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Personality Disorders

Joseph E Beeney, Stephanie D Stepp, Michael N Hallquist, Whitney R Ringwald, Aidan G C Wright, Sophie A Lazarus, Lori N Scott, Alexis A Mattia, Hannah E Ayars, Sabrina H Gebreselassie, Paul A Pilkonis
Personality disorders (PDs) are commonly associated with romantic relationship disturbance. However, research has seldom evaluated who people with high PD severity partner with, and what explains the link between PD severity and romantic relationship disturbance. First, we examined the degree to which people match with partners with similar levels of personality and interpersonal problems. Second, we evaluated whether the relationship between PD severity and romantic relationship satisfaction would be explained by attachment styles and demand/withdraw behavior...
February 4, 2019: Personality Disorders
Skye Fitzpatrick, Anne C Wagner, Candice M Monson
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a debilitating mental health condition that is highly associated with distress in close relationships and in romantic and nonromantic (e.g., familial) significant others. Interventions that efficiently improve BPD treatment outcomes are needed. Theory and research suggest that BPD may both promote and be maintained by close relationship distress. Incorporating significant others into BPD treatments may therefore present a novel and unique opportunity to maximize treatment outcomes...
February 4, 2019: Personality Disorders
Morgan N McCredie, Leslie C Morey
The present study was intended to assess the reliability of clinician judgments, with a particular interest in how such judgments vary by the gender of the case vignette and clinician. A national sample of 123 mental health professionals (57.7% male) provided clinical judgments on 12 case vignettes primarily representing personality pathology; two identical versions of each vignette were prepared, with the only difference being the use of masculine or feminine pronouns identifying the client. Clinical judgments included evaluations of adaptive functioning, long-term prognostic assessments, short-term risk evaluations, and treatment recommendations...
February 4, 2019: Personality Disorders
Cinthia Benitez, Matthew W Southward, Erin M Altenburger, Kristen P Howard, Jennifer S Cheavens
Validation is the accurate reflection of someone's internal experiences. Validation has been theorized to enhance the process of therapy and facilitate effective outcomes (Lynch, Chapman, Rosenthal, Kuo, & Linehan, 2006). Additionally, validation may play an integral role in reducing emotional arousal specifically for individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). There is little research on the relation between validation and therapy outcomes such as affect change. In the current study, we tested the relations among self-reported validation and invalidation and in-session changes in positive and negative affect with a sample of 52 clients in treatment...
February 4, 2019: Personality Disorders
Björn N Persson
Machiavellianism is a psychological construct reflecting individual differences in manipulative and strategic thinking, pragmatic morality, and a cynical outlook on life. A recent stream of research has shown that Machiavellianism and psychopathy seem to be redundant constructs and that measures of Machiavellianism do not correspond well with theoretical expectations. In the present study, I juxtapose multiple measures of Machiavellianism against normal (i.e., the five-factor model and HEXACO) and abnormal (e...
January 10, 2019: Personality Disorders
Tracy Vaillancourt, Heather Brittain
The individual and societal burden of psychopathy warrants an investigation into identifying its early precursors and developmental course. Accordingly, we examined the longitudinal pathways between primary and secondary psychopathic traits, anxiety, and borderline personality disorder (BPD) features across adolescence. Participants included 572 Canadian adolescents (253 girls; aged 13.96 [SD = 0.37] in Grade 8; 70.6% Caucasian) who were assessed annually on five occasions (Grades 8-12) using the Antisocial Process Screening Device (psychopathic traits), the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 (symptoms of anxiety), and the Borderline Personality Features Scale for Children (features of BPD)...
January 10, 2019: Personality Disorders
Karlen Lyons-Ruth, Caitlin Riley, Matthew P H Patrick, R Peter Hobson
Disinhibited attachment behavior is related to early institutional rearing and to later social maladaptation. It is also seen among infants reared at home whose mothers have histories of child maltreatment or psychiatric hospitalization. However, little is known about the maternal psychiatric diagnoses that might be associated with disinhibited behavior or the mechanisms through which maternal diagnosis might influence infant behavior. In the current study (N = 59), 2 maternal diagnoses, borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 13) and depression (n = 15), were compared with a no diagnosis group (n = 31) on extent of infant disinhibited behavior...
January 10, 2019: Personality Disorders
Emily A Dowgwillo, Aaron L Pincus, Mark F Lenzenweger
Although evidence from a number of longitudinal studies indicates a marked change in narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) symptoms over time, few studies have examined other psychological systems that may be related to this change. The current study uses data from the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders to examine how change in NPD symptoms is related to change in normal personality trait trajectories using parallel process growth curve modeling. A total of 250 students provided information on their personality traits and NPD symptoms on 3 occasions over the course of 4 years...
December 17, 2018: Personality Disorders
Patrick J Cruitt, Michael J Boudreaux, Hannah R King, Joshua R Oltmanns, Thomas F Oltmanns
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition alternative model for personality disorders offers a two-part definition of personality pathology, separating personality functioning from traits. The Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS) from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition alternative model for personality disorders encapsulates the personality functioning criterion, and several methods have been used to assess it. Previous interview rating methods have overlapped with an assessment of personality traits and symptoms, biasing the assessment of functioning, and recently developed self-report instruments rely on the participant's awareness of their personality pathology...
December 17, 2018: Personality Disorders
Siny Tsang, Randall T Salekin
Psychopathy is often perceived as a constellation of personality traits, yet there is little consensus as to what constitutes the core features of psychopathy. We applied a network approach to investigate the psychopathy network, as operationalized by four self-report measures of psychopathy among a large sample of undergraduate students. Items assessing manipulativeness and irresponsibility/impulsivity had the strongest centrality indices in the item-level psychopathy network models. Stimulus seeking, social deviance, and interpersonal/affective traits were the most central domains in the psychopathy network derived from all factors in the four psychopathy measures...
December 10, 2018: Personality Disorders
Carlo Garofalo, Craig S Neumann, Virgil Zeigler-Hill, J Reid Meloy
Psychopathy has long been conceptualized in terms of an absence of emotion. Yet, recent studies have suggested that the experience of other-directed negative emotions may be more intimately linked to psychopathy than previously acknowledged, although there is limited knowledge concerning the experience of such emotions. The present study examined the disposition to experience two other-directed emotions, spitefulness and contempt, that are conceptually linked with psychopathy but currently are limited in empirical support...
December 6, 2018: Personality Disorders
Nora H Hope, Alexander L Chapman
Extant research has supported a connection between socialization in childhood and difficulties regulating emotions. The biosocial theory of borderline personality disorder (BPD; Crowell, Beauchaine, & Linehan, 2009; Linehan, 1993) suggests that emotion dysregulation is a core mechanism underlying the extreme behaviors, mood instability, identity disturbance, and relationship instability observed in BPD. The present study investigated the impact of socialization factors related to emotions, parental autonomy support, parental psychological control, and childhood trauma on BPD features in a nonclinical young adult sample (N = 357)...
December 6, 2018: Personality Disorders
Carolyn A Watters, R Michael Bagby, Martin Sellbom
The alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) is outlined in Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. This model includes 25 dimensional trait facets that are used as criteria for six personality disorders in addition to impairment in functioning. Numerous previous studies have examined the degree to which the proposed trait facets converge with the Section II personality disorders (PDs) they are meant to capture, but the results from these various studies have been inconsistent...
December 6, 2018: Personality Disorders
Scott Tillem, Grace Brennan, Jia Wu, Linda Mayes, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with callous, impulsive, and antisocial behaviors. Decades of research indicate that individuals higher on psychopathy exhibit abnormal allocation of attention during goal pursuit. However, the manner in which attention is allocated to goal-relevant information and the downstream neurocognitive consequences of this attention abnormality remain unclear. The present study addresses this gap by examining the relationship between psychopathy and the allocation of attention during an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based continuous performance task in a sample of 61 adolescents and young adults...
December 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
Daniel T Burley, Nicola S Gray, Robert J Snowden
Psychopathy is a form of personality disorder associated with a deficit in emotional processing. However, there is debate whether this deficit applies to all emotions or exists only for negative emotions. The pupil dilates rapidly in response to emotional stimuli, allowing a time-sensitive index of emotional processing. Across 3 experiments using (a) visual images of real-world scenes, (b) auditory sound clips, and (c) videos of dynamic facial expressions, we measured emotional modulation of the pupil response to both negative and positive stimuli...
December 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
Benjamin P Chapman, Feng Lin, Shumita Roy, Ralph H B Benedict, Jeffrey M Lyness
The age of "big data" in health has ushered in an era of prediction models promising to forecast individual health events. Although many models focus on enhancing the predictive power of medical risk factors with genomic data, a recent proposal is to augment traditional health predictors with psychosocial data, such as personality measures. In this article we provide a general overview of the medical risk prediction models and then discuss the rationale for integrating personality data. We suggest three principles that should guide work in this area if personality data is ultimately to be useful within risk prediction as it is actually practiced in the health care system...
January 2019: Personality Disorders
Lisa A Marsch, Mark T Hegel, Mary Ann Greene
The scientific evidence is clear that personality processes (particularly conscientiousness and neuroticism) play an important role in healthy aging. Assuming it would be desirable to assist individuals to change their personality in directions that would promote healthy aging, the next step is designing interventions for the task. During the past decade, technological advances have made it possible to develop and evaluate interventions delivered via web and mobile digital technologies. The purpose of this article is to discuss the possibilities for leveraging technology to intervene on personality processes to promote healthy aging, with a specific emphasis on applications for older adults...
January 2019: Personality Disorders
Howard S Friedman
Neuroticism and conscientiousness have emerged as key concepts in understanding health and thriving as individuals age, but various conceptual misunderstandings and methodological deficiencies have impaired progress. Personality traits are not analogous to health threats such as infectious microbes or dangerous behaviors or environmental toxins; rather, they can capture biopsychosocial processes across time. This article examines how healthy neuroticism and unhealthy neuroticism play out in differing environments and how these concepts can help clarify and explain the important variability in health and longevity that emerges in middle age...
January 2019: Personality Disorders
Kristin N Javaras, Molly Williams, Arielle R Baskin-Sommers
Conscientiousness is commonly conceptualized as a personality trait that reflects tendencies to be disciplined, goal oriented, self-controlled, responsible to others, hardworking, orderly, and rule following. Higher levels of conscientiousness reliably predict a host of desirable life outcomes, including longevity and better health throughout the life span. Given the consistently positive relationship of conscientiousness to desirable behaviors and outcomes, there is considerable enthusiasm for researching interventions to improve conscientiousness...
January 2019: Personality Disorders
Antonio Terracciano, Angelina R Sutin
The objective of this article is to review and integrate interrelated areas of research on personality and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Prospective studies indicate that individuals who score higher on conscientiousness (more responsible and self-disciplined) and lower on neuroticism (less anxious and vulnerable to stress) have a reduced risk of developing dementia, even in the presence of AD neuropathology. Personality is also related to measures of cognitive performance and cognitive decline, with effect sizes similar to those of other clinical, lifestyle, and behavioral risk factors...
January 2019: Personality Disorders
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