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Cognitive Neuroscience

Richard J O'Connor, Shane Lindsay, Emily Mather, Kevin J Riggs
Cooper, Greve and Henson (2018) caution restraint before accepting that a fast mapping (FM) process exists in adults. We welcome this, but would also add that the original rationale for studying FM in adults is not currently supported by developmental research. Despite the claims of several adult FM researchers, there is little evidence from developmental word learning research for a special hippocampus-independent FM process critical for children's word learning.
January 24, 2019: Cognitive Neuroscience
Morton Ann Gernsbacher, Emily Morson
Fast Mapping is a laboratory task that typically involves an experimenter creating a nonsense name for an object the participant has never seen before. We demonstrate how researchers' use of the term Fast Mapping has extended beyond its core meaning as a laboratory task to more abstractly denote an internal process, a skill that children employ in their everyday lives, and an inherent capacity. We argue that such over-extension is problematic.
January 22, 2019: Cognitive Neuroscience
Hyemin Han, Joonsuk Park
We composed an R-based script for Image-based Bayesian random-effect meta-analysis of previous fMRI studies. It meta-analyzes second-level test results of the studies and calculates Bayes Factors indicating whether the effect in each voxel is significantly different from zero. We compared results from Bayesian and classical meta-analyses by examining the overlap between the result from each method and that created by NeuroSynth as the target. As an example, we analyzed previous fMRI studies focusing on working memory extracted from NeuroSynth...
January 19, 2019: Cognitive Neuroscience
Claudia Poch, Ana Prieto, José Antonio Hinojosa, Pablo Campo
The accumulation of similar interfering experiences hampers our ability to retrieve information. To reduce interference, pattern separation allows the separation similar memories and build detailed memory representations that are less easily confused. To investigate mnemonic interference, previous research has used a mnemonic discrimination paradigm in which the participants have to mnemonically discriminate between two similar items. Unique from previous studies, electrophysiological brain activity was recorded while 26 healthy participants performed a visual mnemonic discrimination task in which we parametrically manipulated the number of studied exemplars from each category...
January 19, 2019: Cognitive Neuroscience
Cassandra Morrison, Farooq Kamal, Vanessa Taler
Variations in brain activation may lead to individual differences in working memory performance. Such differences may account for contradictory findings in the literature relating to age-related changes in neural activation during working memory tasks. In the present study, thirty-nine young adults (aged 18-30) and 34 older adults (aged 65+) completed an n-back task while their electroencephalography, accuracy, and reaction time was recorded. They were then categorized as high or low performers. High performers had larger P3b and parietal P200 amplitudes and smaller parietal N200 amplitudes than low performers...
January 15, 2019: Cognitive Neuroscience
Jamie Ward
For some people, simple sensory stimuli (e.g. noises, patterns) may reliably evoke intense and aversive reactions. This is common in certain clinical groups (e.g. autism) and varies greatly in the neurotypical population. This paper critically evaluates the concept of individual differences in sensory sensitivity, explores its possible underlying neurobiological basis, and presents a roadmap for future research in this area. A distinction is made between subjective sensory sensitivity (self-reported symptoms); neural sensory sensitivity (the degree of neural activity induced by sensory stimuli); and behavioural sensory sensitivity (detection and discrimination of sensory stimuli)...
December 10, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Megan Boudewyn, Brooke M Roberts, Eda Mizrak, Charan Ranganath, Cameron S Carter
This study examined the effects of stimulation targeting dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on behavioral and neural oscillatory markers of proactive cognitive control in healthy adults. We hypothesized that active stimulation targeting the DLPFC would enhance proactive control compared to sham, leading to changes in the pattern of error rates and gamma-band power on the Dot Pattern Expectancy (DPX) task. We recorded EEG while participants completed the DPX, after receiving either 20 minutes of active DLPFC stimulation at 2 mA or sham stimulation in a counterbalanced within-participants design...
November 22, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Elisa Cooper, Andrea Greve, Richard N Henson
Conventional memory theory proposes that the hippocampus is initially responsible for encoding new information, before this responsibility is gradually transferred to the neocortex. Therefore, a report in 2011 by Sharon et al. of hippocampal-independent learning in humans was notable. These authors reported normal learning of new object-name associations under a Fast Mapping (FM) procedure in adults with hippocampal damage, who were amnesic according to more conventional explicit memorisation procedures. FM is an incidental learning paradigm, inspired by vocabulary acquisition in children, which is hypothesised to allow rapid, cortical-based memory formation...
November 19, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Andrey V Bocharov, Gennady G Knyazev, Alexander N Savostyanov, Tatiana N Astakhova, Sergey S Tamozhnikov
In this study, we aimed to compare the oscillatory dynamics accompanying self-referential and non-self-referential stimulus-independent thoughts. Electroencephalograms were recorded in 30 healthy participants who were asked to press buttons classifying their spontaneous thoughts as self-referential or non-self-referential. EEG data were analyzed using independent component analysis in conjunction with dipole localization. Self-referential thoughts, as compared to non-self-referential thoughts, were accompanied by more pronounced decrease of theta, alpha, and beta spectral power in the anterior hub of the default-mode network, in the left lateral prefrontal, motor/somatosensory, and temporal cortices...
October 10, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Cuicui Wang, Zhen Yang, Fan Cao, Li Liu, Sha Tao
Both native language background and second-language proficiency may shape brain responses to a second language. Using cross-modal mismatch negativity (MMN) (pre-attentive processing) and audiovisual P300 (attentive processing) paradigms, this study examined how native Chinese speakers with various second-language proficiency responded to English letter-sound integration and what a role visual attention may play in this process. The results indicated that native Chinese speakers failed to integrate letter-sound in pre-attentive stage of reading, regardless of their English proficiency level, in contrast to the successful letter-sound integration shown by native English speakers...
October 1, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Brooke M Roberts, Alex Clarke, Richard J Addante, Charan Ranganath
Neural oscillations in the theta band have been linked to episodic memory, but it is unclear whether activity patterns that give rise to theta play a causal role in episodic retrieval. Here, we used rhythmic auditory and visual stimulation to entrain neural oscillations to assess whether theta activity contributes to successful memory retrieval. In two separate experiments, human subjects studied words and were subsequently tested on memory for the words ("item recognition") and context in which each had been previously studied ("source memory")...
September 10, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Christopher J Stare, Matthias J Gruber, Lynn Nadel, Charan Ranganath, Rebecca L Gómez
Sleep-dependent memory processing is dependent on several factors at learning, including emotion, encoding strength, and knowledge of future relevance. Recent work documents the role of curiosity on learning, showing that memory associated with high-curiosity encoding states is retained better and that this effect may be driven by activity within the dopaminergic circuit. Here, we examined whether this curiosity effect was enhanced by or dependent on sleep-related consolidation. Participants learned the answers to trivia questions that they had previously rated on a curiosity scale, and they were shown faces between each question and answer presentation...
September 5, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Wei-Chun Wang, Erik A Wing, David L K Murphy, Bruce M Luber, Sarah H Lisanby, Roberto Cabeza, Simon W Davis
Brain stimulation technologies have seen increasing application in basic science investigations, specifically toward the goal of improving memory function. However, proposals concerning the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive enhancement often rely on simplified notions of excitation. As a result, most applications examining the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on functional neuroimaging measures have been limited to univariate analyses of brain activity. We present here analyses using representational similarity analysis (RSA) and encoding-retrieval similarity (ERS) analysis to quantify the effect of TMS on memory representations...
September 5, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Eda Mizrak, Kamin Kim, Brooke Roberts, Daniel John Ragland, Cameron Carter, Charan Ranganath
Research on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has grown rapidly, but there is controversy regarding whether and how tDCS could impact memory performance. We report a study that addressed this question by examining the effects of oscillatory tDCS (otDCS) on subsequent episodic memory performance and concomitant recordings of neural oscillations. Neural oscillations in the theta band (4-7 Hz) have been shown to be important for episodic memory and especially for source memory retrieval. Here, we tested the effects of anodal otDCS at theta (5...
September 5, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Delia Fuhrmann, Susanne Schweizer, Jovita Leung, Cait Griffin, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
Academic diligence is the ability to regulate behavior in the service of goals, and a predictor of educational attainment. Here we combined behavioral, structural MRI, functional MRI and connectivity data to investigate the neurocognitive correlates of diligence. We assessed whether individual differences in diligence are related to the interplay between frontal control and striatal reward systems, as predicted by the dual-systems hypothesis of adolescent development. We obtained behavioral measures of diligence from 40 adolescent girls (aged 14-15 years) using the Academic Diligence Task...
August 27, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Manoj K Doss, Jessica Weafer, Nicholas A Ruiz, David A Gallo, Harriet De Wit
Alcohol and other pharmacologically similar sedatives (i.e., GABAA positive allosteric modulators or PAMs) impair the encoding of new episodic memories but retroactively facilitate the consolidation of recently encoded memories. These effects are consistent for recollection (i.e., the retrieval of details) but some mixed results have been reported for familiarity (i.e., a feeling of knowing a stimulus was presented). Here, with dual-process models, we reanalyzed prior work testing the effects of GABAA PAMs at encoding or consolidation...
August 14, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Carl Michael Galang, Sukhvinder S Obhi
Recent studies have shown that the states of high and low social power (the ability to control or influence another's thoughts, feelings, or behaviours) are related to left and right frontal hemisphere activity, respectively, suggesting a connection with two neurobiological motivational systems-the Behavioural Activation and Inhibition Systems. However, an important and outstanding question is which state of social power is associated with differences in hemispheric activity. In the current study, we addressed this outstanding issue by examining differences in frontal alpha asymmetry while participants engaged in an established episodic recall task, priming states of high, low, or neutral social power...
August 3, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Lidia Y X Wong, Stephen J Gray, David A Gallo
We report 4 experiments aiming to replicate and extend the finding that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after encoding and just prior to retrieval improves accuracy on a recollection task (Gray, Brookshire, Casasanto, & Gallo, 2015). Our first 3 experiments failed to replicate the tDCS effect in planned analyses, but post-hoc analyses uncovered tDCS effects on recollection accuracy during morning sessions. To further investigate, Experiment 4 randomly assigned participants to morning or afternoon sessions...
July 23, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
R Rachel Weintraub-Brevda, Elizabeth F Chua
Negative stimuli are often remembered better than neutral stimuli, which is called the emotional enhancement of memory (EEM). We tested whether the role of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) in the EEM depended on stimulus valence and/or arousal, and attentional resources. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) was applied over the left VLPFC, right VLPFC and vertex before encoding 'negative arousing,' 'negative nonarousing,' and 'neutral' words under full and divided attention, followed by a recognition test...
July 19, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Maureen Ritchey
This Special Issue of Cognitive Neuroscience highlights recent research on the cognitive neuroscience of episodic memory, with an emphasis on interventions designed to modulate memory processes. Collectively, the nine included papers provide a timely overview of the state of memory modulation, including work on pharmacological manipulations, motivational states, and targeted brain stimulation.
July 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
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