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Journal of Toxicology

Srinivasa Reddy Jitta, Prasanthi Daram, Karthik Gourishetti, C S Misra, Picheswara Rao Polu, Abhishek Shah, C S Shreedhara, Madhavan Nampoothiri, Richard Lobo
Terminalia tomentosa bark belongs to the family Combretaceae. The plant bark is astringent and useful in the treatment of ulcers, vata, fractures, hemorrhages, bronchitis, and diarrhea. Phytochemical investigation of T. tomentosa bark confirms the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins. The plant has not been investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity. The present study was undertaken to explore its possible anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity. Anti-inflammatory activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the bark was assessed by in vivo methods...
2019: Journal of Toxicology
Natalia Alejandra Ossana, Federico Gastón Baudou, Patricia Mónica Castañé, Luis Tripoli, Sonia Soloneski, Lucrecia Ferrari
In the present study, the toxicity of receiving waters from a highly polluted urban watercourse, the Reconquista River, Argentina, collected at a dam in the upstream part of the river was evaluated. Cnesterodon decemmaculatus, a widely distributed fish species in Pampasic rivers proposed for use in ecotoxicological evaluations, was used as a test organism. A 96-h acute toxicity bioassay with river water quality which has been characterized as moderately contaminated was performed. The treatment groups were (1) whole surface river water; (2) whole surface river water with 2 mg Cd/L added as a simulated metal contaminant pulse; (3) a negative control using reconstituted moderately hard water (MHW); (4) a metal positive control, MHW + 2 mg Cd/L; and (5) a positive genotoxicity control, MHW + 5 mg Cyclophosphamide/L (CP)...
2019: Journal of Toxicology
Lesa A Thompson, Wageh S Darwish
Contamination by chemicals from the environment is a major global food safety issue, posing a serious threat to human health. These chemicals belong to many groups, including metals/metalloids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), radioactive elements, electronic waste, plastics, and nanoparticles. Some of these occur naturally in the environment, whilst others are produced from anthropogenic sources...
2019: Journal of Toxicology
Janthri C Mendis, Thejani K Tennakoon, Chanika D Jayasinghe
Pesguard FG161™, a mixture of d-tetramethrin and cyphenothrin (1:3 ratio), is extensively used to achieve rapid control of adult dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, during the disease outbreaks. Both d-tetramethrin and cyphenothrin are synthetic pyrethroids that are known to have adverse effects on non-mammalian organisms such as fish. The present study intended to use zebrafish embryo toxicity model to investigate the toxic effect of the above binary mixture on fish. Particularly, zebrafish embryo toxicity model provides an alternative to acute fish toxicity tests in terms of animal welfare perspective as the embryos are not considered live until 5 days after fertilization...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Juliana Rodríguez, Patricia Mónica Mandalunis
The presence of metals in the environment is a matter of concern, since human activities are the major cause of pollution and metals can enter the food chain and bioaccumulate in hard and soft tissues/organs, which results in a long half-life of the metal in the body. Metal intoxication has a negative impact on human health and can alter different systems depending on metal type and concentration and duration of metal exposure. The present review focuses on the most common metals found in contaminated areas (cadmium, zinc, copper, nickel, mercury, chromium, lead, aluminum, titanium, and iron, as well as metalloid arsenic) and their effects on bone tissue...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Li Wang, Mihai Gagea, Karen Martirosyan, Mary Johansen, Timothy Madden, Lisa Norberg, Kirk S Culotta, Steven J Frank
C4 (cobalt dichloride-N-acetylcysteine [1% CoCl2 :2% NAC]) is a novel magnetic resonance imaging contrast marker that facilitates visualization of implanted radioactive seeds in cancer brachytherapy. We evaluated the toxicity of C4. Rats were assigned to control (0% CoCl2 :NAC), low-dose (0.1% CoCl2 :2% NAC), reference-dose (C4), and high-dose (10% CoCl2 :2% NAC) groups. Agent was injected into the left quadriceps femoris muscle of the rats. Endpoints were organ and body weights, hematology, and serum chemistry and histopathologic changes of tissues at 48 hours and 28 and 63 days after dosing...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Anurak Wongta, Nootchakarn Sawarng, Phannika Tongchai, Kunrunya Sutan, Tanyaporn Kerdnoi, Tippawan Prapamontol, Surat Hongsibsong
Background and Aim: Biomarkers of pesticide exposure are generally lacking in communities where agricultural crops are grown. The purpose of this study was to focus on evaluating biomarkers of pesticide exposure in people living in an agricultural area of San Pa Tong District in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-four participants (38 nonfarm workers, 38 rice growers, 31 longan growers, and 17 vegetable growers) from San Pa Tong District gave consent to participate in the study...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Nanik Sundari, Vivian Soetikno, Melva Louisa, Bantari W Wardhani, Raymond R Tjandrawinata
Phaleria macrocarpa is one of the Indonesian herbal plants which has been shown to have a hepatoprotective effect. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of water extract of mahkota dewa ( Phaleria macrocarpa ) in liver fibrosis and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) for 8 weeks to induce liver fibrosis. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=5), i.e., control group, CCl4 group, CCl4 + NAC group, CCl4 + various doses of water extract of Phaleria macrocarpa (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg body weight)...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Arwa A El-Sheikh, Shimaa Hamed Ameen, Samaa Salah AbdEl-Fatah
Objective: The aim of our study is to compare the role of the new natural alternative (Quercetin) with the current iron-chelation therapy (Deferoxamine (DFO)) in the effect of iron overload on small intestinal tissues and to investigate the possible underlying molecular mechanisms of such toxicity. Methods: Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into six groups: control groups, DFO, Quercetin, iron overload, iron overload+DFO, and iron overload+Quercetin groups...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Novriantika Lestari, Melva Louisa, Vivian Soetikno, Averina Geffanie Suwana, Putra Andito Ramadhan, Taufiq Akmal, Wawaimuli Arozal
Liver fibrosis is characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix in chronic liver injury. Alcohol-induced fibrosis may develop into cirrhosis, one of the major causes of liver disease mortality. Previous studies have shown that alpha mangostin can decrease ratio of pSmad/Smad and pAkt/Akt in TGF- β -induced liver fibrosis model in vitro . Further investigation of the mechanism of action of alpha mangostin in liver fibrosis model still needs to be done. The present study aimed to analyze the mechanism of action of alpha mangostin on acetaldehyde induced liver fibrosis model on TGF- β and ERK 1/2 pathways...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Suanne Bosch, Tarryn Lee Botha, Anine Jordaan, Mark Maboeta, Victor Wepener
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is used as an ecotoxicological model species in both aqueous medium and solid substrates. It is easy and of low cost to maintain in the laboratory and it produces hundreds of offspring within a short period of time. It also has a small body size (1 mm), making it possible for in vivo assays to be conducted in 12-well plates. Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are a class of emerging pollutants. Nanogold (nAu) is used in many consumer products and in vivo drug delivery. These materials can be released into the aquatic environment during production or discarding of consumer products...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Noah Kyame Asare-Donkor, Raymond Akanwi Adaagoam, Ray Bright Voegborlo, Anthony Apeke Adimado
This study evaluates the exposure of the Ghanaian population of the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana to formaldehyde through the consumption of fish using 3-Methyl-2-Benzothiazoline Hydrazone method, with trichloroacetic acid as an extracting agent. A total of sixty (60) fish species comprising both local and imported fish were bought from cold stores and fish ponds were analysed. Formaldehyde was found in all the species analysed with concentration ranging from 0.174 to 3.710 μ gg-1 . However, the levels were still lower than 5 mg/kg, which is the maximum limit established by the Malaysian Food Act and Regulation for formaldehyde in fish...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Kwangu M Kanama, Adegbenro P Daso, Lizzy Mpenyana-Monyatsi, Marthie A A Coetzee
The presence of 17 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) belonging to various therapeutic categories was investigated in two hospital wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in North West Province, South Africa. The compounds were extracted from wastewater samples by solid-phase extraction and analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that ofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and bezafibrate were generally below the limit of quantification (LOQ) in the analysed samples. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were the dominant pharmaceuticals in the influent streams with corresponding concentrations ranging from 21 to 119 μ g/L and 0...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Erick Kandiwa, Borden Mushonga, Alaster Samkange, Ezequiel Fabiano
This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity and haemotoxicity of the Western barred (zebra) spitting cobra ( Naja nigricincta nigricincta ) venom to help explain atypical and inconsistent reports on syndromes by Namibian physicians treating victims of human ophidian accidents. Freeze-dried venom milked from adult zebra snakes was dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for use in this study. Haemorrhagic and necrotic activity of venom were studied in New Zealand albino rabbits. Oedema-forming activity was investigated in 10-day-old Cobb500 broiler chicks...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Lebeth C Manguilimotan, Jayzon G Bitacura
The use of microorganisms in decontaminating the environment encumbered with heavy metal pollutants through biosorption is considered as a good option for bioremediation. This study was conducted to isolate Cadmium (Cd) tolerant fungi from coastal waters and sediments, compare their biosorption capabilities, and identify the isolates with the highest Cd uptake. Water and sediment samples were collected near the effluent sites of industrial belt in Ibo, Lapu-lapu City, Cebu, Philippines. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates containing Cd (25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm) were used to isolate Cd tolerant fungi from the samples...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Pooja Mahajan, Jyotsna Kaushal
Heavy metals are a noxious form of pollutants present in soil and water. A new plant-based solar energy driven technology, phytoremediation, emerges as eco-friendly and cost-effective approach to remove heavy metal from various media with the help of hyperaccumulating plant species. This review paper aims to provide information on phytoremediation and its mechanisms for heavy metal removal especially to focus on Cadmium (Cd) metal and highlights the role of various hyperaccumulating plants for Cd metal remediation in soil and water...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi, Philip Adeyemi Adeniyi
Studies have revealed that anti-inflammatory agents could provide beneficial effect in lowering the incidence/progression of neurological diseases. Hence, this study sought to investigate the effect of essential oils from Nigeria ginger and turmeric rhizomes on some cytokines in cadmium induced neurotoxicity. The result revealed that essential oil from ginger and turmeric rhizomes exerts anti-inflammatory effect by preventing alterations of some cytokines/inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-Alpha) levels and inhibits both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities (important enzymes relevant in the management/prevention of neurodegenerative diseases) in Cd treated rats...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Claudia J Labrador-Rached, Rebecca T Browning, Laura K Braydich-Stolle, Kristen K Comfort
Due to their distinctive physicochemical properties, platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) have emerged as a material of interest for a number of biomedical therapeutics. However, in some instances NP exposure has been correlated to health and safety concerns, including cytotoxicity, activation of cellular stress, and modification to normal cell functionality. As PtNPs have induced differential cellular responses in vitro , the goal of this study was to further characterize the behavior and toxicological potential of PtNPs within a HepG2 liver model...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Yos Adi Prakoso, Puspitasari, Chylen Setiyo Rini, Andika Aliviameita, Siti Isrina Oktavia Salasia, Kurniasih, Ahmad Fadhli Dzil Ikram, Baristha Walalangi, Kukuh Priya Utama, Muhammad Fajar Al Huda, Neneng Ayu Su'udiyah
Aflatoxin (AF) is the secondary metabolite of Aspergillus flavus and commonly contaminates feed during storage. AF causes lowered growth rate, stress, and increased mortality in the poultry, especially for broiler industries. The aims of this study are to determine the effects of Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr. leaf powder (SAP) in the chickens fed a diet naturally contaminated with AF. A total of 108 chickens are divided into 6 group: group I fed with basal diet (AF not detectable); group II fed with basal diet (AF not detectable) + 5% SAP; group III with AF (>1 ppb <50 ppb); group IV with AF (>1 ppb <50 ppb) + 5% SAP; group V with AF (>51 ppb <100 ppb) + 5% SAP; group VI with AF (>101 ppb <150 ppb) + 5% SAP...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
Duminda S B Dissanayake, Lasanthika D Thewarage, Roshitha N Waduge, J G S Ranasinghe, S A M Kularatne, R P V Jayanthe Rajapakse
Several countries residing envenomation due to Naja naja had revealed a disparity in the venom composition according to their geographic location and Sri Lankan cobra still lacks the evidence to support this. Therefore, the current study was focused on addressing relationship between the histopathological changes according to geographic variation of Sri Lankan N. naja venom. The histopathological changes in vital organs and muscle tissues following intramuscular administration of venom of N. naja were studied using BALB/c mice...
2018: Journal of Toxicology
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