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Fungal Biology

Wei Wang, Li Wang, Bingzhi Chen, Irum Mukhtar, Baogui Xie, Zhuang Li, Li Meng
A number of homeobox transcription factors (TFs) play critical role in regulating developmental processes of fungi. However, studies on TFs in fruiting body development of mushroom forming species, Volvariella volvacea, are still at initial stage. Here, we report homeobox TFs in the whole-genomic sequence of V. volvacea and expression analysis of the homeobox TFs during a series of developmental stages. Homeobox TFs were identified using InterPro terms and Fungal Transcription Factor Database (FTFD) from the genome of V...
February 2019: Fungal Biology
Denise C O F Valdetaro, Thomas C Harrington, Leonardo S S Oliveira, Lúcio M S Guimarães, Douglas L McNew, Lucas V A Pimenta, Rivadalve C Gonçalves, Daniel A Schurt, Acelino C Alfenas
Ceratocystis fimbriata Ellis & Halsted recently was recorded causing seed and seedling blight on Carapa guianensis Aubl. (andiroba), a tree species native to the Amazon Rainforest and prized for its valuable timber and medicinal seed oil. C. fimbriata more commonly causes wilt type diseases in woody hosts, especially on non-native host trees. However, on andiroba the disease occurs on seedlings and seeds, affecting the species regeneration. We studied 73 isolates of C. fimbriata on andiroba from three regions of the Amazon Basin to see if they represented natural or introduced populations...
February 2019: Fungal Biology
Laura L Sims, Cameron Chee, Tyler Bourret, Shannon Hunter, Matteo Garbelotto
Phenotypic and sequence data were used to characterize 28 isolates resembling Phytophthora megasperma from 14 host species in 2 plant production facilities and 10 restoration sites across the San Francisco Bay Area (California; USA). Size of the oogonia and DNA sequences (nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX 1)) were compared, and sensitivity to mefenoxam and pathogenicity were measured. Based on ITS 61 % of isolates matched ex-type sequences of Phytophthora crassamura from Italy, and the remainder matched or were close to the P...
February 2019: Fungal Biology
Chengdong Zhang, Nick Sirijovski, Lewis Adler, Belinda C Ferrari
A new black yeast species, Exophiala macquariensis is described that is a member of the ascomycete family Herpotrichiellaceae, order Chaetothyriales. The genus Exophiala is comprised of opportunistic pathogens isolated from clinical specimens as well as species recovered from hydrocarbon contaminated environments. Several species have been reported to be able to degrade benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes. Here, a novel species of Exophiala (CZ06) previously isolated from a Sub-Antarctic, Macquarie Island soil that was spiked with Special Antarctic Blend diesel fuel (SAB) is described...
February 2019: Fungal Biology
Maria V Kozlova, Elena N Bilanenko, Alexey A Grum-Grzhimaylo, Olga V Kamzolkina
Exploring life cycles of fungi is insightful for understanding their basic biology and can highlight their ecology. Here, we dissected the sexual and asexual life cycles of the obligate alkalophilic ascomycete Sodiomyces alkalinus that thrives at extremely high pH of soda lakes. S.alkalinus develops acremonium-type asexual sporulation, commonly found in ascomycetous fungi. However, the sexual stage was unusual, featuring very early lysis of asci which release young ascospores inside a fruit body long before its maturation...
February 2019: Fungal Biology
Kristiina Mark, Tiina Randlane, Göran Thor, Jae-Seoun Hur, Walter Obermayer, Andres Saag
The lichen genus Cetrelia represents a taxonomically interesting case where morphologically almost uniform populations differ considerably from each other chemically. Similar variation is not uncommon among lichenized fungi, but it is disputable whether such populations should be considered entities at the species level. Species boundaries in Cetrelia are traditionally delimited either as solely based on morphology or as combinations of morpho- and chemotypes. A dataset of four nuclear markers (ITS, IGS, Mcm7, RPB1) from 62 specimens, representing ten Cetrelia species, was analysed within Bayesian and maximum likelihood frameworks...
February 2019: Fungal Biology
Lydia Bousset, Magali Ermel, Brigitte Soglonou, Olivier Husson
The specificities of the plant environment and its effects on fungal growth are not yet fully explored. Both pH and Eh play a key role during this interaction, but are often studied independently or at different scales. We aimed at investigating whether the methods developed for the joint characterization of the pH and Eh in soil could be transposed to fungi. On artificial media, the growth of all 16 species tested significantly altered either Eh, pH or both. Measuring Eh reveals that even the species not modifying pH can have an impact on the surrounding environment...
February 2019: Fungal Biology
Martha J Powell, Peter M Letcher
This study reconstructs early stages of Rozella allomycis endoparasitic infection of its host, Allomyces macrogynus. Young thalli of A. macrogynus were inoculated with suspensions of R. allomycis zoospores and allowed to develop for 120 h. Infected thalli at intervals were fixed for electron microscopy and observed. Zoospores were attracted to host thalli, encysted on their surfaces, and penetrated their walls with an infection tube. The parasite cyst discharged its protoplast through an infection tube, which invaginated the host plasma membrane...
February 2019: Fungal Biology
Shinobu Oda, Ryosuke Kido
A simple and novel procedure for the acceleration of fungal spore production was developed. A net of hydrophobic polymer such as polypropylene (PP) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was embedded in a nutrient agar plate, and effect of the polymer net on spore production by 6 fungal strains, such as Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium multicolor, and Trichoderma virens were estimated. The effect of hydrophobic polymer net was insufficient in a liquid-surface immobilization (LSI) system with fungal cells immobilized on a ballooned microsphere layer formed on a liquid medium surface...
February 2019: Fungal Biology
Cong Wang, Danyu Shen, Jing Wang, Yang Chen, Yumei Dong, Zhaoyang Tang, Ai Xia
Mosquitoes are the most important medical species by transmitting some of deadly infectious diseases to human. In recent years extensive studies of vector control have been focused on biological control agents due to the grave issue raised by continuous application of chemical compounds. Pythium guiyangense X.Q. Su was first isolated from infected larvae of Aedes albopictus in 2006 in China and it has been proven to be a promising mosquito control agent. However, the molecular mechanisms of this oomycete pathogenic to mosquitoes are still not clear...
January 2019: Fungal Biology
Hélène Rocheleau, Reem Al-Harthi, Thérèse Ouellet
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major cereal crop disease, caused most frequently by the fungus Fusarium graminearum. We have previously demonstrated that F. graminearum can utilize SA as sole source of carbon to grow. In this current study, we further characterized selected four fungal SA-responsive genes that are predicted to encode salicylic acid (SA)-degrading enzymes and we used a gene replacement approach to characterize them further. These included two genes predicted to encode a salicylate 1-monooxygenase, FGSG_03657 and FGSG_09063, a catechol 1, 2-dioxygenase gene, FGSG_03667, and a 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid decarboxylase gene, FGSG_09061...
January 2019: Fungal Biology
Patrick Materatski, Carla Varanda, Teresa Carvalho, António Bento Dias, M Doroteia Campos, Fernando Rei, Maria do Rosário Félix
Fungal endophytes are micro-organisms that colonize healthy plant tissues without causing disease symptoms. They are described as plant growth and disease resistance promoters and have shown antimicrobial activity. The spatial-temporal distribution of endophytic communities in olive cultivars has been poorly explored. This study aims to investigate the richness and diversity of endophytic fungi in different seasons and sites, within the Alentejo region, Portugal. Additionally, and because the impact of some pathogenic fungi (e...
January 2019: Fungal Biology
Luis Alberto Luévano-Martínez, Camille C Caldeira da Silva, Gianlucca G Nicastro, Robert I Schumacher, Alicia J Kowaltowski, Suely L Gomes
Blastocladiella emersonii is an early diverging fungus of the phylum Blastocladiomycota. During the life cycle of the fungus, mitochondrial morphology changes significantly, from a fragmented form in sessile vegetative cells to a fused network in motile zoospores. In this study, we visualize these morphological changes using a mitochondrial fluorescent probe and show that the respiratory capacity in zoospores is much higher than in vegetative cells, suggesting that mitochondrial morphology could be related to the differences in oxygen consumption...
January 2019: Fungal Biology
Zhi Li, He Zhang, Guohuai Li
Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a phytopathogenic fungus that causes peach gummosis, is considered one of the major constraints to peach production worldwide. Here, we report the characteristics of toxic metabolites and the proteomics investigation of the secreted proteins of L. theobromae from its in vitro culture. The phytotoxins of L. theobromae from the culture filtrate of Richard's liquid medium showed high toxicity on peach current year shoots with large lesion diameter and high gum weight. The toxicity measurement showed that 23...
January 2019: Fungal Biology
Zhang Wei, Du Yu
The large-scale long-term plantation of cotton in the Xinjiang region has been accompanied by a regular and wide outbreak of soil-borne fungal diseases such as verticillium wilt, which significantly damaged the local cotton industry. High-throughput sequencing data showed that the cotton field cultivation management measures pose a significant influence upon the original ecological soil fungal community structure. During long-term continuous cropping of cotton, a new soil fungal community structure emerges after several repeated adjustments over five years...
January 2019: Fungal Biology
Ihsanul Khaliq, Giles E St J Hardy, Keith L McDougall, Treena I Burgess
Plant deaths had been observed in the sub-alpine and alpine areas of Australia. Although no detailed aetiology was established, patches of dying vegetation and progressive thinning of canopy suggested the involvement of root pathogens. Baiting of roots and associated rhizosphere soil from surveys conducted in mountainous regions New South Wales and Tasmania resulted in the isolation of eight Phytophthora species; Phytophthora cactorum, Phytophthora cryptogea, Phytophthora fallax, Phytophthora gonapodyides, Phytophthora gregata, Phytophthora pseudocryptogea, and two new species, Phytophthora cacuminis sp...
January 2019: Fungal Biology
Arkamitra Vishnu Née Mandal, Mahasin Ali Khan, Meghma Bera, Krishnendu Acharya, David L Dilcher, Subir Bera
The present study reports in situ occurrence of two new epiphyllous fungal species of Phomites (comparable to modern genus Phoma Sacc.) on angiospermic leaf remains recovered from the Siwalik sediments (middle Miocene to early Pleistocene) of Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya. We describe two new species i.e. Phomites siwalicus Vishnu, Khan et Bera S, sp. nov. and Phomites neogenicus Vishnu, Khan et Bera S, sp. nov. on the basis of structural details of pycnidia. The pycnidium is a globose or slightly lens-shaped, ostiolate with a collar layer consisting of thick walled cells, sunken in leaf cuticle, with one-celled conidiospores and short-ampulliform conidiogenous cells...
January 2019: Fungal Biology
Rasmus Dam Wollenberg, Teis Esben Sondergaard, Mikkel Rank Nielsen, Simon Knutsson, Tobias Bruun Pedersen, Klaus Ringsborg Westphal, Reinhard Wimmer, Donald Max Gardiner, Jens Laurids Sørensen
Fusarium pseudograminearum is a significant pathogen of cereals in arid regions worldwide and has the ability to produce numerous bioactive secondary metabolites. The genome sequences of seven F. pseudograminearum strains have been published and in one of these strains, C5834, we identified an intact gene cluster responsible for biosynthesis of the cyclic lipopeptide fusaristatin A. The high level of sequence identity of the fusaristatin cluster remnant in strains that do not produce fusaristatin suggests that the absence of the cluster evolved once, and subsequently the resulting locus with the cluster fragments became widely dispersed among strains of F...
January 2019: Fungal Biology
Jie Ao, Sumit Bandyopadhyay, Stephen J Free
Neurospora crassa contains all four enzymes for the synthesis of DHN (dihydroxynaphthalene), the substrate for melanin formation. We show that the DHN melanin pathway functions during N. crassa female development to generate melanized peridium and ascospore cell walls. N. crassa contains one polyketide synthase (PER-1), two polyketide hydrolases (PKH-1 and PKH-2), two THN (tetrahydroxynaphthalene) reductases (PKR-1 and PKR-2), and one scytalone dehydratase (SCY-1). We show that the PER-1, PKH-1, PKR-1 and SCY-1 are required for ascospoer melanization...
January 2019: Fungal Biology
Rongbo Wang, Meixiang Zhang, Hong Liu, Jing Xu, Jia Yu, Feng He, Xiong Zhang, Suomeng Dong, Daolong Dou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Fungal Biology
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