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Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology

M Hobbs, C Griffiths, M A Green, H Jordan, J Saunders, A Christensen, J McKenna
This study investigated if the relationship between residential fast-food outlet availability and obesity varied due to methodological diversity or by age. Cross-sectional data (n = 22,889) from the Yorkshire Health Study, England were used. Obesity was defined using self-reported height and weight (BMI ≥ 30). Food outlets ("fast-food", "large supermarkets", and "convenience or other food retail outlets") were mapped using Ordnance Survey Points of Interest (PoI) database...
February 2019: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
G M Milne, J Graham, A Allen, A Lahuerta-Marin, C McCormick, E Presho, R Skuce, A W Byrne
Despite a state-led eradication programme, bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains endemic in Northern Ireland (NI). Of particular concern are "chronic" prolonged and recurrent bTB breakdowns, which represent significant financial and administrative burdens. However, little is known regarding the spatiotemporal distribution of chronic breakdowns in NI. We therefore analysed both the spatial and spatiotemporal distributions of chronic bTB breakdowns between 2004 and 2014. Significantly positive values for Moran's Index of spatial autocorrelation were found, and Local Moran's I clustering was employed to assess for spatial associations in the number and prevalence of chronic bTB breakdowns across NI...
February 2019: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Daphne Lew, Steven E Rigdon
Nearly one in five American adults suffers from mental illness in a given year. Mental health conditions are known to be spatially clustered, but no prior work has examined the clustering of mental health related hospitalizations. This analysis uses Bayesian hierarchical models to predict rates of inpatient hospitalizations attributed to mental disorders within zip codes in Missouri, USA. Eight separate models were run, and all models yielded similar estimates for the average rate of mental health related hospitalizations (around 13 per 1000 population)...
February 2019: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Daniel Nenene Qekwana, James Wabwire Oguttu, Agricola Odoi
The objective of this study was to investigate spatial patterns of staphylococcal infections and resistance patterns of clinical isolates among dogs from Gauteng province in South Africa. Data from records of 1497 dog clinical samples submitted to a veterinary teaching hospital between 2007 and 2012 were used in the study. Spatial empirical Bayesian smoothed risk maps were used to investigate spatial patterns of staphylococcal infections, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and multidrug resistance (MDR). Moran's I and spatial scan statistics were used to investigate spatial clusters at municipal and town spatial scales...
February 2019: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
M Cabrera, G Taylor
Epidemiological studies have revealed a complex association between weather and dengue transmission. Our aim is the development of a Spatio-temporal modelling of dengue fever via a Generalized Additive mixed model (GAMM). The structure is based on unknown smoother functions for climatic and a set of non-climatic covariates. All the climatic covariates were found statistically significant with optimal lagged effect and the smoothed curves fairly captured the real dynamic on dengue fever. It was also found that critical levels of dengue cases were reached with temperature between 26 °C and 30 °C...
February 2019: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Christine M Orndahl, David C Wheeler
PURPOSE: This research aimed to identify significantly elevated areas of risk for suicide in Virginia adjusting for risk factors and risk factor uncertainty. METHODS: We fit three Bayesian hierarchical spatial models for relative risk of suicide adjusting for risk factors and considering different random effects. We compared models with and without incorporating parameter estimates' margin of error (MOE) from the American Community Survey and identified counties with significantly elevated risk and highly significantly elevated risk for suicide...
November 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
N F Reeve, P J Diggle, K Lamden, T Keegan
Giardia and Cryptosporidium are both waterborne parasites and leading causes of gastroenteritis. Although specimens from diarrhoeic patients are routinely examined for Cryptosporidium, they are often not examined for Giardia so many cases go undiagnosed. Since 2002, all faecal specimens in Central Lancashire have been tested for infection with Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The aim of this paper is to gain insight into the factors contributing to giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis, including evidence of transmission via drinking water...
November 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Erica Billig Rose, Kwonsang Lee, Jason A Roy, Dylan Small, Michelle E Ross, Ricardo Castillo-Neyra, Michael Z Levy
Vector-borne diseases commonly emerge in urban landscapes, and Gaussian field models can be used to create risk maps of vector presence across a large environment. However, these models do not account for the possibility that streets function as permeable barriers for insect vectors. We describe a methodology to transform spatial point data to incorporate permeable barriers, by distorting the map to widen streets, with one additional parameter. We use Gaussian field models to estimate this additional parameter, and develop risk maps incorporating streets as permeable barriers...
November 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Harrison Quick, Lance A Waller
When agencies release public-use data, they must be cognizant of the potential risk of disclosure associated with making their data publicly available. This issue is particularly pertinent in disease mapping, where small counts pose both inferential challenges and potential disclosure risks. While the small area estimation, disease mapping, and statistical disclosure limitation literatures are individually robust, there have been few intersections between them. Here, we formally propose the use of spatiotemporal data analysis methods to generate synthetic data for public use...
November 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
O Amram, J Shoveller, R Hogg, L Wang, P Sereda, R Barrios, J Montaner, V Lima
Distance to health services plays an important role in determining access to care and an individual's health. This study aims to examine the relationship between distance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescribing physician and adherence to HIV treatment in British Columbia, Canada. Only participants who provided highly accurate locational data for both place of residence and their physician were used in the analysis. Using logistic regression, a multivariable confounder model was created to assess the association between distance and adherence...
November 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Zhuxuan Jin, Howard H Chang, William R Ponicki, Andrew Gaidus, Lance A Waller, Christopher N Morrison, Paul J Gruenewald
We analyzed counts of licensed bars, restaurants and off-premise alcohol outlets within 53 California cities from 2000-2013. Poisson models were used to assess overall space-time associations between outlet numbers and population size and median household income in local and spatially adjacent block groups. We then separated covariate effects into distinct spatial and temporal components ("decomposed" models). Overall models showed that densities of all outlet types were generally greatest within block groups that had lower income, were adjacent to block groups with lower income, had greater populations, and were adjacent to block groups that had greater populations...
November 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Wei Xu, Changshan Wu
Based on national death certificate data during 2000 and 2010, we employed the space-time scan statistic to identify spatiotemporal clusters of dementia mortality in the contiguous United States. Results revealed that, for both Alzheimer's disease and all-cause dementia mortality in the total population, the most likely clusters occurred in the Northeast region, with lower than average relative risk. The most likely excess mortality clusters were in the Pacific Northwest and Ohio River Valley and Carolinas...
November 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Ming Leung, Chun-Bong Chow, Pak-Keung Patrick Ip, Siu-Fai Paul Yip
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Thomas Ly, Myles Cockburn, Bryan Langholz
Cost-efficient sampling schemes for population-based case-control studies are necessary for sampling subjects in geographically dispersed populations where in-house surveys are expensive to conduct due to high interviewer travel costs that may be associated with simple random sampling. Motivated by the original study conducted by Cockburn et al. (2011) that investigated the relationship between exposure to pesticides and prostate carcinogenesis, a set of cluster-based individually matched case-control designs is presented for cost-efficient sampling of additional controls...
August 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
María S López, Gabriela V Müller, Walter F Sione
Most vector-borne diseases exhibit a distinct seasonal pattern, which clearly suggests that they are weather sensitive. Rainfall, temperature, and other climate variables affect in many ways both the vectors and the pathogens they transmit. Likewise, climate can be determinant in outbreaks incidence. A growing number of studies have provided evidence indicating the effects of climate variability on vector-borne diseases. However, oftentimes, the different diseases and regions are not uniformly represented, scarcity or lack of publications in some countries is common...
August 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Anna Freni-Sterrantino, Massimo Ventrucci, Håvard Rue
In this note we discuss (Gaussian) intrinsic conditional autoregressive (CAR) models for disconnected graphs, with the aim of providing practical guidelines for how these models should be defined, scaled and implemented. We show how these suggestions can be implemented in two examples, on disease mapping.
August 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Keumseok Koh, Sue C Grady, Joe T Darden, Igor Vojnovic
Obesity is a growing public health concern in the United States. There is a need to monitor obesity prevalence at the local level to intervene in place-specific ways. However, national public health surveys suppress the local geographic information of respondents due to small sample sizes and the protection of confidentiality. This study therefore, uses a spatial microsimulation approach to estimate obesity prevalence rates at the county level across the United States to visualize temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal changes from 2000 to 2010 for use in the monitoring of obesity prevalence...
August 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Liang Mao, Jue Yang, Guangran Deng
Effects of urban/rural residence on late-stage cancer have long been explored, but remained controversial. Spatial granularity of rural definition, temporal change of rurality, and local variability of such effects may contribute to inconsistent findings, but they have not been fully addressed. We proposed a spatially resolved and temporally comparable rurality index and a geographically weighted regression approach to re-examine this question. Taking Florida as an example, our analyses show that rural effects on late-stage cancer vary dramatically over locations (600-m cells)...
August 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Natalya Rybnikova, Richard G Stevens, David I Gregorio, Holly Samociuk, Boris A Portnov
Breast cancer (BC) incidence rates in Connecticut are among the highest in the United States, and are unevenly distributed within the state. Our goal was to determine whether artificial light at night (ALAN) played a role. Using BC records obtained from the Connecticut Tumor Registry, we applied the double kernel density (DKD) estimator to produce a continuous relative risk surface of a disease throughout the State. A multi-variate analysis compared DKD and census track estimates with population density, fertility rate, percent of non-white population, population below poverty level, and ALAN levels...
August 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Gillian Dunn, Glen D Johnson
Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in West Africa. To determine whether there are areas of heightened risk and if so, how they may be influenced by household and climatic variables, we describe the geo-spatial distribution of childhood diarrhea in ten countries of West Africa for the period 2008-2013 using data from Demographic and Health Surveys. The purely spatial scan statistic was applied, where the observed diarrhea cases were modeled as a Poisson variable and were compared to expected cases predicted from non-spatial logistic regression...
August 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
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