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Cancer Nanotechnology

Lesya Kobylinska, Igor Patereha, Natalia Finiuk, Natalia Mitina, Anna Riabtseva, Igor Kotsyumbas, Rostyslav Stoika, Alexander Zaichenko, Sandor G Vari
Background: Development of biocompatible multifunctional polymeric drug carriers is crucial in modern pharmaceutics aimed to create "smart" drugs. The high potential of the PEGylated comb-like polymeric nanocarrier (PNC) in delivering both traditional and experimental drugs to tumor cells in vitro and in vivo has been demonstrated previously. In the present study, we investigated the general toxicity of polyethylene glycol (PEG) processed with both covalent and non-covalent attachments of PEG to compose a comb-like polymer that behaves like a simple chain of n monomers decorated with swollen side chains...
2018: Cancer Nanotechnology
Lindsey A Bennie, Helen O McCarthy, Jonathan A Coulter
Nanoparticles can be used as drug carriers, contrast agents and radiosensitisers for the treatment of cancer. Nanoparticles can either passively accumulate within tumour sites, or be conjugated with targeting ligands to actively enable tumour deposition. With respect to passive accumulation, particles < 150 nm accumulate with higher efficiency within the tumour microenvironment, a consequence of the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Despite these favourable properties, clinical translation of nano-therapeutics is inhibited due to poor in vivo stability, biodistribution and target cell internalisation...
2018: Cancer Nanotechnology
Jeremy M C Brown, Gerard G Hanna, Nathanael Lampe, Balder Villagomez-Bernabe, James R Nicol, Jonathan A Coulter, Fred J Currell
A novel treatment planning framework, the Relative Biological Effective Dose (RBED), for high Z nanoparticle (NP)-enhanced photon radiotherapy is developed and tested in silico for the medical exemplar of neoadjuvant (preoperative) breast cancer MV photon radiotherapy. Two different treatment scenarios, conventional and high Z NP enhanced, were explored with a custom Geant4 application that was developed to emulate the administration of a single 2 Gy fraction as part of a 50 Gy radiotherapy treatment plan. It was illustrated that there was less than a 1% difference in the dose deposition throughout the standard and high Z NP-doped adult female phantom...
2018: Cancer Nanotechnology
Larysa M Skivka, Svitlana V Prylutska, Mariia P Rudyk, Nataliia M Khranovska, Ievgeniia V Opeida, Vasyl V Hurmach, Yuriy I Prylutskyy, Leonid F Sukhodub, Uwe Ritter
Background: C60 fullerene-based nanoformulations are proposed to have a direct toxic effect on tumor cells. Previous investigations demonstrated that C60 fullerene used alone or being conjugated with chemotherapeutic agents possesses a potent anticancer activity. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of C60 fullerene and its nanocomplexes with anticancer drugs on human phagocyte metabolic profile in vitro. Methods: Analysis of the metabolic profile of phagocytes exposed to C60 fullerene in vitro revealed augmented phagocytic activity and down-regulated reactive nitrogen species generation in these cells...
2018: Cancer Nanotechnology
Marzieh Salimi, Saeed Sarkar, Reza Saber, Hamid Delavari, Ali Mohammad Alizadeh, Hendrik Thijmen Mulder
Background: Recently, some studies have focused on dendrimer nanopolymers as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent or a vehicle for gene and drug delivery. Considering the suitable properties of these materials, they are appropriate candidates for coating iron-oxide nanoparticles which are applied in magnetic hyperthermia. To the best of our knowledge, the novelty of this study is the investigation of fourth-generation dendrimer-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles (G4 @IONPs) in magnetic hyperthermia and MRI...
2018: Cancer Nanotechnology
Chiyi Xiong, Wei Lu, Min Zhou, Xiaoxia Wen, Chun Li
Background: Hollow gold nanoparticles (HGNPs) exposed to near-infrared (NIR) light yield photothermal effects that can trigger a variety of biological effects for potential biomedical applications. However, the mechanism of laser-triggered drug release has not been studied before. Methods: A tripeptide Ac-Glu-Glu-Cys-NH2 (Ac-EEC) was directly linked to the surface of HGNPs. The EEC-HGNPs conjugate was then complexed with cisplatin Pt(II) to give Ac-EEC(Pt)-HGNPs...
2018: Cancer Nanotechnology
Cian M McCrudden, John W McBride, Joanne McCaffrey, Emma M McErlean, Nicholas J Dunne, Vicky L Kett, Jonathan A Coulter, Tracy Robson, Helen O McCarthy
Background: Recent approvals of gene therapies by the FDA and the EMA for treatment of inherited disorders have further opened the door for assessment of nucleic acid pharmaceuticals for clinical usage. Arising from the presence of damaged or inappropriate DNA, cancer is a condition particularly suitable for genetic intervention. The RALA peptide has been shown to be a potent non-viral delivery platform for nucleic acids. This study examines the use of RALA to deliver a plasmid encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as an anti-cancer treatment...
2018: Cancer Nanotechnology
Zahra Sanaeimehr, Iraj Javadi, Farideh Namvar
Background: Algae are one of the natural materials used to green synthesis of nanoparticles. This method leads to minimize the toxicity of the chemical materials used to nanoparticle synthesis. Methods: In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) synthesized by Sargassum muticum algae extraction used to evaluate its cytotoxicity and apoptotic properties on human liver cancer cell line (HepG2). Results: Trypan blue assay results demonstrate a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability and MTT assay shows increased growth inhibition in time and dose-dependent manner...
2018: Cancer Nanotechnology
Lawrence Ochoo, Charles Migwi, John Okumu
Background: A number of experimental research findings for the metal nanoparticles (NPs)-mediated EMF photothermal therapy of cancer cells show an intriguing trend of the NPs' size-dependent efficacy. This is a phenomenon we find to trend with the light absorption bandwidth behavior (full width at half maximum) of the NPs and the accompanying electric field enhancement. We find that the nanoparticle sizes that have been reported to produce the optimized effect on cancer cells are of minimum absorption bandwidth and optimized electric field magnitude...
2018: Cancer Nanotechnology
Aditya Balaji, Jin Zhang
Conventional instruments for cancer diagnosis including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography scan, are expensive and require long-waiting time, whilst the outcomes have not approached to the successful early-stage diagnosis yet. Due to the special properties of graphene-based nanocomposites, e.g., good electrical and thermal conductivity, luminescence, and mechanic flexibility, these ultra-thin two-dimensional nanostructures have been extensively used as platforms for detecting biomolecules and cells...
2017: Cancer Nanotechnology
Sandrine Lacombe, Erika Porcel, Emanuele Scifoni
Cancer radiation therapy with charged particle beams, called particle therapy, is a new therapeutic treatment presenting major advantages when compared to conventional radiotherapy. Because ions have specific ballistic properties and a higher biological effectiveness, they are superior to x-rays. Numerous medical centres are starting in the world using mostly protons but also carbon ions as medical beams. Several investigations are attempting to reduce the cost/benefit ratio and enlarge the range of therapeutic indications...
2017: Cancer Nanotechnology
Fred Currell, Steven Curley, Željka Krpetić, Mark Bellringer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Cancer Nanotechnology
Eudald Casals, Muriel F Gusta, Macarena Cobaleda-Siles, Ana Garcia-Sanz, Victor F Puntes
Chemotherapeutic agents have limited efficacy and resistance to them limits today and will limit tomorrow our capabilities of cure. Resistance to treatment with anticancer drugs results from a variety of factors including individual variations in patients and somatic cell genetic differences in tumours. In front of this, multimodality has appeared as a promising strategy to overcome resistance. In this context, the use of nanoparticle-based platforms enables many possibilities to address cancer resistance mechanisms...
2017: Cancer Nanotechnology
Zahraa Youssef, Régis Vanderesse, Ludovic Colombeau, Francis Baros, Thibault Roques-Carmes, Céline Frochot, Habibah Wahab, Joumana Toufaily, Tayssir Hamieh, Samir Acherar, Amirah Mohd Gazzali
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to have good ability to improve the targeting and delivery of therapeutics. In the field of photodynamic therapy (PDT), this targeting advantage of NPs could help ensure drug delivery at specific sites. Among the commonly reported NPs for PDT applications, NPs from zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, and fullerene are commonly reported. In addition, graphene has also been reported to be used as NPs albeit being relatively new to this field. In this context, the present review is organized by these different NPs and contains numerous research works related to PDT applications...
2017: Cancer Nanotechnology
Sha Li, Erika Porcel, Hynd Remita, Sergio Marco, Matthieu Réfrégiers, Murielle Dutertre, Fabrice Confalonieri, Sandrine Lacombe
BACKGROUD: Small metallic nanoparticles are proposed as potential nanodrugs to optimize the performances of radiotherapy. This strategy, based on the enrichment of tumours with nanoparticles to amplify radiation effects in the tumour, aims at increasing the cytopathic effect in tumours while healthy tissue is preserved, an important challenge in radiotherapy. Another major cause of radiotherapy failure is the radioresistance of certain cancers. Surprisingly, the use of nanoparticles to overcome radioresistance has not, to the best of our knowledge, been extensively investigated...
2017: Cancer Nanotechnology
Raymond B King, Stephen J McMahon, Wendy B Hyland, Suneil Jain, Karl T Butterworth, Kevin M Prise, Alan R Hounsell, Conor K McGarry
Over the past two decades, there has been a significant evolution in the technologies and techniques employed within the radiation oncology environment. Over the same period, extensive research into the use of nanotechnology in medicine has highlighted a range of potential benefits to its incorporation into clinical radiation oncology. This short communication describes key tools and techniques that have recently been introduced into specific stages of a patient's radiotherapy pathway, including diagnosis, external beam treatment and subsequent follow-up...
2017: Cancer Nanotechnology
Soraia Rosa, Chris Connolly, Giuseppe Schettino, Karl T Butterworth, Kevin M Prise
There has been growing interest in the use of nanomaterials for a range of biomedical applications over the last number of years. In particular, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) possess a number of unique properties that make them ideal candidates as radiosensitizers on the basis of their strong photoelectric absorption coefficient and ease of synthesis. However, despite promising preclinical evidence in vitro supported by a limited amount of in vivo experiments, along with advances in mechanistic understanding, GNPs have not yet translated into the clinic...
2017: Cancer Nanotechnology
Jeremy M C Brown, Fred J Currell
A local effect model (LEM)-based framework capable of interpolating nanoparticle-enhanced photon-irradiated clonogenic cell survival fraction measurements as a function of nanoparticle concentration was developed and experimentally benchmarked for gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-doped bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) under superficial kilovoltage X-ray irradiation. For three different superficial kilovoltage X-ray spectra, the BAEC survival fraction response was predicted for two different AuNP concentrations and compared to experimental data...
2017: Cancer Nanotechnology
Yu Mi, Zhiying Shao, Johnny Vang, Orit Kaidar-Person, Andrew Z Wang
Radiotherapy has been an integral treatment modality for cancer. The field arose from and progressed through innovations in physics, engineering, and biology. The evolution of radiation oncology will rely on the continued adoption of advances from other fields. A new area of science that possesses the ability to impact radiation oncology is nanomedicine. Materials on the nanoscale provide many unique properties such as enhanced permeability and retention effect and superparamagnetism that are well suited for applications in radiation oncology...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
Harry W Clifford, Amy P Cassidy, Courtney Vaughn, Evaline S Tsai, Bianka Seres, Nirmesh Patel, Hannah L O'Neill, Emil Hewage, John W Cassidy
BACKGROUND: Cancer is first and foremost a disease of the genome. Specific genetic signatures within a tumour are prognostic of disease outcome, reflect subclonal architecture and intratumour heterogeneity, inform treatment choices and predict the emergence of resistance to targeted therapies. Minimally invasive liquid biopsies can give temporal resolution to a tumour's genetic profile and allow the monitoring of treatment response through levels of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). However, the detection of ctDNA in repeated liquid biopsies is currently limited by economic and time constraints associated with targeted sequencing...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
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