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Hormones & Cancer

Aura D Herrera-Martínez, Richard A Feelders, Wouter W de Herder, Justo P Castaño, María Ángeles Gálvez Moreno, Fadime Dogan, Rosanna van Dungen, Peter van Koetsveld, Leo J Hofland
Prolonged remission of hypercortisolism with steroidogenesis inhibitors has been described in patients with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. The anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of ketoconazole in human cancer cells was previously suggested. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of ketoconazole on ACTH-producing and non-ACTH-producing neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cell lines. The effects of ketoconazole alone, and in combination with somatostatin analogs, were evaluated in two human cell lines: DMS-79 (ectopic ACTH-producing small cell lung carcinoma) and BON-1 (human pancreatic NET)...
May 18, 2019: Hormones & Cancer
Shengyang Qiu, Stella Nikolaou, Francesca Fiorentino, Shahnawaz Rasheed, Ara Darzi, David Cunningham, Paris Tekkis, Christos Kontovounisios
Earlier detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) results in improved survival. Existing non-invasive biomarkers have suboptimal accuracy. Neurotensin (NTS) is involved in CRC carcinogenesis. This study evaluated the diagnostic potential of plasma NTS for colorectal polyps and cancers. Participants were selected based on national CRC referral guidelines. All subjects underwent colonoscopy. Average plasma concentrations were compared across different diagnostic groups. Predictors for detecting colorectal neoplasia were identified...
May 15, 2019: Hormones & Cancer
Rita Indirli, Emanuele Ferrante, Elisa Sala, Claudia Giavoli, Giovanna Mantovani, Maura Arosio
Natural course of prolactinomas after menopause is not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to compare recurrence rate after cabergoline withdrawal in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal women with microprolactinoma. Sixty-two women with microprolactinoma treated with cabergoline for at least 1 year and followed for 2 years after drug withdrawal were retrospectively selected. Patients were divided into two groups: 48 patients stopped cabergoline before menopause ("PRE" group), while 14 after menopause ("POST" group)...
April 18, 2019: Hormones & Cancer
Nicole C Lorona, Linda S Cook, Mei-Tzu C Tang, Deirdre A Hill, Charles L Wiggins, Christopher I Li
Oral contraceptive use is a well-established risk factor for breast cancer and is common among reproductive-aged women in the USA. Its relationship with less common, more aggressive, molecular subtypes is less clear. A population-based case-case analysis was conducted comparing three less common molecular subtypes to luminal A breast cancer among 1701 premenopausal cases aged 21-49 diagnosed with a first primary invasive breast cancer between 2004 and 2015. Medical record reviews and structured interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on oral contraceptive use...
April 15, 2019: Hormones & Cancer
Jose R W Martínez, Sergio Vargas-Salas, Soledad Urra Gamboa, Estefanía Muñoz, José Miguel Domínguez, Augusto León, Nicolás Droppelmann, Antonieta Solar, Mark Zafereo, F Christopher Holsinger, Hernán E González
The use of BRAFV600E and RET/PTC1 as biomarkers to guide the extent of surgery in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) remains controversial. We assessed the combined use of demographic data (sex and age) with mRNA expression levels and/or mutational status (BRAFV600E and RET/PTC1) to identify potential subsets of patients with aggressive histopathological features (lymph node metastases and extrathyroidal extension). In a cohort of 126 consecutive patients, BRAFV600E and RET/PTC1 mutations were found in 52 and 18%, respectively...
March 22, 2019: Hormones & Cancer
Nur Ozten, Katherine Vega, Joachim Liehr, Xi Huang, Lori Horton, Ercole L Cavalieri, Eleanor G Rogan, Maarten C Bosland
Androgens are thought to cause prostate cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Data from animal studies suggest that for androgens to cause prostate cancer, they must be aromatized to estrogen and act in concert with estrogen metabolites. We tested the hypothesis that androgen-receptor and estrogen receptor-mediated effects of androgen and estrogen are necessary, as well as genotoxicity of estrogen metabolites. NBL rats were treated with androgenic and estrogenic compounds for 16-75 weeks through slow-release silastic implants or pellets...
March 16, 2019: Hormones & Cancer
Adriana C Rodriguez, Zannel Blanchard, Kathryn A Maurer, Jason Gertz
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in the developed world, and it is one of the few cancer types that is becoming more prevalent and leading to more deaths in the USA each year. The majority of endometrial tumors are considered to be hormonally driven, where estrogen signaling through estrogen receptor α (ER) acts as an oncogenic signal. The major risk factors and some treatment options for endometrial cancer patients emphasize a key role for estrogen signaling in the disease. Despite the strong connections between estrogen signaling and endometrial cancer, important molecular aspects of ER function remain poorly understood; however, progress is being made in our understanding of estrogen signaling in endometrial cancer...
February 2, 2019: Hormones & Cancer
Shafinaz Chowdhury, Lenore K Beitel, Rose Lumbroso, Enrico O Purisima, Miltiadis Paliouras, Mark Trifiro
The androgen-directed treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) is fraught with the recurrent profile of failed treatment due to drug resistance and must be addressed if we are to provide an effective therapeutic option. The most singular difficulty in the treatment of PCa is the failure to respond to classical androgen withdrawal or androgen blockade therapy, which often develops as the malignancy incurs genetic alterations and gain-of-function somatic mutations in the androgen receptor (AR). Physical cellular damaging therapeutic agents, such as radiation or activatable heat-generating transducers would circumvent classical "anti-functional" biological resistance, but to become ultimately effective would require directed application modalities...
February 2019: Hormones & Cancer
Yann Neuzillet, Jean-Pierre Raynaud, Jean-François Dreyfus, Camélia Radulescu, Mathieu Rouanne, Marc Schneider, Sylvie Krish, Morgan Rouprêt, Sarah J Drouin, Eva Comperat, Marc Galiano, Xavier Cathelineau, Pierre Validire, Vincent Molinié, Jean Fiet, Franck Giton, Thierry Lebret, Henry Botto
Failure rates after first-line treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa) treatment remain high. Improvements to patient selection and identification of at-risk patients are central to reducing mortality. We aimed to determine if cancer aggressiveness correlates with androgen levels in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for localized PCa. We performed a prospective, multicenter cohort study between June 2013 and June 2016, involving men with localized PCa scheduled to undergo radical prostatectomy...
February 2019: Hormones & Cancer
Zhiqing Duan, Jiangong Lu
Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), produced by specific cancers such as lung cancer, profoundly influences the formation of bone metastatic lesions via the "vicious cycle" of tumor growth and bone resorption. The changes in gene expression regulated by the abnormal microenvironment components play key roles in maintaining the biological characteristics of cells, such as the organotropism of cancer metastasis. A recent study has shown that L-kynurenine (L-Kyn), one of microenvironment components, induced a substantial increase in the metastasis of lung cancer cells...
January 28, 2019: Hormones & Cancer
Rosalía I Cordo Russo, María F Chervo, Santiago Madera, Eduardo H Charreau, Patricia V Elizalde
Membrane overexpression of ErbB-2 (MErbB-2), a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, occurs in 15-20% of breast cancers (BC) and constitutes a therapeutic target in this BC subtype (ErbB-2-positive). Although MErbB-2-targeted therapies have significantly improved patients' clinical outcome, resistance to available drugs is still a major issue in the clinic. Lack of accurate biomarkers for predicting responses to anti-ErbB-2 drugs at the time of diagnosis is also an important unresolved issue...
January 17, 2019: Hormones & Cancer
Tobias Else
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
Courtney L Andersen, Michelle M Boisen, Matthew J Sikora, Tianzhou Ma, George Tseng, Swati Suryawanshi, Anda Vlad, Esther Elishaev, Robert P Edwards, Steffi Oesterreich
To investigate changes in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling during progression of endometriosis to endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC) as a driver of malignant transformation. We procured tissue samples of normal endometrium, endometriosis (benign, atypical, concurrent with EAOC), and EAOC. We evaluated expression of a 236-gene signature of estrogen signaling. ANOVA and unsupervised clustering were used to identify gene expression profiles across disease states. These profiles were compared to profiles of estrogen regulation in cancer models from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)...
December 2018: Hormones & Cancer
Waleeporn Kaewlert, Chadamas Sakonsinsiri, Nisana Namwat, Kanlayanee Sawanyawisuth, Piti Ungarreevittaya, Narong Khuntikeo, Napat Armartmuntree, Raynoo Thanan
CYP19A1, also called aromatase, is a key enzyme for converting androgens to estrogens of estrogen synthesis. Elevated serum estrogen and high expression levels of estrogen-related proteins are found in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA; bile duct cancer). However, the expression of CYP19A1 in relation to estrogen-related proteins, including estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and GPR30) and an estrogen response protein (TFF1), has never been explored in CCA. In this study, we investigated the expressions of CYP19A1 and estrogen-related proteins in CCA tissues (n = 74; 51 males and 23 females) using immunohistochemistry...
December 2018: Hormones & Cancer
Yuzhe Yang, Jie Ying Chan, Nuri A Temiz, Douglas Yee
Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling systems regulate breast cancer growth, progression, and metastasis. The insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS1/2) transduce signaling from the type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR) and insulin receptor (InR) to mediate the biological effects of receptor activation. In breast cancer, IRS-1 plays a critical role in cancer cell proliferation while IRS-2 is associated with motility and metastasis. NT157, a small-molecule tyrphostin, downregulates IRS proteins in several model systems...
December 2018: Hormones & Cancer
Tung-Cheng Chang, Yu-Tang Chin, André Wendindondé Nana, Shwu-Huey Wang, Yu-Min Liao, Yi-Ru Chen, Ya-Jung Shih, Chun A Changou, Yu-Chen Sh Yang, Kuan Wang, Jacqueline Whang-Peng, Liang-Shun Wang, Steven C Stain, Ai Shih, Hung-Yun Lin, Chih-Hsiung Wu, Paul J Davis
Drug resistance complicates the clinical use of gefitinib. Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) and nano-diamino-tetrac (NDAT) have been shown in vitro and in xenografts to have antiproliferative/angiogenic properties and to potentiate antiproliferative activity of other anticancer agents. In the current study, we investigated the effects of NDAT on the anticancer activities of gefitinib in human colorectal cancer cells. β-Galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6Gal1) catalyzes EGFR sialylation that is associated with gefitinib resistance in colorectal cancers, and this was also investigated...
December 2018: Hormones & Cancer
Seong-Jang Kim, Sang-Woo Lee, Shin Young Jeong, Kyoungjune Pak, Keunyoung Kim
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of F-18 Fluorocholine (FCH) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland in patients with hyperparathyroidism (HPT) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE database, from the earliest available date of indexing through April 30, 2018, were searched for studies evaluating the diagnostic performance of F-18 FCH PET/CT for localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland in patients with HPT...
December 2018: Hormones & Cancer
Yi X Chan, Matthew W Knuiman, Mark L Divitini, David J Handelsman, John P Beilby, Bu B Yeap
Androgens, notably testosterone (T), have been implicated in development of several common cancers and prostate cancer; however, precise mechanisms remain unclear. This study assessed prospective associations of serum T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol (E2) with overall cancer (excluding skin cancer), prostate, colorectal and lung cancer risk in 1574 community-dwelling men aged 25-84 years. Sex hormones were assayed using mass spectrometry and men were followed for 20 years with outcomes ascertained using data linkage...
December 2018: Hormones & Cancer
Konstantinos Segkos, Kyle Porter, Leigha Senter, Matthew D Ringel, Fadi A Nabhan
There are limited data on the role of neck ultrasound (US) in the surveillance of patients with follicular thyroid cancer (FTC). Here, we analyze the likelihood of US to find structural disease in patients with FTC and evaluate if initial American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk stratification and the response to therapy categories [the latter based on thyroglobulin (Tg) levels] modify that likelihood. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 32 patients with FTC in our institution. We included all patients with well-differentiated FTC who underwent total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment without neck structural disease at the time of RAI and with Tg and US at least 6 months after RAI...
December 2018: Hormones & Cancer
Kayoung Lee, Jung Eun Yoo, Tuong Linh Nguyen, John Llewelyn Hopper, Yun-Mi Song
Mammographic density (MD) is a strong independent risk factor for breast cancer. It has been suggested that breast cancer is related to the exposure to circulating sex hormones. However, relations between MD and hormones have been inconsistent. In addition, such relations are mainly evaluated in Western populations. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 396 cancer-free postmenopausal Korean women who had never used hormone replacement therapy. We assayed estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels...
December 2018: Hormones & Cancer
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