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International Health

Mahamoud Sama Cherif, Prabin Dahal, Rashid Mansoor, Facely Camara, Abdourahamane Bah, Alpha Kone, Fatoumata Cherif, Dienaba Kasse, Mandiou Diakite, Mamadou Pathe Diallo
Background: The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for neonatal mortality has identified its reduction as one of the main targets to be achieved by 2030. We provide a descriptive report on neonatal outcomes from the only neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Guinea. Methods: Data collection took place between November 2004 and May 2005 at the NICU of the Institute of Child Health in the capital, Conakry. A descriptive summary of the neonatal, maternal and intrapartum characteristics is reported...
February 7, 2019: International Health
Reshu Agarwal, Bharat Bhushan Rewari, Ramesh Reddy Allam, Nalini Chava, A S Rathore
Background: Ensuring the quality and effectiveness of counselling is imperative for enabling people living with HIV to cope with treatment adherence. Countrywide assessment of antiretroviral therapy (ART) centres was undertaken to assess the quality and effectiveness of counselling. The insights gained from the assessment are expected to build an improved understanding of the counselling aspect and contribute to informing decisions strengthening the counselling provided at ART centres...
February 6, 2019: International Health
Constance Harrell Shreckengost, Andrew W Kim, Sarah H Whitaker, Lei Weng, Bradley D Pearce, Bonnie N Kaiser
Background: Although folate deficiency is linked to adverse health effects, limited data exist characterizing the problem in rural settings. This study determined the prevalence of folate deficiency and anemia in rural adults in the Haitian Central Plateau using combined laboratory methods. Methods: Dried blood spots (DBSs) and hemoglobin measurements were collected from adult men and women selected by cluster random sampling in Haiti's Central Plateau. DBSs were analyzed for folate using a microbiological assay...
January 23, 2019: International Health
Gul Ghuttai Khalid, Khine Wut Yee Kyaw, Christine Bousquet, Rosa Auat, Dmytro Donchuk, Adam Trickey, Saeed Hamid, Huma Qureshi, Valentina Mazzeo, Khawar Aslam, Salima Khowaja, Rafael Van den Bergh
Background: In the high-prevalence setting of Pakistan, screening, diagnosis and treatment services for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients are commonly offered in specialized facilities. We aimed to describe the cascade of care in a Médecins Sans Frontières primary health care clinic offering CHC care in an informal settlement in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis using routinely collected data. Three different screening algorithms were assessed among patients with one or more CHC risk factors...
December 28, 2018: International Health
Seohyun Lee, Charles E Begley, Robert Morgan, Wenyaw Chan, Sun-Young Kim
Background: Recently mobile health (mHealth) has been implemented in Kenya to support family planning. Our objectives were to investigate disparities in mobile phone ownership and to examine the associations between exposure to family planning messages through mHealth (stand-alone or combined with other channels such as public forums, informational materials, health workers, social media and political/religious/community leaders' advocacy) and contraceptive knowledge and use. Methods: Logistic and Poisson regression models were used to analyze the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey...
December 20, 2018: International Health
Justin Stoler, Alexandra Brewis, Leila M Harris, Amber Wutich, Amber L Pearson, Asher Y Rosinger, Roseanne C Schuster, Sera L Young
Water insecurity massively undermines health, especially among impoverished and marginalized communities. Emerging evidence shows that household-to-household water sharing is a widespread coping strategy in vulnerable communities. Sharing can buffer households from the deleterious health effects that typically accompany seasonal shortages, interruptions of water services and natural disasters. Conversely, sharing may also increase exposure to pathogens and become burdensome and distressing in times of heightened need...
December 20, 2018: International Health
Louise Brattström-Stolt, Tjede Funk, Ali Sié, Charlotte Ndiaye, Tobias Alfvén
Background: Noma is a quickly progressing, neglected opportunistic infection. It starts in the mouth as an oral lesion but can relatively quickly develop into extensive facial destruction and lead to death if not treated in time. This study aims to shed light on primary healthcare workers' practice competences in working with and knowledge of noma. Methods: A structured questionnaire using questions and case scenarios was filled out by 76 healthcare workers in Burkina Faso...
December 18, 2018: International Health
Philip E Coyne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2018: International Health
Muhammad Shaikh Hassan, Md Kamrul Hossain, Hafiz T A Khan
Background: Among university students, large numbers are involved with smoking and suffer from many chronic diseases. This study examined tobacco smoking prevalence and potential predictors among university students in Sylhet Division, Bangladesh. Methods: A total of 416 students were selected for face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression analysis was used to fulfil the specific objectives of the study. Results: It was discovered that the prevalence of smoking among university students in Sylhet Division was 37% and almost half of current male students were smokers...
December 4, 2018: International Health
Peter Austin Morton Ntenda, Jane Flora Kazambwe
Background: Overweight and obesity are well-known risk factors for non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, some cancers and musculoskeletal disorders. In Malawi, the proportion of women who are overweight/obese has doubled, from 10% in 1992 to 21% in 2015-16. Therefore we aimed to explore the individual- and community-level factors associated with overweight and obesity among non-pregnant women of child-bearing age. Methods: Secondary analysis of the 2015-16 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey was conducted...
December 4, 2018: International Health
Mohammad Ali, Peter Kim, K Zaman, John Clemens
Background: Past research has suggested that the most cost-effective approach to using oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) to control endemic cholera may be to target only children <15 y of age. However, the assumption that vaccination of children with OCVs protects unvaccinated adults has never been tested. Methods: We reanalyzed the data of an OCV trial in Bangladesh in which children 2-15 y of age and women >15 y of age were allocated to OCV or placebo and assessed herd protection by relating the risk of cholera in each nonvaccinated adult (>15 y) to OCV coverage (OCVC) of residents residing in virtual clusters within 500 m of the residence of that unvaccinated adult...
November 29, 2018: International Health
Md Mohiuddin Adnan, Jingjing Yin, Ashley M Jackson, Zion Tsz Ho Tse, Hai Liang, King-Wa Fu, Nitin Saroha, Benjamin M Althouse, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung
Background: Twitter is used for World Pneumonia Day (WPD; November 12) communication. We evaluate if themes of #pneumonia tweets were associated with retweet frequency. Methods: A total of 28 181 original #pneumonia tweets were retrieved (21 November 2016), from which six subcorpora, 1 mo before and 1 mo after WPD 2011-2016, were extracted (n=6721). Underlying topics were identified via latent Dirichlet allocation and were manually coded into themes. The association of themes with retweet count was assessed via multivariable hurdle regression...
November 24, 2018: International Health
Mashrur Rahman Kazi, Mahzabin Ferdous, Nahid Rumana, Marcus Vaska, Tanvir C Turin
Background: Injuries are the leading cause of death among younger Canadians and represent a large economic burden on the Canadian population. Although immigrants comprise more than 20% of the Canadian population, the research landscape on injury in this group is unclear. We conducted a scoping review to summarize existing research regarding injuries among Canadian immigrants to identify research gaps and future research opportunities. Methods: Relevant electronic databases of peer-reviewed articles and grey literature were systematically searched...
November 17, 2018: International Health
Sarah A Golub, Juan Carlos Maza Reyes, Catherine Stamoulis, Alejandra Leal Pensabene, Pablo Alejandro Tijerino Cordón, Erwin Calgua, Areej Hassan
Background: Despite the inclusion of adolescent health in recent global frameworks, limited data exist on health indicators in low-income countries. Our objective was to identify socioeconomic measures, risk behaviors and health indicators of young people in Guatemala. Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Pan American Health Organization's Sistema Informático del Adolescente of 2831 participants ages 10-24 y from 2008 to 2014. We examined frequencies for a core set of items, and generalized regression models assessed correlations between age, sex and ethnicity with health outcomes of interest...
November 14, 2018: International Health
Conor M McWade, Sheau-Chiann Chenn, Fei Ye, Douglas C Heimburger, Troy D Moon, Sarah V Suiter
Background: To identify individual and household characteristics associated with food security and dietary diversity in seven Haitian-Dominican bateyes. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 667 households were surveyed. Novel household food security scores were calculated from components of the Household Food Insecurity Assessment Scale, while the Food and Agricultural Organization's Household Dietary Diversity Score was utilized to calculate individual dietary diversity scores...
November 12, 2018: International Health
Shyam Sundar Budhathoki, Paras K Pokharel, Nilambar Jha, Emma Moselen, Robyn Dixon, Meika Bhattachan, Richard H Osborne
Background: There is an assumption that health literacy is higher among health professionals, allowing them to improve the health literacy of their patients. This study explored health literacy profiles of health science students in Nepal, the future health professionals and educators of health literacy. Methods: The multidimensional Health Literacy Questionnaire and demographic questions were administered online to medical and other health science students at the B...
November 9, 2018: International Health
Neta HaGani, Samah Hayek, Jalal Tarabeia, Mohammad Yehia, Manfred S Green
Background: In Israel, the whole population is covered by comprehensive universal health insurance. Despite that, most of the population purchases supplementary health insurance (SHI). It has been shown that individuals purchase more health insurance and preventive medicine when they are uncertain of their state of health, while a majority may not fully understand basic concepts in their health insurance coverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of fear of catastrophic health expenditures and unrealistic expectations in purchasing SHI, which does not cover expenses for life-threatening illnesses...
November 9, 2018: International Health
Babayemi O Olakunde, Daniel A Adeyinka, William N A Menson, Olubunmi A Olakunde, Chamberline E Ozigbu
While there has been some progress in expanding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services for females, HIV prevention and treatment coverage among males remain poor. The widening disparity between males and females has garnered little attention- a cause for concern. In this article, we highlight the need to reach more males with HIV services and the importance of disaggregated data to identify age- and gender-specific gaps in HIV service delivery.
November 9, 2018: International Health
Nils Kaehler, Bipin Adhikari, Phaik Yeong Cheah, Nicholas P J Day, Daniel H Paris, Marcel Tanner, Christopher Pell
Background: The emergence of artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has prompted urgent containment measures. One possible approach is mass drug administration (MDA). This article explores attitudes towards and perceptions of MDA for malaria elimination among policymakers and leading malariologists. Methods: Thirty-two semistructured interviews (SSI) were conducted with policymakers (n=17) and principal investigators (n=15) selected based on their involvement in malaria prevention, control and elimination in the GMS...
November 3, 2018: International Health
Hannah Rafferty, Oscar Chirro, Clifford Oduor, Elizabeth Wahome, Caroline Ngoi, Elise van der Elst, René Berger, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Susan M Graham, Eduard J Sanders
Background: Acute HIV infection (AHI) is the phase of HIV infection immediately after acquisition, during which many patients develop symptoms and often seek healthcare. However, clinicians in sub-Saharan Africa are not currently taught about AHI. Methods: This study pilot-tested a self-directed AHI training module among clinical officers (COs) in coastal Kenya and assessed knowledge gained and challenges to instituting screening. The training module included four domains: AHI definition and importance of AHI recognition; symptoms and screening algorithms; diagnostic strategies; and management...
November 2, 2018: International Health
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