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Biomolecular Concepts

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676997/prospects-of-pharmacological-interventions-to-organismal-aging
#1
Olivia Hillson, Suam Gonzalez, Charalampos Rallis
Intense research in the areas of cellular and organismal aging using diverse laboratory model systems has enriched our knowledge in the processes and the signalling pathways involved in normal and pathological conditions. The field finds itself in a position to take decisive steps towards clinical applications and interventions not only for targeted age-related diseases such as cardiovascular conditions and neurodegeneration but also for the modulation of health span and lifespan of a whole organism. Beyond nutritional interventions such as dietary restriction without malnutrition and various regimes of intermittent fasting, accumulating evidence provides promise for pharmacological interventions...
December 31, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676996/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-colon-cancer-targeted-epichlorohydrin-crosslinked-portulaca-alginate-beads
#2
Geet P Asnani, Chandrakant R Kokare
The aim of this study was to formulate a novel dual crosslinked hydrogel bead using Portulaca mucilage for colon-targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and evaluate its safety, specificity and efficacy. The ionotropic gelation technique was employed to prepare the hydrogel beads of Portulaca mucilage. For this, the mucilage was initially crosslinked with alginate and calcium ions. Epichlorohydrin was employed as a crosslinker in the second crosslinking step. The formulation was subjected to in vitro and in vivo studies to evaluate morphology, size, cytotoxicity, and organ distribution...
December 31, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30660132/beneficial-effects-of-spirogyra-neglecta-extract-on-antioxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-factors-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#3
Behzad Mesbahzadeh, Seyed Ali Rajaei, Parnia Tarahomi, Seyed Ali Seyedinia, Mehrnoush Rahmani, Fatemeh Rezamohamadi, Muhammad Azam Kakar, Nasroallah Moradi-Kor
Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of oral supplementation of Spirogyra algae on oxidative damages and inflammatory responses in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of 55 mg/kg of streptozotocin. A total of sixty-four rats were divided into eight groups of eight rats each as follows:1) non-diabetic control; 2, 3, and 4) non-diabetic rats treated with 15, 30, and 45 mg of Spirogyra algae/kg/d; 5) control diabetic; and 6, 7, and 8) diabetic rats treated with 15, 30, and 45 mg of Spirogyra algae extract...
December 31, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30481150/significance-of-bacteriophages-in-fermented-soybeans-a-review
#4
Ekachai Chukeatirote, Wallapat Phongtang, Jeongjin Kim, Ara Jo, Lae-Seung Jung, Juhee Ahn
Bacteriophages are ubiquitous and have been reported to have been found in many food products. Their presence is important as they have the ability to interact with their bacterial host in food matrices. Fermented soybean products, one of the most widely consumed ethnic foods among Asian people, are prepared naturally and include Japanese Natto, Indian Kinema, Korean Chongkukjang and Thai Thua Nao. This review highlights bacteriophages which have been isolated from fermented soybean products and also includes an overview of their diversity, occurrence as well as their significance...
November 23, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30471214/early-life-trauma-predicts-affective-phenomenology-and-the-effects-are-partly-mediated-by-staging-coupled-with-lowered-lipid-associated-antioxidant-defences
#5
Michael Maes, Ana Congio, Juliana Brum Moraes, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, Gerwyn Morris, Basant K Puri, Ana Paula Michelin, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
Background Early life trauma (ELT) may drive mood disorder phenomenology, nitro-oxidative pathways and impairments in semantic memory. There are no data regarding the impact of ELT on affective phenomenology and whether these pathways are mediated by staging or lowered lipid-associated antioxidant defences. Methods This study examined healthy controls (n=54) and patients with affective disorders including major depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders (n=118). ELT was assessed using the Child Trauma Questionnaire...
November 20, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30422795/the-rise-of-genetically-engineered-mouse-models-of-pancreatitis-a-review-of-literature
#6
Troy L Merry, Maxim S Petrov
Pancreatitis is increasingly recognized as not merely a local inflammation of the pancreas but also a disease with high frequency of systemic sequelae. Current understanding of the cellular mechanisms that trigger it and affect the development of sequelae are limited. Genetically engineered mouse models can be a useful tool to study the pathophysiology of pancreatitis. This article gives an overview of the genetically engineered mouse models that spontaneously develop pancreatitis and discusses those that most closely replicate different pancreatitis hallmarks observed in humans...
November 10, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30133417/small-heat-shock-proteins-and-neurodegeneration-recent-developments
#7
REVIEW
Nikos Kourtis, Nektarios Tavernarakis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 20, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29886452/polymorphisms-in-dna-repair-genes-increase-the-risk-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-hypertension
#8
Sambuddha Das, Sukanya Purkayastha, Hirakjyoti Roy, Anima Sinha, Yashmin Choudhury
We investigated the effect of polymorphisms in four DNA repair genes, viz. RAD18 Arg302Gln (G>A) (rs373572), XPD Asp312Asn (G>A) (rs1799793), APE1 Asp148Glu (T>G) (rs3136820), and OGG1 Ser326Cys (C>G) (rs1052133) on the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HT) in association with smoking, tobacco chewing, and alcohol consumption in a population from Northeast India. The study subjects were comprised of 70 patients suffering from both T2DM and HT and 83 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed using ARMS-PCR for XPD Asp312Asn (G>A) and PCR-CTPP for RAD18 Arg302Gln (G>A), APE1 Asp148Glu (T>G) and OGG1 Ser326Cys (C>G)...
June 9, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29856726/interferon-gamma-ifn-%C3%AE-exploring-its-implications-in-infectious-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Gunjan Kak, Mohsin Raza, Brijendra K Tiwari
A key player in driving cellular immunity, IFN-γ is capable of orchestrating numerous protective functions to heighten immune responses in infections and cancers. It can exhibit its immunomodulatory effects by enhancing antigen processing and presentation, increasing leukocyte trafficking, inducing an anti-viral state, boosting the anti-microbial functions and affecting cellular proliferation and apoptosis. A complex interplay between immune cell activity and IFN-γ through coordinated integration of signals from other pathways involving cytokines and Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) such as Interleukin (IL)-4, TNF-α, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Type-I Interferons (IFNS) etc...
May 30, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29779014/current-insights-on-use-of-growth-factors-as-therapy-for-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#10
REVIEW
Justin C Kennon, Mohamed E Awad, Norman Chutkan, John DeVine, Sadanand Fulzele
Chronic low back pain is a critical health problem and a leading cause of disability in aging populations. A major cause of low back pain is considered to be the degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Recent advances in therapeutics, particularly cell and tissue engineering, offer potential methods for inhibiting or reversing IVD degeneration, which have previously been impossible. The use of growth factors is under serious consideration as a potential therapy to enhance IVD tissue regeneration. We reviewed the role of chosen prototypical growth factors and growth factor combinations that have the capacity to improve IVD restoration...
May 19, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29779013/treatment-of-sec62-over-expressing-tumors-by-thapsigargin-and-trifluoperazine
#11
Christina Körbel, Maximilian Linxweiler, Florian Bochen, Silke Wemmert, Bernhard Schick, Markus Meyer, Hans Maurer, Michael D Menger, Richard Zimmermann, Markus Greiner
Treatment with analogues of the SERCA-inhibitor Thapsigargin is a promising new approach for a wide variety of cancer entities. However, our previous studies on various tumor cells suggested resistance of SEC62 over-expressing tumors to this treatment. Therefore, we proposed the novel concept that e.g. lung-, prostate-, and thyroid-cancer patients should be tested for SEC62 over-expression, and developed a novel therapeutic strategy for a combinatorial treatment of SEC62 over-expressing tumors. The latter was based on the observations that treatment of SEC62 over-expressing tumor cells with SEC62-targeting siRNAs showed less resistance to Thapsigargin as well as a reduction in migratory potential and that the siRNA effects can be mimicked by the Calmodulin antagonist Trifluoperazine...
May 19, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29742062/global-perspective-of-novel-therapeutic-strategies-for-the-management-of-neuroaids
#12
REVIEW
Swatantra Kumar, Vimal K Maurya, Himanshu R Dandu, Madan Lb Bhatt, Shailendra K Saxena
Among Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals, around two-thirds of patients present with neuroAIDS, where HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) are the most prevailing neurological complications. The neuropathology of neuroAIDS can be characterized by the presence of HIV infected macrophages and microglia in the brain, with the formation of multinucleated giant cells. Global predominant subtypes of HIV-1 clade B and C infections influence the differential effect of immune and neuronal dysfunctions, leading to clade-specific clinical variation in neuroAIDS patient cohorts...
May 8, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29729136/overexpression-and-pre-treatment-of-recombinant-human-secretory-leukocyte-protease-inhibitor-rhslpi-reduces-an-in-vitro-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rat-cardiac-myoblast-h9c2-cell
#13
Eakkapote Prompunt, Nitirut Nernpermpisooth, Jantira Sanit, Sarawut Kumphune
One of the major causes of cardiac cell death during myocardial ischemia is the oversecretion of protease enzymes surrounding the ischemic tissue. Therefore, inhibition of the protease activity could be an alternative strategy for preventing the expansion of the injured area. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI), by means of overexpression and treatment of recombinant human SLPI (rhSLPI) in an in vitro model. Rat cardiac myoblast (H9c2) cells overexpressing rhSLPI were generated by gene delivery using pCMV2-SLPI-HA plasmid...
May 4, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29679524/dna-testing-of-edible-crabs-from-seafood-shops-on-the-odisha-coast-india
#14
Shibananda Rath, Vikas Kumar, Shantanu Kundu, Kaomud Tyagi, Devkant Singha, Rajasree Chakraborty, Sumantika Chatterjee
Seafood consumption is highly demanding due to the important source of protein it contains, as well as being rich in omega-3 fatty acids. However, the adulteration of seafood is an alarming issue worldwide, including India. This study deals with edible crabs from seafood shops on the Odisha state coast in eastern India. The generated DNA barcode sequences successfully identified most of the studied brachyuran crab species by similarity search results in global databases. The species were also delimited by significant genetic divergence and Neighbour-Joining phylogeny...
April 20, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29509544/secretion-of-full-length-tau-or-tau-fragments-in-cell-culture-models-propagation-of-tau-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#15
REVIEW
Mar Pérez, Miguel Medina, Félix Hernández, Jesús Avila
The microtubule-associated protein Tau plays a crucial role in stabilizing neuronal microtubules. In Tauopathies, Tau loses its ability to bind microtubules, detach from them and forms intracellular aggregates. Increasing evidence in recent years supports the notion that Tau pathology spreading throughout the brain in AD and other Tauopathies is the consequence of the propagation of specific Tau species along neuroanatomically connected brain regions in a so-called "prion-like" manner. A number of steps are assumed to be involved in this process, including secretion, cellular uptake, transcellular transfer and/or seeding, although the precise mechanisms underlying propagation of Tau pathology are not fully understood yet...
March 5, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29211680/the-impact-of-water-on-the-ambivalent-behavior-and-paradoxical-phenomenon-of-the-amyloid-%C3%AE-fibril-protein
#16
REVIEW
Tamás Vajda, András Perczel
The crucial role of water in amyloid-β(Aβ) fibril proteins is evaluated in several ways including the water's thermodynamic and kinetic solvation effects. As regards the water's character, its hindered-rotation barriers are also considered. The following protein molecules considered here are: the Aβ40 (PDB ID: 2LMN), Aβ42 (PDB ID: 5KK3 and 2NAO) and the double-layered Aβ17-42 fibril. We discuss: (i) extracellular Aβ40 and Aβ42 fibril monomers exhibit an ambivalent propensity to transform into a helical form toward the N-term region and a β-strand-like form near the C-terminal; (ii) interfacial water molecules play a crucial role in protein-protein interactions, as molecular dynamics simulations have shown a significant impact on the protein-protein binding; (iii) it is shown that the spontaneous dimerization process of the Aβ42 fibril protein in water occurs via a two-step nucleation-accommodation mechanism; (iv) MD simulations of the double-layered Aβ17-42 fibril model show that the C↔C interface appears more energetically favorable than the N↔N interface due to large hydrophobic contacts; (v) the water's role in the HET-s prion and in the Aβ fibrillar aggregates; (vi) it was found that the monomer-oligomer equilibrium spontaneously dissociates into stable monomeric species when they are incubated up to 3 μm for a longer time (>1 week) in a physiological buffer...
December 20, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29197857/corrigendum-to-interleukin-33-plasma-levels-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Fereshteh Alsahebfosoul, Ilnaz Rahimmanesh, Mansour Shajarian, Masoud Etemadifar, Nahid Sedaghat, Zahra Hejazi, Shamsi Naderi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29161231/epigenetic-regulation-mechanisms-of-microrna-expression
#18
REVIEW
Sara Morales, Mariano Monzo, Alfons Navarro
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs of 18-25 nucleotides that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, development and carcinogenesis. Because of the central role of miRNAs in the regulation of gene expression, their expression needs to be tightly controlled. Here, we summarize the different mechanisms of epigenetic regulation of miRNAs, with a particular focus on DNA methylation and histone modification...
December 20, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28889118/biotechnology-of-siderophores-in-high-impact-scientific-fields
#19
REVIEW
Luis O De Serrano
Different aspects of bacterial and fungal siderophore biotechnological applications will be discussed. Areas of application presented include, but are not limited to agriculture, medicine, pharmacology, bioremediation, biodegradation and food industry. In agriculture-related applications, siderophores could be employed to enhance plant growth due to their uptake by rhizobia. Siderophores hindered the presence of plant pathogens in biocontrol strategies. Bioremediation studies on siderophores discuss mostly the mobilization of heavy metals and radionuclides; the emulsifying effects of siderophore-producing microorganisms in oil-contaminated environments are also presented...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28873065/mechanisms-of-tail-resorption-during-anuran-metamorphosis
#20
REVIEW
Yuya Nakai, Keisuke Nakajima, Yoshio Yaoita
Amphibian metamorphosis has historically attracted a good deal of scientific attention owing to its dramatic nature and easy observability. However, the genetic mechanisms of amphibian metamorphosis have not been thoroughly examined using modern techniques such as gene cloning, DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction or genomic editing. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms underlying tadpole tail resorption.
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
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