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Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism

Tandra Harish Varma, Dangudubiyyam Sri Krishna Sahitya, Santosh Dusad, Ashish Agarwal, Devi Dayal
Hypercalcemia may occur in approximately 15% of children with the Williams-Beuren syndrome. The episodes of hypercalcemic crisis usually respond well to initial hyperhydration, loop diuretics and calcitonin, bisphosphonates, or subsequent dialysis. However, many patients suffer from recurrent or persistent hypercalcemia after the resolution of the hypercalcemic crisis. Although hypercalcemia in the Williams-Beuren syndrome is generally considered transient, it may last for several months, result in significant morbidity, and compromise physical growth...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Anna Wysoczańska-Klaczyńska, Aleksandra Ślęzak, Marta Hetman, Ewa Barg
Vitamin D activity is controlled by its receptor (VDR) located in many cells of the body. The presence of VDR in numerous cellular pathways suggests its important role in the etiology and development of many diseases. Increased risk of obesity, metabolic disturbances, bone mass disturbances and neoplasia among certain VDR alleles has been proven. The importance of VDR in the etiopathology of obesity is associated with the occurrence of polymorphisms: Fok1, Bsm1, Apa1, Taq1. VDR expression in adipocytes plays a role in the regulation of energy metabolism and the induction of obesity...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Monika Beszterda, Rafał Frański
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are heterogenous in structure and include synthetic organic compounds such as pharmaceutical agents, plant protection products, plastics, plasticizers, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, flame-retardants, and antifoulant paint additive, as well, as natural plant-derived EDCs termed phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens. Children and adults are exposed daily to EDCs during drinking contaminated water, eating, breathing polluted air or direct contact with chemicals. Prenatal and perinatal period, infancy, childhood, and puberty are critical time of development during which maturing systems are particularly sensitive to hormonal disruptions (small elimination of xenobiotics)...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Wojciech Strojny, Dorota Drożdż, Kinga Klus-Kwiecińska, Danuta Pietrys, Walentyna Balwierz, Szymon Skoczeń
INTRODUCTION: In patients who have undergone hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), the metabolic syndrome may develop without obesity defined by Body Mass Index (BMI). AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to compare body fat parameters measured using bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and using standard parameters of obesity in patients treated with HCT and healthy controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We compared body fat (BF) and body fat percentage (BF%) measured using BIA in 44 patients before HCT and 28 patients after HCT, versus 26 controls...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Grzegorz Bielec, Anna Goździejewska
INTRODUCTION: Quality and quantity of food, consumed by a child have a great influence on his biological development. Dietary habits of children often do not meet criteria suggested by health institutions and schools. Nutrition of a child, involved in competitive sport should be rationally planned and obeyed. AIM: Comparison of dietary habits among two groups children: practicing swimming and non-athletes. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Research group consisted of 11-12-year-old children attending the same public primary school...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Joanna Ratajczak, Dominika Raducha, Anita Horodnicka-Józwa, Agnieszka Kilian, Marta Demiaszkiewicz, Klaudia Bartoszewicz, Tomasz Jackowski, Justyna Szmit-Domagalska, Agnieszka Biczysko-Mokosa, Katarzyna Marcinkiewicz, Teresa Adamczyk, Irmina Gapińska, Mieczysław Walczak, Elżbieta Petriczko
INTRODUCTION: Increasing incidence of excess weight and poor physical fitness of children validates the need for preventive actions. The Szczecin municipality (gmina Szczecin) runs the "Odważna ósemka" ("The Brave Eight") program - Prevention of excess weight and obesity in 8 and 9-year-old children attending elementary school in Szczecin, Poland. AIM: The assessment of physical fitness as well as the prevalence and intensity of excess body weight and blood pressure rates among the 8 and 9-year-old children attending elementary school in Szczecin, Poland...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Obeid Shafi, Virendra Kumar
INTRODUCTION: The optimal fluid therapy in children with DKA is a matter of debate, especially if we take into account its association with cerebral edema, the most important complication. Hypertonic Saline Solution is used in the treatment of cerebral edema, and also has been used for volume resuscitation in children with shock. AIM OF STUDY: To compare the effects of 3% saline and 0.9% saline solutions on changes in vital parameters, sodium and chloride levels, lactate and pH; time needed for the correction of hyperglycemia; time needed for the control of ketoacidosis and incidence of cerebral edema...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Joanna Roguska, Agnieszka Zubkiewicz-Kucharska
Chemerin (CHEM) is a protein synthesized primarily by adiposse tissue and liver. CHEM acts both paracrine and autocrine, stimulating adipocytes maturation and differentiation. In addition to its hormonal function, CHEM acts as a chemoattractant for immune cells, regulating the innate and acquired inflammatory response. Its pleiotropic properties also affect the carbohydrates and lipids metabolism. High concentrations of CHEM are observed in people with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia - components of the metabolic syndrome...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Ewa Otto-Buczkowska, Karolina Grzyb, Natalia Jainta
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) usually arises during puberty and is marked by insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperandrogenism. The principle is that the diagnosis of PCOS must be based on the presence of at least two of the following three criteria: chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism (clinical or biological), and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS in adolescents is particularly difficult due to developmental problems in this group. Many symptoms of PCOS, including acne, menstrual irregularities, and hyperinsulinemia, are common in normal puberty...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Wojciech Pałasz, Karolina Ziora-Jakutowicz, Joanna Oświęcimska, Piotr Gorczyca, Katarzyna Ziora
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: 1. Determination of the state of nutrition in the examined population of 18-year-old girls. 2. Retrospective determination of the state of nutrition of the same girls when they were 14 years old. 3. The answer to the question whether the examined group exhibits the tendency to consolidate abnormalities in terms of the body weight over time. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 1047 female students of secondary schools, aged 18, were subjected to anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, BMI, BMI-SDS) and took part in a survey questionnaire devoted to their eating habits...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Grażyna Deja, Małgorzata Kłeczek, Miron Chumięcki, Alina Strzała-Kłeczek, Rafał Deja, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot
THE AIM OF THE STUDY: was to evaluate the usefulness of Flash FreeStyle Libre in glycemic control in children during summer camp on the basis of the participants' completed questionnaire and on the basis of the assessment o the suitability of the system performed by medical staff based on a comparative analysis: glycemia by sensor and glucometer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A study using the new Flash FreeStyle Libre glycemic control system was conducted at a seaside summer camp for children with diabetes at the seaside...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Aneta Bielińska, Agnieszka Niemiec, Marta Bryśkiewicz, Krystyna Wójcik, Liliana Majkowska
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate metabolic control in insulin pump therapy (IPT) in late adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 86 subjects with type 1 diabetes, and included 45 patients aged 16-19 years (mean 17.6±1.2) treated in a pediatric outpatient clinic and 41 subjects aged 19-26 years (mean 22.8±2.2) treated in an adult outpatient clinic of the same university hospital, who received the same refund of IPT...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Maciej Flader, Dominika Zalas, Marek Niedziela
According to the growth hormone - insulin-like growth factor 1 axis (GH/IGF1 axis) theory, the actions of GH on promoting growth are mediated by IGF1. In the blood, IGF1, insulin-like growth factor 1 binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and acid-labile subunit (ALS) form ternary complexes, hence the accumulation of IGF1. We report a case of 10-year-old male with short stature due to GH deficiency diagnosed with hypopituitarism. Therapy with recombinant human GH (rhGH) was initiated at 11 years and 4 months. After twenty three months on treatment clinical effects were as follows: increase in the patient's height by 19...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Tomasz Jackowski, Elżbieta Petriczko, Anita Horodnicka-Józwa, Mieczysław Walczak
Thyroid hormone resistance syndrome, also known as Refetoff syndrome, is a rare disease associated with decreased reaction of body tissues to thyroid hormones (TH). Patients with Refetoff syndrome tend to have elevated free TH concentrations and normal or inadequately elevated TSH (caused by thyrotropic cells in the pituitary gland insensitivity to TH). The cause of the disease is the mutation in TR-beta receptor gene. Depending on the clinical presentation generalised and pituitary resistance to TH are described...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Beata Wikiera, Agnieszka Zubkiewicz-Kucharska, Julita Nocoń-Bohusz, Anna Noczyńska
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disease. Depending on the used criteria the prevalence of PCOS ranges from 6 to 20%. It is necessary to exclude diseases leading to androgen excess. The participation of genetic and environmental factors is considered in the etiology of PCOS development. The highest rate of incidence of PCOS is assessed in girls who were born SGA and developed premature adrenarche later in life.The free androgen index (FAI) is concerned as the most sensitive marker of hyperandrogenaemia in PCOS although insulin resistance, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH),and deficiency of vitamin D may intensify metabolic disturbances...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Anna Wysoczańska, Aleksandra Ślęzak, Ewa Barg
Due to increasing incidence of cancer disease and the searching for new, aggressive methods of therapy, more attention is focusing on applied treatment consequences. The specificity of oncological drugs allows to destroy cancer cells, simultaneously destroying and disrupting the functioning of healthy tissues. Side effects concern infertility, urolotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity or bone marrow suppression. Chemotherapy can also be affected on physiological function of movement system and the skeleton construction...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Anna Wołoszyn-Durkiewicz, Magdalena Żalińska, Agnieszka Brandt, Małgorzata Myśliwiec, Maja Ściesińska, Joanna Kuhn
INTRODUCTION: Two forms of diabetes can be distinguished during pregnancy: gestational diabetes and pregestational diabetes, which exists prior to pregnancy. In young women, the most common form of pregestational diabetes is type 1 diabetes (T1D). Regarding the decreasing age of sexual initiation and health risks for the mother and child related to hyperglycemia, it is essential that adolescents with T1D possess proper knowledge of pregnancy planning and diabetes management in case of pregnancy...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Halyna Pavlyshyn, Victoriya Furdela, Tetyana Kovalchuk, Nataliya Haliyash, Nataliya Luchyshyn
INTRODUCTION: Systemic hypertension (SH) is a major long-term health condition and is the leading cause of premature death among adults throughout the world, including developed, developing, and lesser developed countries.In recent years there has been a progressive increase in SH among children and adolescents. Epidemiological studies demonstrated an overall increase in the prevalence of hypertension. SH is rarely recorded isolated and is often combined with obesity or the metabolic syndrome...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Anna Rorbach-Dolata, Agnieszka Piwowar
BACKGROUND: One of the most important worldwide health problems of the 21st century is an increasing incidence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Morover, it is indicated that both these disturbances are connected with an increased incidence of Alzheimer's Disease. The literature data indicate that not only disturbed glucose concentration, especially hyperglycemia, is a crucial factor of the development of dementia but those data also emphasize that hyperphysiological concentrations of insulin and insulin resistance of brain tissue is an increasingly significant factor...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Joanna Zarębska, Katarzyna Musioł, Paulina Brożek, Adriana Zybała, Patrycja Szerląg, Grażyna Sobol-Milejska, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune disease, caused by antibodies against platelet glycoproteins, which provoke platelet destruction and inhibit platelet production in bone marrow. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is an acquired autoimmune disease in witch beta cells are destroyed by autoantibodies. Patient with T1DM since the age of 6, was treated by intensive functional insulin therapy by insulin pump. At the age of 14,5 he was also diagnosed with ITP. Due to the short effect of immunoglobulin therapy, glucocorticoids were introduced...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
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