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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science

Hannah Weinberg-Wolf, Steve W C Chang
Primates must balance the need to monitor other conspecifics to gain social information while not losing other resource opportunities. We consolidate evidence across the fields of primatology, psychology, and neuroscience to examine individual, population, and species differences in how primates, particularly macaques, monitor conspecifics. We particularly consider the role of serotonin in mediating social competency via social attention, aggression, and dominance behaviors. Finally, we consider how the evolution of variation in social tolerance, aggression, and social monitoring might be explained by differences in serotonergic function in macaques...
February 18, 2019: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
József Topál, Viktor Román, Borbála Turcsán
Selecting appropriate animal models for a particular human phenomenon is a difficult but important challenge. The difficulty lies in finding animal behaviors that are not only sufficiently relevant and analog to the complex human symptoms (face validity) but also have similar underlying biological and etiological mechanisms (translational or construct validity), and have "human-like" responses to treatment (predictive validity). Over the past several years, the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) has become increasingly proposed as a model for comparative and translational neuroscience...
February 14, 2019: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Sabrina Engesser, Simon W Townsend
A key challenge in the field of human language evolution is the identification of the selective conditions that gave rise to language's generative nature. Comparative data on nonhuman animals provides a powerful tool to investigate similarities and differences among nonhuman and human communication systems and to reveal convergent evolutionary mechanisms. In this article, we provide an overview of the current evidence for combinatorial structures found in the vocal system of diverse species. We show that considerable structural diversity exits across and within species in the forms of combinatorial structures used...
February 6, 2019: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Shunmin Zhang, Peiwei Liu, Tingyong Feng
Procrastination, the voluntary and irrational delay of an intended course of action, has troubled individuals and society extensively. Various studies have been conducted to explain why people procrastinate and to explore the neural substrates of procrastination. First, research has identified many contributing factors to procrastination. Specifically, task aversiveness, future incentives, and time delay of these incentives have been confirmed as three prominent task characteristics that affect procrastination...
January 14, 2019: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Ian Frazier, Nichole R Lighthall, Marilyn Horta, Eliany Perez, Natalie C Ebner
The aging of our population has been accompanied by increasing concerns about older adults' vulnerability to violations of trust and a growing interest in normative age-related changes to decision making involving social partners. This intersection has spurred research on age-related neurocognitive and affective changes underlying social decision making. Based on our review and synthesis of this literature, we propose a specification that targets social decision making in aging to the recently proposed Affect-Integration-Motivation (AIM) framework...
January 3, 2019: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Ruth Campos, Carmen Nieto, María Núñez
Neuroconstructivism can provide Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) with a developmental framework to understand mental disorders. Neuroconstructivism proposes that mental disorders are the outcome of a developmental trajectory. Based on this assumption, symptoms would reveal the system's adaptation to optimize functioning according to the system's experience of the physical and social contexts. RDoC adopts a translational research approach with the aim of detecting, curing, and preventing mental illness. More specifically this involves to: (a) identify early signs of mental disorders, (b) find the optimal patient-treatment fit, and (c) design efficient interventions to prevent the system's eventual pathological functioning...
December 26, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Adrienne Prettyman
Perceptual learning involves long-term changes to perception due to practice or experience. While perceptual learning has been studied for over a century in philosophy and psychology, research into the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying perceptual learning remains an area of ongoing development. This review explores what perceptual learning is and how it occurs, with a focus on areas of controversy. It then turns to several current debates. First, it explores the debate as to whether such learning involves genuine perceptual change at all, rather than a change in action, attention, or decision-making...
December 20, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Frank E Ritter, Farnaz Tehranchi, Jacob D Oury
ACT-R is a hybrid cognitive architecture. It is comprised of a set of programmable information processing mechanisms that can be used to predict and explain human behavior including cognition and interaction with the environment. We start by reviewing its history, which shapes its current form, contrasts and relates it to other architectures, and helps readers to anticipate where it is going. Based on this history, we then describe it as a theory of cognition that is realized as a computer program. After this, we briefly discuss tools for working with ACT-R, and also note several major accomplishments that have been gained by working with ACT-R in both basic and applied science, including summarizing some of the insights about human behavior...
December 7, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Adam Hakim, Dino J Levy
In the last decade, the field of consumer neuroscience, or neuromarketing, has been flourishing, with numerous publications, academic programs, initiatives, and companies. The demand for objective neural measures to quantify consumers' preferences and predict responses to marketing campaigns is ever on the rise, particularly due to the limitations of traditional marketing techniques, such as questionnaires, focus groups, and interviews. However, research has yet to converge on a unified methodology or conclusive results that can be applied in the industry...
November 29, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Philipp Beckerle, Claudio Castellini, Bigna Lenggenhager
Advanced human-machine interfaces render robotic devices applicable to study and enhance human cognition. This turns robots into formidable neuroscientific tools to study processes such as the adaptation between a human operator and the operated robotic device and how this adaptation modulates human embodiment and embodied cognition. We analyze bidirectional human-machine interface (bHMI) technologies for transparent information transfer between a human and a robot via efferent and afferent channels. Even if such interfaces have a tremendous positive impact on feedback loops and embodiment, advanced bHMIs face immense technological challenges...
November 28, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Marcos Nadal, Anjan Chatterjee
There is a duality to art. It is enormously varied and culturally diverse, and yet it is also universal, common to all humans. Art's variability and distinctiveness seem to elude science, better equipped to account for constant or regular phenomena. We believe that art's cultural particularity can be reconciled with its biological universality. The emergence of variability and distinctiveness from common mechanisms is at the core of biological explanation; it is a basic fact of life, and a basic fact of brain function...
November 28, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
John D Medaglia
Cognitive control researchers aim to describe the processes that support adaptive cognition to achieve specific goals. Control theorists consider how to influence the state of systems to reach certain user-defined goals. In brain networks, some conceptual and lexical similarities between cognitive control and control theory offer appealing avenues for scientific discovery. However, these opportunities also come with the risk of conceptual confusion. Here, I suggest that each field of inquiry continues to produce novel and distinct insights...
January 2019: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Alice Blumenthal-Dramé, Evie Malaia
This review compares how humans process action and language sequences produced by other humans. On the one hand, we identify commonalities between action and language processing in terms of cognitive mechanisms (e.g., perceptual segmentation, predictive processing, integration across multiple temporal scales), neural resources (e.g., the left inferior frontal cortex), and processing algorithms (e.g., comprehension based on changes in signal entropy). On the other hand, drawing on sign language with its particularly strong motor component, we also highlight what differentiates (both oral and signed) linguistic communication from nonlinguistic action sequences...
November 12, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Jacob Beck
Over the past 50 years, philosophers and psychologists have perennially argued for the existence of analog mental representations of one type or another. This study critically reviews a number of these arguments as they pertain to three different types of mental representation: perceptual representations, imagery representations, and numerosity representations. Along the way, careful consideration is given to the meaning of "analog" presupposed by these arguments for analog mental representation, and to open avenues for future research...
November 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Samuel B Hunley, Stella F Lourenco
Findings from diverse fields of study, including neuroscience, psychology, zoology, and sociology, demonstrate that human and non-human primates maintain a representation of the space immediately surrounding the body, known as peripersonal space (PPS). However, progress in this field has been hampered by the lack of an agreed upon definition of PPS. Since the beginning of its formal study, scientists have argued that PPS plays a crucial role in both defensive and non-defensive actions. Yet consensus is lacking about the cognitive and neural instantiation of these functions...
November 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Susannah V Levi
The Language Familiarity Effect (LFE)-where listeners are better at processing talker-voice information in their native language than in an unfamiliar language-has received renewed attention in the past 10 years. Numerous studies have sought to probe the underlying causes of this advantage by cleverly manipulating aspects of the stimuli (using phonologically related languages, backwards speech, nonwords) and by examining individual differences across listeners (testing reading ability and pitch perception)...
October 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Dylan D Wagner, Robert S Chavez, Timothy W Broom
Multivariate pattern analysis and data-driven approaches to understand how the human brain encodes sensory information and higher level conceptual knowledge have become increasingly dominant in visual and cognitive neuroscience; however, it is only in recent years that these methods have been applied to the domain of social information processing. This review examines recent research in the field of social cognitive neuroscience focusing on how multivariate pattern analysis (e.g., pattern classification, representational similarity analysis) and data-driven methods (e...
September 26, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Myrto Mylopoulos, Elisabeth Pacherie
Ten years ago, one of us proposed a dynamic hierarchical model of intentions that brought together philosophical work on intentions and empirical work on motor representations and motor control (Pacherie, 2008). The model distinguished among Distal intentions, Proximal intentions, and Motor intentions operating at different levels of action control (hence the name DPM model). This model specified the representational and functional profiles of each type of intention, as well their local and global dynamics, and the ways in which they interact...
August 13, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Nicole R Holliday
What is the relationship between ethnolinguistic communities and ways of speaking? Who is an authentic speaker of an ethnolinguistic variety? In a time where scholarly and public conceptualizations of race and ethnicity are variable and rapidly changing, potential effects on both self-identification and ways of speaking present an area ripe for study. However, linguistics and allied fields have often overlooked individuals and communities that do not neatly conform to well-defined racial categories. As multiracially identified individuals are one of the fastest growing demographic groups in the United States, researchers will necessarily need to address the way that traditional methodologies have excluded individuals and groups who fall outside of these racial and ethnic categories...
August 6, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Bryan Chambliss
The mind-body problem is the problem of explaining how the happenings of our mental lives are related to physical states, events and processes. Proposed solutions to the problem vary by whether and how they endorse physicalism, the claim that mental states are ultimately "nothing over and above" physical states, and by how they understand the interactions between mental and physical states. Physicalist solutions to the mind-body problem have been dominant in the last century, with the variety of physicalism endorsed (reductive or nonreductive) depending upon both the outcome of philosophical arguments and methodological developments in the cognitive and neural sciences...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
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