Zeaul Hoque Mazumdar, Debdulal Sharma, Avinaba Mukherjee, Samita Basu, Pradeep Kumar Shukla, Tarun Jha, Devashish Sengupta
A new category of cationic meso -thiophenium porphyrins are introduced as possible alternatives to the popular meso -pyridinium porphyrins. Combinations of cationic porphyrins bearing meso -2-methylthiophenium and meso -4-hydroxyphenyl moieties T2 (OH)2 M (A2 B2 type) and T(OH)3 M (AB3 type) along with their zinc(II) complexes T2 (OH)2 MZn and T(OH)3 MZn , are reported. The increase in the number of thienyl groups attached to the meso -positions of the porphyrin derivatives (A2 B2 frame) has been shown to impart longer fluorescence lifetimes and stronger photocytotoxicity toward A549 lung cancer cells, as evident with T2 (OH)2 M and its corresponding diamagnetic metal complex T2 (OH)2 MZn...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Michele Herneisey, Paula Flórez Salcedo, Trystan Domenech, Christina Bagia, Simon S George, Robert Tunney, Sachin Velankar, T Kevin Hitchens, Jelena M Janjic
Perfluorocarbons are versatile compounds with applications in 19 F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and chemical conjugation to drugs and pH sensors. We present a novel thermoresponsive perfluorocarbon emulsion hydrogel that can be detected by 19 F MRI. The developed hydrogel contains perfluoro(polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether) (PFPE) emulsion droplets that are stabilized through ionic cross-linking with polyethylenimine (PEI). Specifically, PFPE ester undergoes hydrolysis upon contact with aqueous PEI solution, resulting in an ionic bond between the PFPE acid and charged PEI amino groups...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Clara T Schoeder, Andhika B Mahardhika, Anna Drabczyńska, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz, Christa E Müller
GPR18 is a rhodopsin-like orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is activated by the natural cannabinoid (CB) Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). It is highly expressed in immune cells and represents a promising new drug target. However, THC is much more potent in activating CB receptors than GPR18, and several other proposed lipidic agonists for GPR18 have not been independently confirmed. Herein we describe the first non-lipid-like agonists for GPR18 based on a tricyclic xanthine-derived scaffold, along with initial structure-activity relationships...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Junichiro Uda, Seiichi Kobashi, Sachiho Miyata, Naoki Ashizawa, Koji Matsumoto, Takashi Iwanaga
To derive new uricosuric agents, novel phenol derivatives were synthesized to overcome the disadvantages of benzbromarone (BBR), attributed by its structural features. Herein, we report the discovery of new phenol derivatives with a 1,1-dioxo-1,2-dihydro-3 H -1,3-benzothiazole scaffold. The selected compound 11 (dotinurad, FYU-981) demonstrated remarkable inhibitory activity on uric acid uptake by primary human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTECs) and URAT1-mediated uric acid transport, with weak inhibitory activity against mitochondrial respiration...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Sukanthini Thurairatnam, Sungtaek Lim, Robert H Barker, Yong Mi Choi-Sledeski, Bradford H Hirth, John Jiang, John E Macor, Elina Makino, Sachin Maniar, Kwon Musick, James R Pribish, Mark Munson
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare, genetic lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of arylsulfatase A enzyme, which results in the accumulation of sulfatide in the lysosomes of the tissues of central and peripheral nervous systems, leading to progressive demyelination and neurodegeneration. Currently there is no cure for this disease, and the only approved therapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplant, has limitations. We proposed substrate reduction therapy (SRT) as a novel approach to treat this disease, by inhibiting ceramide galactosyltransferase enzyme (UGT8)...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Cathy Préville, Pascal Bonaventure, Tatiana Koudriakova, Brian Lord, Diane Nepomuceno, Michele Rizzolio, Neelakandha Mani, Kevin J Coe, Anthony Ndifor, Christine Dugovic, Curt A Dvorak, Heather Coate, Daniel J Pippel, Anne Fitzgerald, Brett Allison, Timothy W Lovenberg, Nicholas I Carruthers, Brock T Shireman
The orexin system consists of two neuropeptides (orexin-A and orexin-B) that exert their mode of action on two receptors (orexin-1 and orexin-2). While the role of the orexin-2 receptor is established as an important modulator of sleep wake states, the role of the orexin-1 receptor is believed to play a role in addiction, panic, or anxiety. In this manuscript, we describe the optimization of a nonselective substituted azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA) into orally bioavailable, brain penetrating, selective orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) antagonists...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Simon Ng, Yu-Chi Juang, Arun Chandramohan, Hung Yi Kristal Kaan, Ahmad Sadruddin, Tsz Ying Yuen, Fernando J Ferrer-Gago, Xue'Er Cheryl Lee, Xi Liew, Charles W Johannes, Christopher J Brown, Srinivasaraghavan Kannan, Pietro G Aronica, Nils A Berglund, Chandra S Verma, Lijuan Liu, Alexander Stoeck, Tomi K Sawyer, Anthony W Partridge, David P Lane
Nonspecific promiscuous compounds can mislead researchers and waste significant resources. This phenomenon, though well-documented for small molecules, has not been widely explored for the peptide modality. Here we demonstrate that two purported peptide-based KRas inhibitors, SAH-SOS1 A and cyclorasin 9A5, exemplify false-positive molecules-in terms of both their binding affinities and cellular activities. Through multiple gold-standard biophysical techniques, we unambiguously show that both peptides lack specific binding to KRas and instead induce protein unfolding...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Nicolino Pala, Francesca Esposito, Enzo Tramontano, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Vanna Sanna, Mauro Carcelli, Lisa D Haigh, Sandro Satta, Mario Sechi
Photoaffinity labeling (PAL) is one of the upcoming and powerful tools in the field of molecular recognition. It includes the determination of dynamic parameters, such as the identification and localization of the target protein and the site of drug binding. In this study, a photoaffinity-labeled probe for full-length human immunodeficiency virus-1 integrase (HIV-1 IN) capture was designed and synthesized, following the structure of the FDA-approved drug Raltegravir. This photoprobe was found to retain the HIV IN inhibitory potential in comparison with its parent molecule and demonstrates the ability to label the HIV-1 IN protein...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Maud Bollenbach, Manuel Ortega, Marina Orman, Catherine L Drennan, Emily P Balskus
The anaerobic conversion of choline to trimethylamine (TMA) by the human gut microbiota has been linked to multiple human diseases. The potential impact of this microbial metabolic activity on host health has inspired multiple efforts to identify small molecule inhibitors. Here, we use information about the structure and mechanism of the bacterial enzyme choline TMA-lyase (CutC) to develop a cyclic choline analog that inhibits the conversion of choline to TMA in bacterial whole cells and in a complex gut microbial community...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Anjana Sinha, Jerry C Chang, Peng Xu, Katherina Gindinova, Younhee Cho, Weilin Sun, Xianzhong Wu, Yue Ming Li, Paul Greengard, Jeffery W Kelly, Subhash C Sinha
Tafamidis, 1 , a potent transthyretin kinetic stabilizer, weakly inhibits the γ-secretase enzyme in vitro . We have synthesized four amide derivatives of 1 . These compounds reduce production of the Aβ peptide in N2a695 cells but do not inhibit the γ-secretase enzyme in cell-free assays. By performing fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we have shown that TTR inhibits Aβ oligomerization and that addition of tafamidis or its amide derivative does not affect TTR's ability to inhibit Aβ oligomerization...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Arun K Ghosh, Alessandro Grillo, Jakka Raghavaiah, Satish Kovela, Megan E Johnson, Daniel W Kneller, Yuan-Fang Wang, Shin-Ichiro Hattori, Nobuyo Higashi-Kuwata, Irene T Weber, Hiroaki Mitsuya
The design, synthesis, biological evaluation, and X-ray structural studies are reported for a series of highly potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors. The inhibitors incorporated stereochemically defined amide-based bicyclic and tricyclic ether derivatives as the P2 ligands with ( R )-hydroxyethylaminesulfonamide transition-state isosteres. A number of inhibitors showed excellent HIV-1 protease inhibitory and antiviral activity; however, ligand combination is critical for potency. Inhibitor 4h with a difluorophenylmethyl as the P1 ligand, crown-THF-derived acetamide as the P2 ligand, and a cyclopropylaminobenzothiazole P2'-ligand displayed very potent antiviral activity and maintained excellent antiviral activity against selected multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Francisco O Battiti, Amy Hauck Newman, Alessandro Bonifazi
In this study, starting from our selective D3 R agonist FOB02-04A ( 5 ), we investigated the chemical space around the linker portion of the molecule via insertion of a hydroxyl substituent and ring-expansion of the trans -cyclopropyl moiety into a trans -cyclohexyl scaffold. Moreover, to further elucidate the importance of the primary pharmacophore stereochemistry in the design of bitopic ligands, we investigated the chiral requirements of (+)-PD128907 ( (+)-(4a R ,10b R )-2) ) by synthesizing and resolving bitopic analogues in all the cis and trans combinations of its 9-methoxy-3,4,4a,10b-tetrahydro-2 H ,5 H -chromeno[4,3- b ][1,4] oxazine scaffold...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Sida Shen, Peter F Doubleday, Pathum M Weerawarna, Wei Zhu, Neil L Kelleher, Richard B Silverman
Aminotransferases are pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes that catalyze reversible transamination reactions between an amino acid and an α-keto acid, playing a critical role in cellular nitrogen metabolism. It is evident that γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-AT), which balances the levels of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters, has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for epilepsy and cocaine addiction based on mechanism-based inactivators (MBIs). In this work, we established an integrated approach using computational simulation, organic synthesis, biochemical evaluation, and mass spectrometry to facilitate our design and mechanistic studies of MBIs, which led to the identification of a new cyclopentene-based analogue ( 6a ), 25-times more efficient as an inactivator of GABA-AT compared to the parent compound (1 R ,3 S ,4 S )-3-amino-4-fluorocyclopentane carboxylic acid ( FCP , 4 )...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Mark D Ericson, Katie T Freeman, Carrie Haskell-Luevano
The melanocortin receptors are involved in numerous physiological functions and are regulated by agonists derived from the proopiomelanocortin gene transcript and two endogenous antagonists, agouti and agouti-related protein (AGRP). The key binding and functional determinant of AGRP, an MC3R and MC4R antagonist, is an Arg-Phe-Phe tripeptide sequence located on an exposed hexapeptide (Arg-Phe-Phe-Asn-Ala-Phe) loop. It has previously been observed that cyclizing this sequence through a DPro-Pro motif (c[Pro1 -Arg2 -Phe3 -Phe4 -Asn5 -Ala6 -Phe7 -DPro8 ]) resulted in a macrocyclic scaffold with MC4R antagonist activity, with increased MC4R potency when a diaminopropionic acid (Dap) residue is substituted at position 5...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Dilip K Tosh, Veronica Salmaso, Harsha Rao, Ryan Campbell, Amelia Bitant, Zhan-Guo Gao, John A Auchampach, Kenneth A Jacobson
A side-by-side pharmacological comparison of ribose and (N)-methanocarba (bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) nucleosides as A3 AR agonists indicated that the bicyclic pseudoribose ring constraint provided higher affinity/selectivity at human and mouse A3 AR. The mean affinity enhancement for 5 pairs of 5'-methylamides was 11-fold at hA3 AR and 42-fold at mA3 AR. Novel C2-(5-fluorothien-2-ylethynyl) substitution enhanced affinity in the methanocarba but not ribose series, with highly hA3 AR-selective 16 (MRS7334) displaying Ki 280 pM and favorable pharmacokinetics and off-target activity profile...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Bianca Altenburg, Marcus Frings, Jan-Hendrik Schöbel, Jonas Goßen, Kristina Pannen, Kim Vanderliek, Giulia Rossetti, Steffen Koschmieder, Nicolas Chatain, Carsten Bolm
Structural analogues of PFI-1 varying at the sulfur core were prepared, and their activities as BET inhibitors in myeloid cell lines and primary cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia were studied. Docking calculations followed by molecular dynamics simulations revealed the binding mode of the newly prepared inhibitors, suggesting explanations for the observed high enantiospecificity of the inhibitory activity.
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
George D Hartman, Scott D Kuduk, Christine Espiritu, Angela M Lam
Herein is reported a novel screening paradigm PURE ( P 450s u nder re striction) for the identification and optimization of hits as part of a hepatitis B virus (HBV) antiviral discovery program. To closely represent in vivo hepatocytes, differentiated HepaRG cells (dHRGs) and primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) were used as the basis for an HBV infection system. However, a significant challenge arose during potency evaluation in using cultured dHRGs and PHHs as screening platforms because, as with hepatocytes in vivo , these cells express active cytochrome P450 enzymes and thus can metabolize test compounds...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
James R Annand, Andrew R Henderson, Kyle S Cole, Aaron J Maurais, Jorge Becerra, Yejun Liu, Eranthie Weerapana, Angela N Koehler, Anna K Mapp, Corinna S Schindler
The small molecule gibberellin JRA-003 was identified as an inhibitor of the NF-kB (nuclear kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) pathway. Here we find that JRA-003 binds to and significantly inhibits the nuclear translocation of pathway-activating kinases IKKα (IκB kinase alpha) and IKKβ (IκB kinase beta). Analogs of JRA-003 were synthesized and NF-κB-inhibiting gibberellins were found to be cytotoxic in cancer-derived cell lines (HS 578T, HCC 1599, RC-K8, Sud-HL4, CA 46, and NCIH 4466). Not only was JRA-003 identified as the most potent synthetic gibberellin against cancer-derived cell lines, it displayed no cytotoxicity in cells derived from noncancerous sources (HEK 293T, HS 578BST, HS 888Lu, HS 895Sk, HUVEC)...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Kaitlind C Howard, Octavio A Gonzalez, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic pathogen that can trigger oral dysbiosis as an early event in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. The FDA-approved drug zafirlukast (ZAF) was recently shown to display antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis . Here, 15 novel ZAF derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis and for their cytotoxic effects. Most derivatives displayed superior antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis compared to ZAF and its first generation derivatives along with little to no growth inhibition of other oral bacterial species...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Haibo Liu, Deqiang Niu, Robert Tjin Tham Sjin, Alex Dubrovskiy, Zhendong Zhu, Joseph J McDonald, Kelly Fahnoe, Zhigang Wang, Mark Munson, Andrew Scholte, Matthieu Barrague, Maria Fitzgerald, Jinyu Liu, Michael Kothe, Fangxian Sun, Joshua Murtie, Jie Ge, Jennifer Rocnik, Darren Harvey, Beatriz Ospina, Keli Perron, Gang Zheng, Elvis Shehu, Laura Akullian D'Agostino
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for a majority of primary liver cancer and is one of the most common forms of cancer worldwide. Aberrant signaling of the FGF19-FGFR4 pathway leads to HCC in mice and is hypothesized to be a driver in FGF19 amplified HCC in humans. Multiple small molecule inhibitors have been pursued as targeted therapies for HCC in recent years, including several selective FGFR4 inhibitors that are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Herein, we report a novel series of highly selective, covalent 2-amino-6,8-dimethyl-pyrido[2,3- d ]pyrimidin-7(8 H )-ones that potently and selectively inhibit FGFR4 signaling through covalent modification of Cys552, which was confirmed by X-ray crystallography...
October 8, 2020: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
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