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Kelly Birtwell, Kate Williams, Harm van Marwijk, Christopher J Armitage, David Sheffield
Mindfulness has transdiagnostic applicability, but little is known about how people first begin to practice mindfulness and what sustains practice in the long term. The aim of the present research was to explore the experiences of a large sample of people practicing mindfulness, including difficulties with practice and associations between formal and informal mindfulness practice and wellbeing. In this cross-sectional study, 218 participants who were practicing mindfulness or had practiced in the past completed an online survey about how they first began to practice mindfulness, difficulties and supportive factors for continuing to practice, current wellbeing, and psychological flexibility...
2019: Mindfulness
Birgit Mayer, Marike G Polak, Danielle Remmerswaal
In two studies, a possible mediation effect was tested of cognitive interpretation bias in the relation between respectively dispositional mindfulness and acceptance, on the one hand, and symptoms of depression and anxiety, on the other hand. An undergraduate student sample ( N  = 133; 86% female, M age  = 19.8) and a convenience community sample ( N  = 186; 66% female, M age  = 36.5) were examined by means of an online questionnaire measuring dispositional mindfulness (FFMQ-SF; Study 1) and acceptance (AAQ-II; Study 2), anxiety (STAI-trait) and depressive (BDI-II) symptoms, and interpretation bias (with the interpretation bias task, IBT)...
2019: Mindfulness
Fuschia M Sirois, Jameson K Hirsch
Emerging evidence indicates self-compassion can be beneficial for medical populations and for medical adherence; yet, research to date has not fully examined the reasons for this association. This study examined the association of dispositional self-compassion to adherence across five medical samples and tested the extent to which perceived stress accounted for this association. Five medical samples (total N  = 709), including fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and cancer patients, recruited from various sources, completed online surveys...
2019: Mindfulness
Ai Kubo, Andrea Altschuler, Elaine Kurtovich, Sarah Hendlish, Cecile A Laurent, Tatjana Kolevska, Yan Li, Andrew Avins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Mindfulness
Michael B Schultz
Whether one kind of mindfulness applies to all situations or only some (i.e., scope) is controversial. Eating may not be an everyday behavior subsumed under everyday mindfulness. To rigorously test the efficacy of mindfulness-based weight loss interventions, researchers must use scales that measure the type of mindfulness manipulated by the intervention. The mixed findings of mindfulness-based weight loss intervention studies may be related to the lack of conceptual congruence (i.e., the pairing of interventions and measures of the same scope)...
August 2018: Mindfulness
Amanda J Shallcross, Tanya M Spruill
This study examined the potential buffering role of trait mindfulness in the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms in a community-based sample of racial and ethnic minority adults. Analyses conducted on 97 participants indicated that self-reported trait mindfulness moderated the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Individuals low in mindfulness experienced elevated depressive symptoms at high levels of discrimination. However, individuals high in mindfulness reported lower depressive symptoms at high levels of discrimination...
August 2018: Mindfulness
Christina M Luberto, Nina Shinday, Rhayun Song, Lisa L Philpotts, Elyse R Park, Gregory L Fricchione, Gloria Y Yeh
Increased attention has focused on methods to increase empathy, compassion, and pro-social behavior. Meditation practices have traditionally been used to cultivate pro-social outcomes, and recently investigations have sought to evaluate their efficacy for these outcomes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of meditation for pro-social emotions and behavior. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and Cochrane databases (inception-April 2016) using the search terms: mindfulness, meditation, mind-body therapies, tai chi, yoga, MBSR, MBCT, empathy, compassion, love, altruism, sympathy, or kindness...
June 2018: Mindfulness
Tracy-Leigh McIntyre, Diane Elkonin, Margo de Kooker, Jessica F Magidson
Despite the recent growth of mindfulness research worldwide, there remains little research examining the application of mindfulness-based interventions in resource-limited, international settings. This study examined the application of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for HIV-infected individuals in South Africa, where rates of HIV are highest in the world. Mixed methods were used to examine the following over a three-month follow up: (1) feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary adaptation of MBSR for this new context; and (2) effects of MBSR on immune functioning, self-reported mindfulness (MAAS, FFMQ), depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS-21)...
June 2018: Mindfulness
Christina M Luberto, Elyse R Park, Janice H Goodman
Anxiety is common during pregnancy and associated with poorer outcomes for mother and child. Our single-arm pilot study of an eight-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) intervention for pregnant women with elevated anxiety showed significant pre- to post-intervention improvements in anxiety, depression, worry, mindfulness, and self-compassion. It remains unclear whether these improvements are maintained post-partum and whether amount of formal mindfulness practice is correlated with outcomes. The current study examined whether 1) improvements in psychosocial outcomes were maintained three months postpartum; 2) women were adherent to formal practice recommendations; and 3) amount of mindfulness practice was correlated with outcomes...
June 2018: Mindfulness
Na Zhang, Jessie H Rudi, Osnat Zamir, Abigail H Gewirtz
Mindfulness has drawn increased attention in prevention programs targeting parents. Commonly, mindfulness-based programs are provided to reduce parental stress and improve child outcomes. Less often, researchers incorporate a mindfulness-informed approach, integrating a low dose of mindfulness exercises into an existing evidence-based parent training model. Little is known about participant engagement with mindfulness exercises in such programs. This non-experimental study focuses on families who are at risk for impaired parenting due to the unique stressor of a parent's deployment to war...
June 2018: Mindfulness
Adam W Hanley, Anne K Baker, Eric L Garland
Relationships between dispositional mindfulness and the personality metatraits, stability and plasticity, remain unexplored despite continued efforts to more accurately characterize associations between dispositional mindfulness and personality. The metatraits are theorized to constitute basic requirements for biological survival and their expression is believed to be a strong determinant of well-being. As such, this study used path analysis to explore associations between dispositional mindfulness, the metatraits and psychological well-being in a sample of 403 American adults...
June 2018: Mindfulness
Jeffrey Proulx, Raina Croff, Barry Oken, Carolyn M Aldwin, Crystal Fleming, Dessa Bergen-Cico, Thao Le, Misbah Noorani
As many health disparities in American minority communities (AMCs) are stress-related, there has been an increased interest in the development of mindfulness programs as potential stress reduction measures in these communities. However, the bulk of the extant literature on mindfulness research and mindfulness interventions is based upon experiences with the larger White community. The intent of this commentary is to share a framework that includes key cultural considerations for conducting research and developing culturally-salient mindfulness programs with AMCs...
April 2018: Mindfulness
Adrian J Bravo, Matthew R Pearson, Michelle L Kelley
Previous research on trait mindfulness facets using person-centered analyses (e.g., latent profile analysis [LPA]) has identified four distinct mindfulness profiles among college students: a high mindfulness group (high on all facets of the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire [FFMQ]), a judgmentally observing group (highest on observing, but low on non-judging of inner experience and acting with awareness), a non-judgmentally aware group (high on non-judging of inner experience and acting with awareness, but very low on observing), and a low mindfulness group (low on all facets of the FFMQ)...
February 2018: Mindfulness
Adrian J Bravo, Matthew R Pearson, Adam D Wilson, Katie Witkiewitz
Previous research has found inconsistent relationships between trait mindfulness and state mindfulness. To extend previous research, we sought to examine the unique associations between self-report trait mindfulness and state mindfulness by levels of meditation experience (meditation-naïve vs. meditation-experienced) and by mindfulness induction (experimentally induced mindful state vs. control group). We recruited 299 college students (93 with previous mindfulness meditation experience) to participate in an experiment that involved the assessment of five facets of trait mindfulness (among other constructs), followed by a mindfulness induction (vs...
February 2018: Mindfulness
Han Suelmann, André Brouwers, Evelien Snippe
Despite the apparent benefits of being mindful, people are often not very mindful. There seem to be forces that drive people toward as well as away from mindfulness. These forces are conceptualised in terms of competition for scarce attentional resources. To explore these forces and to test this framework, an experience sampling study was performed among people with an explicit intention to be mindful and an ongoing practice to examine concurrent associations between state mindfulness and daily life experiences that may affect it...
2018: Mindfulness
Joon Hwan Jang, Jae-Hun Kim, Je-Yeon Yun, Soo-Hee Choi, Seung Chan An, Do-Hyung Kang
The majority of meditation involves focusing attention on internal events or sensations and becoming aware of emotions. The insula cortex, through a functional connection with the prefrontal cortex and other brain regions, plays a key role in integrating external sensory information with internal bodily state signals and emotional awareness. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the resting-state functional connectivity of the insula with other brain regions in meditation practitioners and control subjects...
2018: Mindfulness
Dawn Querstret, Mark Cropley, Chris Fife-Schaw
Mindfulness interventions have been shown to be effective for health and wellbeing, and delivering mindfulness programmes online may increase accessibility and reduce waiting times and associated costs; however, research assessing the effectiveness of online interventions is lacking. We sought to: (1) assess the effects of an online mindfulness intervention on perceived stress, depression and anxiety; (2) assess different facets of mindfulness (i.e. acting with awareness, describing, non-judging and non-reacting) as mechanisms of change and (3) assess whether the effect of the intervention was maintained over time...
2018: Mindfulness
Anna Leyland, Lisa-Marie Emerson, Georgina Rowse
Several sessions of mindfulness practice can exert positive gains for child executive functions (EF); however, the evidence for effects of a mindfulness induction, on EF for adults, is mixed and this effect has not been tested in children. The immediate effect of an age appropriate 3-min mindfulness induction on EF of children aged 4-7 years was tested. Participants ( N  = 156) were randomly assigned to a mindfulness induction or dot-to-dot activity comparison group before completing four measures of EF...
2018: Mindfulness
William Van Gordon, Edo Shonin, Thomas J Dunn, David Sheffield, Javier Garcia-Campayo, Mark D Griffiths
Near-death experiences (NDEs) are life transformational events that are increasingly being subjected to empirical research. However, to date, no study has investigated the phenomenon of a meditation-induced near-death experience (MI-NDE) that is referred to in ancient Buddhist texts. Given that some advanced Buddhist meditators can induce NDEs at a pre-planned point in time, the MI-NDE may make NDEs more empirically accessible and thus advance understanding into the psychology of death-related processes. The present study recruited 12 advanced Buddhist meditators and compared the MI-NDE against two other meditation practices (i...
2018: Mindfulness
Marcos Economides, Janis Martman, Megan J Bell, Brad Sanderson
Mindfulness training, which involves observing thoughts and feelings without judgment or reaction, has been shown to improve aspects of psychosocial well-being when delivered via in-person training programs such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Less is known about the efficacy of digital training mediums, such as smartphone apps, which are rapidly rising in popularity. In this study, novice meditators were randomly allocated to an introductory mindfulness meditation program or to a psychoeducational audiobook control featuring an introduction to the concepts of mindfulness and meditation...
2018: Mindfulness
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