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International Journal of Cell Biology

Masoumeh Rostami, Kamran Haidari, Majid Shahbazi
The immunomodulatory and self-renewable features of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hAD-MSCs) mark their importance in regenerative medicine. Interleukin 23 (IL- 23) as a proinflammatory cytokine suppresses T regulatory cells (Treg) and promotes the response of T helper 17 (Th17) and T helper 1 (Th1) cells. This pathway starts inflammation and immunosuppression in several autoimmune diseases. The current study for producing recombinant IL- 23 decoy receptor (RIL- 23R) using hAD-MSCs as a good candidate for ex vivo cell-based gene therapy purposes reducing inflammation in autoimmune diseases...
2018: International Journal of Cell Biology
Kapil Sethi, Kenny Rao, Damien Bolton, Oneel Patel, Joseph Ischia
Partial nephrectomy (open or minimally invasive) usually requires temporary renal arterial occlusion to limit intraoperative bleeding and improve access to intrarenal structures. This is a time-critical step due to the critical ischemia period of renal tissue. Prolonged renal ischemia may lead to irreversible nephron damage in the remaining tissue and, ultimately, chronic kidney disease. This is potentiated by the incompletely understood ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). A key mechanism in IRI prevention appears to be the upregulation of an intracellular transcription protein, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF)...
2018: International Journal of Cell Biology
Saraporn Harikarnpakdee, Verisa Chowjarean
Grammatophyllum speciosum is a plant in Orchidaceae family which contains a variety of phytochemical compounds that might be beneficial for medicinal use. This study aimed to evaluate the activity of pseudobulb of G. speciosum extract (GSE) in wound healing processes in human primary fibroblast cells along with in vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of GSE. Scratch wound healing assay indicated that GSE was capable of increasing migration rate after 6 and 9 hours of treatment. Besides, the extract was able to scavenge DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide anion radicals indicating the antioxidative property of GSE...
2018: International Journal of Cell Biology
Aquiles Sales Craveiro Sarmento, Lázaro Batista de Azevedo Medeiros, Lucymara Fassarella Agnez-Lima, Josivan Gomes Lima, Julliane Tamara Araújo de Melo Campos
Seipin is a nonenzymatic protein encoded by the BSCL2 gene. It is involved in lipodystrophy and seipinopathy diseases. Named in 2001, all seipin functions are still far from being understood. Therefore, we reviewed much of the research, trying to find a pattern that could explain commonly observed features of seipin expression disorders. Likewise, this review shows how this protein seems to have tissue-specific functions. In an integrative view, we conclude by proposing a theoretical model to explain how seipin might be involved in the triacylglycerol synthesis pathway...
2018: International Journal of Cell Biology
Nikolaus Berndt, Sascha Bulik, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2012/757594.].
2018: International Journal of Cell Biology
Vincenzo Giancotti, Natascha Bergamin, Palmina Cataldi, Claudio Rizzi
High-mobility group A (HMGA) proteins have been examined to understand their participation as structural epigenetic chromatin factors that confer stem-like properties to embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and cancer stem cells (CSCs). The function of HMGA was evaluated in conjunction with that of other epigenetic factors such as histones and microRNAs (miRs), taking into consideration the posttranscriptional modifications (PTMs) of histones (acetylation and methylation) and DNA methylation...
2018: International Journal of Cell Biology
Paula A Baldión, Myriam L Velandia-Romero, Jaime E Castellanos
Odontoblasts, the main cell type in teeth pulp tissue, are not cultivable and they are responsible for the first line of response after dental restauration. Studies on dental materials cytotoxicity and odontoblast cells physiology require large quantity of homogenous cells retaining most of the phenotype characteristics. Odontoblast-like cells (OLC) were differentiated from human dental pulp stem cells using differentiation medium (containing TGF- β 1), and OLC expanded after trypsinization (EXP-21) were evaluated and compared...
2018: International Journal of Cell Biology
Xin Xing, Carmen Mroß, Linlin Hao, Martina Munck, Alexandra Herzog, Clara Mohr, C P Unnikannan, Pranav Kelkar, Angelika A Noegel, Ludwig Eichinger, Sascha Neumann
The nuclear envelope proteins, Nesprins, have been primarily studied during interphase where they function in maintaining nuclear shape, size, and positioning. We analyze here the function of Nesprin-2 in chromatin interactions in interphase and dividing cells. We characterize a region in the rod domain of Nesprin-2 that is predicted as SMC domain (aa 1436-1766). We show that this domain can interact with itself. It furthermore has the capacity to bind to SMC2 and SMC4, the core subunits of condensin. The interaction was observed during all phases of the cell cycle; it was particularly strong during S phase and persisted also during mitosis...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
Alejandro Alvarez-Arce, Irene Lee-Rivera, Edith López, Arturo Hernández-Cruz, Ana María López-Colomé
The serine protease thrombin activates Protease-Activated Receptors (PARs), a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) activated by the proteolytic cleavage of their extracellular N-terminal domain. Four members of this family have been identified: PAR1-4. The activation of Protease-Activated Receptor 1(PAR1), the prototype of this receptor family, leads to an increase in intracellular Ca+2 concentration ([Ca+2 ]i) mediated by Gq11 α coupling and phospholipase C (PLC) activation. We have previously shown that the stimulation of PAR1 by thrombin promotes intracellular signaling leading to RPE cell transformation, proliferation, and migration which characterize fibroproliferative eye diseases leading to blindness...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
Seong Gu Hwang, Ho-Sung Lee, Byung-Cheon Lee, GunWoong Bahng
It has been reported that water at the interface of a hydrophilic thin film forms an exclusion zone, which has a higher density than ordinary water. A similar phenomenon was observed for a hydrated hydrophilic ceramic powder, and water turns into a three-dimensional cell-like structure composed of high density water and low density water. This structured water appears to have a stimulative effect on plant growth. This report outlines our study of antioxidant properties of this structured water and its effect on cell bioactivities...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
Yohan Choi, Fanwei Meng, Charles S Cox, Kevin P Lally, Johnny Huard, Yong Li
Tissue regeneration and repair have received much attention in the medical field over the years. The study of amphibians, such as newts and salamanders, has uncovered many of the processes that occur in these animals during full-limb/digit regeneration, a process that is highly limited in mammals. Understanding these processes in amphibians could shed light on how to develop and improve this process in mammals. Amputation injuries in mammals usually result in the formation of scar tissue with limited regrowth of the limb/digit; however, it has been observed that the very tips of digits (fingers and toes) can partially regrow in humans and mice under certain conditions...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
Samaher Besbes, Shahid Shah, Iman Al-Dybiat, Shahsoltan Mirshahi, Helene Helfer, Haythem Najah, Caroline Fourgeaud, Marc Pocard, Ibtissem Ghedira, Jeannette Soria, Massoud Mirshahi
The thrombopoietin (TPO) gene expression in human ovary and cancer cells from patients with ovarian carcinomatosis, as well as several cancer cell lines including MDA-MB231 (breast cancer), K562 and HL60 (Leukemic cells), OVCAR-3NIH and SKOV-3 (ovarian cancer), was performed using RT PCR, real-time PCR, and gene sequencing. Human liver tissues are used as controls. The presence of TPO in the cells and its regulation by activated protein C were explored by flow cytometry. TPO content of cell extract as well as plasma of a patient with ovarian cancer was evaluated by ELISA...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
Katie L Togher, Louise C Kenny, Gerard W O'Keeffe
Exposure to maternal cortisol plays a crucial role in fetal organogenesis. However, fetal overexposure to cortisol has been linked to a range of short- and long-term adverse outcomes. Normally, this is prevented by the expression of an enzyme in the placenta called 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) which converts active cortisol to its inactive metabolite cortisone. Placental 11β-HSD2 is known to be reduced in a number of adverse pregnancy complications, possibly through an epigenetic mechanism...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
Julie E Morgan, Susanna F Greer
The Class II Transactivator (CIITA) is essential to the regulation of Major Histocompatibility Class II (MHC II) genes transcription. As the "master regulator" of MHC II transcription, CIITA regulation is imperative and requires various posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in order to facilitate its role. Previously we identified various ubiquitination events on CIITA. Monoubiquitination is important for CIITA transactivity, while K63 linked ubiquitination is involved in crosstalk with ERK1/2 phosphorylation, where together they mediate cellular movement from the cytoplasm to nuclear region...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
Peleg Rider, Yaron Carmi, Idan Cohen
Proinflammatory cytokines are potent mediators of numerous biological processes and are tightly regulated in the body. Chronic uncontrolled levels of such cytokines can initiate and derive many pathologies, including incidences of autoimmunity and cancer. Therefore, therapies that regulate the activity of inflammatory cytokines, either by supplementation of anti-inflammatory recombinant cytokines or by neutralizing them by using blocking antibodies, have been extensively used over the past decades. Over the past few years, new innovative biological agents for blocking and regulating cytokine activities have emerged...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
Nigel P Moore, Catherine A Picut, Jeffrey H Charlap
The distribution of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) isoforms 1 and 4, which mediate the plasmalemmal transport of l-lactic and pyruvic acids, has been identified in the placentae of rats and rabbits at different ages of gestation. Groups of three pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand White rabbits were sacrificed on gestation days (GD) 11, 14, 18, or 20 and on GD 13, 18, or 28, respectively. Placentae were removed and processed for immunohistochemical detection of MCT1 and MCT4. In the rat, staining for MCT1 was associated with lakes and blood vessels containing enucleated red blood cells (maternal vessels) while staining for MCT4 was associated with vessels containing nucleated red blood cells (embryofoetal vessels)...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
Kazuo Katoh
Microwave irradiation of tissue during fixation and subsequent histochemical staining procedures significantly reduces the time required for incubation in fixation and staining solutions. Minimizing the incubation time in fixative reduces disruption of tissue morphology, and reducing the incubation time in staining solution or antibody solution decreases nonspecific labeling. Reduction of incubation time in staining solution also decreases the level of background noise. Microwave-assisted tissue preparation is applicable for tissue fixation, decalcification of bone tissues, treatment of adipose tissues, antigen retrieval, and other special staining of tissues...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
Norma Estrada, Edwin Velázquez, Carmen Rodríguez-Jaramillo, Felipe Ascencio
Hemocytes represent one of the most important defense mechanisms against foreign material in Crustacea and are also involved in a variety of other physiological responses. Fluorescent lectin-binding assays and cytochemical reactions were used to identify specificity and distribution of carbohydrate moieties and presence of several hydrolytic enzymes, in hemocytes of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Two general classes of circulating hemocytes (granular and agranular) exist in L. vannamei, which express carbohydrates residues for FITC-conjugated lectins WGA, LEA, and PNA; UEA and Con-A were not observed...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
Debarshi Banerjee
Gap junctions are cell-to-cell junctions that are located in the basolateral surface of two adjoining cells. A gap junction channel is composed of a family of proteins called connexins. Gap junction channels maintain intercellular communication between two cells through the exchange of ions, small metabolites, and electrical signals. Gap junction channels or connexins are widespread in terms of their expression and function in maintaining the development, differentiation, and homeostasis of vertebrate tissues...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
Ranjeet Singh Mahla
Regenerative medicine, the most recent and emerging branch of medical science, deals with functional restoration of tissues or organs for the patient suffering from severe injuries or chronic disease. The spectacular progress in the field of stem cell research has laid the foundation for cell based therapies of disease which cannot be cured by conventional medicines. The indefinite self-renewal and potential to differentiate into other types of cells represent stem cells as frontiers of regenerative medicine...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
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