisms as to how these bacteria positively impact on host health are far from completely understood. For this reason these microorganisms represent a growing area of interest with respect to their genomics, molecular biology and genetics. Recent genome sequencing of a large number of strains of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli has allowed access to the complete genetic makeup of representative members of these bacteria...
March 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Wing Cheung, George Kotzamanis, Hassan Abdulrazzak, Sylvie Goussard, Tadashi Kaname, Athanassios Kotsinas, Vassilis G Gorgoulis, Catherine Grillot-Courvalin, Clare Huxley
Efficient delivery of large intact vectors into mammalian cells remains problematical. Here we evaluate delivery by bacterial invasion of two large BACs of more than 150 kb in size into various cells. First, we determined the effect of several drugs on bacterial delivery of a small plasmid into different cell lines. Most drugs tested resulted in a marginal increase of the overall efficiency of delivery in only some cell lines, except the lysosomotropic drug chloroquine, which was found to increase the efficiency of delivery by 6-fold in B16F10 cells...
March 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Angela Cardinali, Isabella D'Antuono, Benny Danilo Belviso, Rocco Caliandro
Previously we presented the purification, biochemical characterization, and cloning of a cationic peroxidase isoenzyme (CysPrx) from artichoke (Cynara cardunculus subsp scolymus (L.) Hegi) leaves. The protein was shown to have some interesting properties, suggesting that CysPrx could be a considered as a potential candidate for industrial application. In addition, from the CysPrx sequence, two full-lengh cDNAs: CysPrx1 and CysPrx2, differing for three amino acids, were isolated. A three-dimensional model was predicted from CysPrx1 by homology modeling, using two different computational tools...
January 1, 2012: Bioengineered Bugs
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"