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Journal of Experimental Neuroscience

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30783379/cerebrovascular-disease-in-the-young-adult-examining-melatonin-s-possible-multiple-roles
#1
REVIEW
Adejoke Yetunde Onaolapo, Olakunle James Onaolapo, Thomas I Nathaniel
In the last decade or more, there have been reports suggesting a rise in the incidence of stroke in young adults. Presently, it appears that the risk factors associated with the cause of stroke in young adults remain relatively constant across different geographic regions of the world. Moreover, the endogenous rhythm of a neurohormone such as melatonin is known to play certain roles in the modulation of some of the risk factors that are associated with an increased risk of stroke in young people. Whereas animal studies have shown that melatonin plays diverse roles in stroke, only a limited number of human studies examined the roles of exogenous melatonin administration in the prevention of stroke, attenuation of neuronal damage, and improving outcome or well-being in stroke patients...
2019: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733631/unexpected-microglial-de-activation-associated-with-altered-synaptic-transmission-in-the-early-stages-of-an-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Shaona Acharjee, Quentin J Pittman
Multiple sclerosis, and its animal model-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), is a demyelinating disease causing motor and sensory dysfunction, as well as behavioral comorbidities. In exploring possible functional changes underlying behavioral comorbidities in EAE, we observed increased excitatory drive onto the major cells of the basolateral amygdala. This was associated with increased numbers of dendritic spines. An unexpected finding was that microglial cells at this time were in a "deactivated" state, and further studies suggested that the microglial deactivation was responsible for the increased excitatory drive...
2019: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733630/can-therapeutic-hypothermia-diminish-the-impact-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Shan Lateef, Aubrie Holman, Jessica Carpenter, Jennifer James
Background/main objectives: No effective strategy exists to treat the well-recognized, devastating impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), which is the brain degeneration likely caused by repeated head trauma. The goals of this project were (1) to study the effects of single and recurrent TBI (rTBI) on Drosophila melanogaster's (a) life span, (b) response to sedatives, and (c) behavioral responses to light and gravity and (2) to determine whether therapeutic hypothermia can mitigate the deleterious effects of TBI...
2019: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733629/electrophysiology-of-syncytial-smooth-muscle
#4
REVIEW
Rohit Manchanda, Shailesh Appukuttan, Mithun Padmakumar
As in other excitable tissues, two classes of electrical signals are of fundamental importance to the functioning of smooth muscles: junction potentials, which arise from neurotransmission and represent the initiation of excitation (or in some instances inhibition) of the tissue, and spikes or action potentials, which represent the accomplishment of excitation and lead on to contractile activity. Unlike the case in skeletal muscle and in neurons, junction potentials and spikes in smooth muscle have been poorly understood in relation to the electrical properties of the tissue and in terms of their spatiotemporal spread within it...
2019: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30728726/the-effect-of-oral-administration-of-amantadine-on-neurological-outcome-of-patients-with-diffuse-axonal-injury-in-icu
#5
Rahman Abbasivash, Mohammad Amin Valizade Hasanloei, Aidin Kazempour, Ata Mahdkhah, Mir Mehdi Shaaf Ghoreishi, Ghazal Akhavan Masoumi
Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and disability in adults. This study investigated the effect of oral administration of amantadine on the neurological outcomes of patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in the intensive care unit (ICU). This double-blind clinical trial was conducted in the ICU of Imam Hospital in Urmia. Patients with DAI were intubated and received mechanical ventilation in the ICU. They were divided into 2 groups: patients receiving amantadine (A) and placebo (P). The acquired data were analyzed using SPSS, P  < ...
2019: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30675103/unifying-pathophysiological-explanations-for-sports-related-concussion-and-concussion-protocol-management-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Praveen Satarasinghe, D Kojo Hamilton, Robert J Buchanan, Michael T Koltz
Objective: There is a plethora of theories about the pathophysiology behind a sport-related concussion. In this review of the literature, the authors evaluated studies on the pathophysiology of sport-related concussion and professional athlete return-to-play guidelines. The goal of this article is to summarize the most common hypotheses for sport-related concussion, evaluate if there are common underlying mechanisms, and determine if correlations are seen between published mechanisms and the most current return-to-play recommendations...
2019: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30627000/assessment-of-improvement-in-oxidative-stress-indices-with-resocialization-in-memory-retrieval-in-y-maze-in-male-rats
#7
Hamidreza Famitafreshi, Morteza Karimian
Introduction: Memory deficit is an important issue in some psychiatric diseases either as a primary symptom or as a comorbid symptom. Factors that determine the decline or improvement of memory are an important subject to reduce the severity of these diseases. Methods and materials: In this study, 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups: social (control), isolation, resocialization for 3 days, and resocialization for 7 days...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30626999/an-overlooked-brain-region-in-the-aetiology-of-anorexia-nervosa-the-importance-of-behaviourally-driven-neuroimaging-analysis
#8
COMMENT
Andrea Phillipou, David Jonathan Castle, Larry Allen Abel, Caroline Gurvich, Susan Lee Rossell
The neurobiological contributions to anorexia nervosa (AN) remain poorly understood, hindering the development of effective neurobiological treatments such as medications and brain stimulation. A large number of studies have been undertaken utilising neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to gain a better understanding of the brain mechanisms involved in the illness. However, the analyses undertaken by many studies have utilised a whole-brain analytical approach as much of this research has been exploratory in nature...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30573991/is-the-history-repeated-can-2-r-6-r-hydroxynorketamine-be-another-antidepressant
#9
COMMENT
Shigeyuki Chaki, Jun-Ichi Yamaguchi
Historically, identification of active metabolites has contributed to drug discovery for psychiatric disorders. It has led to the identification of new medications such as desipramine (a metabolite of imipramine) and paliperidone (a metabolite of risperidone). ( R,S )-Ketamine, which has been regarded as the greatest breakthrough in depression research, is rapidly and stereoselectively metabolized into a variety of metabolites. Therefore, identification of an active substance after administration of ( R,S )-ketamine is a critical issue, not only to delineate the underlying mechanisms but also to pave the way to develop a new antidepressant...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30559596/inhibitory-neural-circuits-in-the-mammalian-auditory-midbrain
#10
REVIEW
Munenori Ono, Tetsufumi Ito
The auditory midbrain is the critical integration center in the auditory pathway of vertebrates. Synaptic inhibition plays a key role during information processing in the auditory midbrain, and these inhibitory neural circuits are seen in all vertebrates and are likely essential for hearing. Here, we review the structure and function of the inhibitory neural circuits of the auditory midbrain. First, we provide an overview on how these inhibitory circuits are organized within different clades of vertebrates...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30559595/need-for-speed-and-precision-structural-and-functional-specialization-in-the-cochlear-nucleus-of-the-avian-auditory-system
#11
REVIEW
Hui Hong, Jason Tait Sanchez
Birds such as the barn owl and zebra finch are known for their remarkable hearing abilities that are critical for survival, communication, and vocal learning functions. A key to achieving these hearing abilities is the speed and precision required for the temporal coding of sound-a process heavily dependent on the structural, synaptic, and intrinsic specializations in the avian auditory brainstem. Here, we review recent work from us and others focusing on the specialization of neurons in the chicken cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM)-a first-order auditory brainstem structure analogous to bushy cells in the mammalian anteroventral cochlear nucleus...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30546264/molecular-mechanisms-directing-spine-outgrowth-and-synaptic-partner-selection-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
COMMENT
Devyn Oliver, Kellianne Alexander, Michael M Francis
The development of the nervous system requires precise outgrowth, extension, and wiring of both axons and dendrites to generate properly functioning neural circuits. The molecular mechanisms that shape neurite development, in particular dendritic development, remain incompletely understood. Dendrites are often highly branched and coated with actin-filled, thorny protrusions, called dendritic spines, that allow for increased numbers of synaptic contacts with neighboring neurons. Disruptions in dendritic spine development have been implicated in many neurological disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30546263/the-hippocampal-engram-as-a-memory-index
#13
COMMENT
Kazumasa Z Tanaka, Thomas J McHugh
The hippocampus encodes memories for past events, but the nature of the hippocampal code subserving this function remains unclear. A prevailing idea, strongly supported by hippocampal physiology, is the Cognitive Map Theory. In this view, episodic memories are anchored to spatial domains, or allocentric frameworks, of experiences, with the hippocampus providing a stable representation of external space. On the other hand, recent studies using Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) as a proxy of neuronal activation support the Memory Index Theory...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30479490/unique-biology-and-single-channel-properties-of-glun2a-and-glun2c-containing-triheteromeric-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors
#14
COMMENT
Subhrajit Bhattacharya, Stephen F Traynelis
Triheteromeric N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are assemblies of two different types of GluN2 subunits that endow receptors with properties distinct from their diheteromeric counterparts. Previous studies show an abundance of triheteromeric NMDARs across the central nervous system (CNS), making them an important receptor population to investigate and potential drug target. A recent study by Bhattacharya et al. (1) demonstrated the prevalence of GluN1/GluN2A/GluN2C triheteromeric NMDARs in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs), (2) suggested that GluN2C subunits seldom express as diheteromers, (3) suggested that GluN2A subunits are the preferred partners for GluN2C to functionally express at the cell surface, and (4) revealed unique single-channel properties of these triheteromeric assemblies, which may enable these cells to perform unique tasks...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30479489/oligodendroglia-are-particularly-vulnerable-to-oxidative-damage-after-neurotrauma-in-vivo
#15
COMMENT
Marcus Giacci, Melinda Fitzgerald
In the paper "Oligodendroglia are particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage after neurotrauma in vivo," we determined the extent of oxidative damage to specific cellular subpopulations and structures within regions vulnerable to secondary degeneration and assessed the effect this had on oligodendroglial function. Comparative assessment of oxidative damage demonstrated selective vulnerability of oligodendroglia, specifically oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to DNA oxidation in vivo. Immunohistochemical fate mapping along the oligodendroglial lineage showed a transient susceptibility of these cells to DNA oxidation, protein nitration, and lipid peroxidation, with mature oligodendrocytes derived immediately after injury more vulnerable to DNA oxidation than their counterparts existing at the time of injury or later derived...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30479488/context-sensitive-computational-mechanisms-of-decision-making
#16
REVIEW
Manisha Chawla, Krishna P Miyapuram
Real-world information is primarily sensory in nature, and understandably people attach value to the sensory information to prepare for appropriate behavioral responses. This review presents research from value-based, perceptual, and social decision-making domains, so far studied using isolated paradigms and their corresponding computational models. For example, in perceptual decision making, the sensory evidence accumulation rather than value computation becomes central to choice behavior. Furthermore, we identify cross-linkages between the perceptual and value-based domains to help us better understand generic processes pertaining to individual decision making...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30479487/salt-an-essential-nutrient-advances-in-understanding-salt-taste-detection-using-drosophila-as-a-model-system
#17
REVIEW
Shivam Kaushik, Rahul Kumar, Pinky Kain
Taste modalities are conserved in insects and mammals. Sweet gustatory signals evoke attractive behaviors while bitter gustatory information drive aversive behaviors. Salt (NaCl) is an essential nutrient required for various physiological processes, including electrolyte homeostasis, neuronal activity, nutrient absorption, and muscle contraction. Not only mammals, even in Drosophila melanogaster, the detection of NaCl induces two different behaviors: Low concentrations of NaCl act as an attractant, whereas high concentrations act as repellant...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30450007/-cntnap2-heterozygous-missense-variants-risk-factors-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-or-other-pathologies
#18
COMMENT
Giorgia Canali, Laurence Goutebroze
The CNTNAP2 gene has been proposed to be one of the major susceptibility genes for neurodevelopmental disorders, in which numerous heterozygous missense variants have been identified in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The contribution of these variants to the manifestations of ASD is however highly controversial because numerous heterozygous missense variants have also been identified in control subjects. In a recent study, we set up a sensitive developmental in vitro cell assay to clarify the potential functional impact of these variants in a heterozygous Cntnap2 background relevant for CNTNAP2 heterozygosity in patients with ASD...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30450006/the-cognitive-neuroscience-of-design-creativity
#19
REVIEW
Leslee Lazar
Design cognition is a human cognitive ability that is characterized by multi-faceted skills and competencies. This skill requires finding solutions for a vague problem, where the end point is not specified and the transformations from the problem state to the solution state are also flexible. Designers solve such tasks regularly, but the mental processes involved in such a skill are not known completely. Design research has involved empirical studies and theoretical modeling to understand the cognitive processes underlying this skill...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30450005/towards-targeted-brain-stimulation-in-stroke-connectivity-as-a-biomarker-of-response
#20
COMMENT
Brenton Hordacre, Bahar Moezzi, Michael C Ridding
Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability. New treatments capable of assisting recovery hold significant potential to improve quality of life for many stroke survivors. Transcranial direct current stimulation is one technique that has received much attention due to its potential to promote neuroplasticity and enhance recovery. However, current evidence suggests this is not a one-size-fits-all treatment with indication that responses are highly variable. Using electroencephalography, Hordacre et al recently demonstrated that connectivity between the ipsilesional motor cortex, ipsilesional parietal cortex, and contralesional frontotemporal cortex was a strong predictor of the neurophysiological response to anodal transcranial direct current stimulation applied to the ipsilesional motor cortex in people with chronic ischemic stroke...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
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