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International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology

Devala Rao Garikapati, Praveen Begum Shaik, Hanumanthu Penchalaiah
Chronic unpredictable stressors can produce a situation similar to clinical depression, and such animal models can be used for the preclinical evaluation of antidepressants. Many findings have shown that the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α) and oxidative stress (increased lipid peroxidation, decreased glutathione levels, and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities) are increased in patients with depression. Silibinin is the major active constituent of silymarin, a standardized extract of the milk thistle seeds, containing a mixture of flavonolignans consisting of silibinin, isosilibinin, silicristin, silidianin and exhibit antioxidant activity...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Aidan Kenny, Félix Hernández, Jesús Avila, José J Lucas, David C Henshall, Jochen Hm Prehn, Eva M Jiménez-Mateos, Tobias Engel
Tauopathies are a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the pathological aggregation of the microtubule-associated protein tau. These include more than 20 diseases, with Alzheimer's disease being the most frequent. While pathological and neurotoxic effects of tau are well documented, the mechanisms by which tau can promote neurodegeneration are less clear. Increasing evidence suggests a functional role for microRNAs in the pathogenesis of tauopathies, with altered expression and function of microRNAs in experimental models and patient brain...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Fayez T Hammad, Shreesh Ojha, Shamsulislam Azimullah, Loay Lubbad
INTRODUCTION: Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) causes renal functional alterations which may lead to permanent renal impairment. β-caryophyllene (BCP), a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene, is an important constituent of many edible plants including spices. It is an FDA-approved food additive which possesses potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and has been shown to protect against chemotherapeutics-induced organ toxicities and against ischemic injuries to heart, liver and brain...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Kusmardi Kusmardi, Nessa Nessa, Ari Estuningtyas, Aryo Tedjo
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a condition describing chronic gastrointestinal inflammation. Chronic inflammation in colon can develop into colon cancer. Lunasin has been known to inhibit inflammatory reactions induced by lipopolysaccharide in vitro . The effect of lunasin to inhibit inflammation in vivo is not widely known. In this study, we analyzed the effect of lunasin from soybean to decrease the risk of inflammation by analyzing histopathologic feature and the expression of COX-2. 30 mice are divided into 6 groups...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Lakhwinder Singh, Surbhi Rana, Sidharth Mehan
The present study aimed to investigate the role of adenylyl cyclase activator in preventing diabetic nephropathy in rats. Renal function parameters, renal hypertrophy, lipid profile, markers of oxidative stress and free radical scavenging activities were assessed. Histopathology was performed to confirm Streptozotocin induced renal morphological changes in diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were used in the present study to reduce the effect of estrogen. Rats were subjected to high fat diet (HFD) for two weeks followed by low dose of Streptozotocin (STZ) [35 mg/kg, i...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Ahmet H Kepekci, Cenk Kig, Gul I Gundogan
Malignant mucosal melanoma is an uncommon disease with a low rate of survival. Malignancies of nasal mucosa which usually presents with nasal obstruction, epistaxis and back drip are difficult to treat and often have poor prognosis. The present case had presented to our clinic with classic symptoms and diagnostic findings of nasal polyposis. Consistently, the patient had previously been diagnosed with and treated for nasal polyposis in another ENT clinic. Physical examination, rhinoscopic examination, computed tomography (CT) scan of the head did not reveal any findings which might imply malignant formations...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Satoru Sakuma, Mai Ishimura, Yukinori Yuba, Yuhki Itoh, Yohko Fujimoto
Despite evidence that tripeptide glycyl-ʟ-histidyl-ʟ-lysine (GHK) is an endogenous antioxidant, its mechanism and importance are not fully understood. In the present study, the ability of GHK to reduce levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Caco-2 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry with the oxidation-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Further, types of ROS diminished by GHK were assessed by utilizing an electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping technique. GHK reduced the tert -butyl hydroperoxide-induced increase in ROS levels in Caco-2 cells at concentrations of 10 µM or less...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Fatemeh Khosravi, Fatemeh Kharazmi, Mitra Kamran, Kianoosh Malekzadeh, Ardeshir Talebi, Nepton Soltani
The present study was designed to investigate the possible role of magnesium (Mg2+ ) on activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ( PPAR-γ ) and inhibition of nuclear factor-KB (NFKB p65) in muscle to increase glucose transporter 4 ( GLUT4 ) gene expression. Fifty rats were divided into five groups, namely non-diabetic control (NDC), Mg2+ -treated non-diabetic control (Mg2+ -NDC), chronic diabetic (CD), Mg2+ -treated chronic diabetic (Mg2+ -CD), and insulin-treated chronic diabetic (Ins-CD)...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Hayato Asai, Koichi Inoue, Eisuke Sakuma, Yoshiaki Shinohara, Takatoshi Ueki
It has recently been established that microglial activation is involved in the pathophysiology of various neurological and psychiatric disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and schizophrenia. The pathological molecular machineries underlying microglial activation and its accelerating molecules have been precisely described in the diseased central nervous system (CNS). However, to date, the details of physiological mechanism, which represses microglial activation, are still to be elucidated. Our latest report demonstrated that serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinases (SGK1 and SGK3) were expressed in multiple microglial cell lines, and their inhibitor enhanced the toxic effect of lipopolysaccharide on microglial production of inflammatory substances such as TNFα and iNOS...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Xiaoyue Duan, Kun He, Jing Li, Man Cheng, Hongjiao Song, Jinqiu Liu, Ping Liu
Cancer cells exhibit an increasing iron demand associated with the tumor progression. But the mechanism of iron accumulation in the tumor microenvironment is still unclear. Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in the tumor microenvironment may act as extra iron source. However, evidence is still lacking in TAMs as iron donors. In the present study, we found that iron concentration was significantly increased at tumor metastatic stage, which could be attributed to up-regulated expression of lipocalin2 (Lcn2)...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Baomin Shi, Mengzhou Xue, Yi Wang, Yufeng Wang, Davey Li, Xiaomin Zhao, Xinbo Li
Transfection and transduction using lentivirus has gained attention in biomedical research. To date, how to reach the maximum transfection and viral transduction efficiency is still challenging. Here we compared the transfection and viral transduction efficiency using commercially available transfection reagents including FuGENE 6, Lipofectamine 2000 and Lipofectamine 3000 in different cell lines and primary cultured cells. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was clearly seen in Eppendorf tubes from harvested cells using Lipofectamine 3000 without using a microscope and UV activation...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Qinlong Liu, Hasibur Rehman, Yasodha Krishnasamy, John J Lemasters, Zhi Zhong
Pulmonary complications frequently occur after liver transplantation and are often life-threatening. Thus, we investigated whether hepatic ischemic preconditioning (IP) attenuates acute lung injury (ALI) after small-for-size liver transplantation. Rat livers were explanted after 9-min ischemia plus 5-min reperfusion, reduced to 50% of original size ex vivo , and implanted into recipients with approximately twice the donor body weight, resulting in quarter-size liver grafts (QSG). After QSG transplantation, hepatic Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα ) expression increased markedly and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP), was released from QSG into the blood...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Ismail Ahmed Ismail, Hanan A El-Bakry, Safaa S Soliman
Aging is associated with several biological, physiological, cellular and histological changes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on different signaling pathways, including antioxidant system, apoptosis and immune status. Several natural products were used to ameliorate and block aging-related changes. Melatonin and turmeric have been known to ameliorate and decrease aging-related changes. However, the exact mechanism(s) of their action is not fully understood. In the present study, we tried to uncover the regulatory mechanism(s) by which melatonin and turmeric work against aging...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Pei Chen, Jing Li, Xiao Han, Dennis Grech, Ming Xiong, Alex Bekker, Jiang-Hong Ye
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a common medical and social problem, affecting about 240 million people in the world. To address this major health concern, the currently available treatments for AUD need to be improved. Acupuncture, a popular form of complementary and alternative therapy, is emerging as an effective treatment for AUD. This review summarizes how preclinical and clinical studies are related to the application of acupuncture for AUD. These studies suggest that if used correctly, acupuncture may effectively reduce alcohol intake, attenuate alcohol withdrawal syndrome, and rebalance AUD-induced maladaptation in neurotransmitters and hormones in related brain areas...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Cristina R Reschke, Alice B Poersch, Cíntia J Masson, Ana C Jesse, Joseane R Marafiga, Quéli F Lenz, Mauro S Oliveira, David C Henshall, Carlos F Mello
Neuroinflammation plays a major role in brain excitability and may contribute to the development of epilepsy. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is a direct mediator of inflammatory responses and, through EP receptors, plays an important role in neuronal excitability. Pharmacological evidence supports that centrally-administered EP1 and EP3 receptor antagonists reduced acutely evoked seizures in rats. Translation of these findings would benefit from evidence of efficacy with a more clinically relevant route of delivery and validation in another species...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Olaniyi S Kehinde, Oyewopo I Christianah, Oyewopo A Oyetunji
BACKGROUND: The effect of the concomitant use of sodium benzoate (NaB) and ascorbic acid on human health remains controversial. Therefore, the current study is designed to investigate the effect of NaB and ascorbic acid on the testicular function of adult Wistar rats. METHODS: Adult Wistar rats were randomly allotted into Control (vehicle; received 1 ml of distilled water), NaB-treated (SB-treated; received 100 mg/kg body weight; b.w ), ascorbic acid-treated (AA-treated; received 150 mg/kg b...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Alyssa Cobbs, Kristopher Ballou, Xiaoming Chen, Jasmine George, Xueying Zhao
Osteopontin (OPN) is one of the proinflammatory cytokines upregulated in the kidneys of diabetic animals and patients with nephropathy. An increase in urinary albumin and albumin-bound fatty acids (FA) presents a proinflammatory environment to the proximal tubules in proteinuric kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy. This study was designed to examine if FA overload could stimulate OPN expression and cleavage in renal tubule epithelial cells. OPN gene and protein expression was examined in the kidney of Zucker diabetic (ZD) rats and cultured proximal tubular cells exposed to either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or BSA conjugated with palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant saturated plasma FA...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Yulan Sheng, Li Zhu
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), comprised of two primary branches, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, plays an essential role in the regulation of vascular wall contractility and tension. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves work together to balance the functions of autonomic effector organs. The neurotransmitters released from the varicosities in the ANS can regulate the vascular tone. Norepinephrine (NE), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) function as vasoconstrictors, whereas acetylcholine (Ach) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) can mediate vasodilation...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Tao Xu, Yan Du, Xiu-Bin Fang, Hao Chen, Dan-Dan Zhou, Yang Wang, Lei Zhang
Activation of inflammatory signaling pathways is of central importance in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are intracellular innate immune sensors of microbes and danger signals that control multiple aspects of inflammatory responses. Recent studies demonstrated that NLRs are expressed and activated in innate immune cells as well as in parenchymal cells in the liver. For example, NLRP3 signaling is involved in liver ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and silencing of NLRP3 can protect the liver from I/R injury...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
Olukayode Isaac Adeosun, Kehinde S Olaniyi, Oluwatobi A Amusa, Gbemisola Z Jimoh, Adesola A Oniyide
Cola nitida (Kolanut) is conventionally used in tropical Africa for the treatment of all kinds of ailments such as migraine, morning sickness, metabolic disorders etc. However, this study was designed to investigate the diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic activities of methanolic extract of Cola nitida (MECN) in male Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly allotted into control (25 ml/kg b.w .), furosemide (20 mg/kg b.w ; standard), MECN1 (100 mg/kg), MECN2 (200 mg/kg), MECN3 (300 mg/kg), MECN4 (400 mg/kg), MECN5 (500 mg/kg), MECN6 (600 mg/kg) groups with n=6...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
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