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HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care

Eyob Alemayehu Gebreyohannes, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Tamrat Befekadu Abebe, Sewunet Admasu Belachew, Henok Getachew Tegegn, Sarab M Mansoor
Purpose: In health communication, pictogram has a comprehensive place to aid attention, memory recall, and promote adherence. This study was conducted to assess whether pictorial intervention would help to identify and improve adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting in an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic in Northwest Ethiopia. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study on ART-naïve HIV-positive patients was conducted from July 2015 to January 2016. The patients were randomly categorized into two groups...
2019: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Linh Vu Phuong Dang, Viet Hung Pham, Duc Minh Nguyen, Thanh Thi Dinh, Thu Hoai Nguyen, Thanh Hai Le, Van Lam Nguyen, Thi Phuong Vu
Background: HIV-infected children suffer from higher levels of treatment failure compared to adults. Immunoactivation, including humoral immunoactivation reflected by increased immunoglobulin levels, is believed to occur early during HIV infection. Therefore, we wanted investigate alteration in immunoglobulin levels in association with treatment response in HIV-infected children. Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted using clinical data collected from 68 HIV-infected children enrolled at the National Hospital of Pediatrics, Vietnam...
2019: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Obinna Ositadimma Oleribe, Ede Enenche, Deborah Udofia, Ekei Ekom, Princess Ifunanya Osita-Oleribe, Jin Un Kim, Simon David Taylor-Robinson
Background: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is one of the commonest avenues through which infants are infected with HIV. To achieve an HIV-free generation, MTCT of HIV should be eliminated. Nigeria began prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services 13 years ago, but it still contributes to over one-third of global MTCT burden. We set out to explore and define the effectiveness of PMTCT in selected sites in North Central Nigeria. Methods: We conducted a retrospective secondary data analysis at eight service delivery points in two states...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Charlotte Bernard, Eric Balestre, Patrick A Coffie, Serge Paul Eholie, Eugène Messou, Viviane Kwaghe, Benson Okwara, Adrien Sawadogo, Yao Abo, François Dabis, Nathalie de Rekeneire
Background: Reporting mortality and lost to follow-up (LTFU) by age is essential as older HIV-positive patients might be at risk of long-term effects of living with HIV and/or taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). As age effects might not be linear and might impact HIV outcomes in the oldest more severely, people living with HIV (PLHIV) aged 50-59 years and PLHIV aged >60 years were considered separately. Setting: Seventeen adult HIV/AIDS clinics spread over nine countries in West Africa...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Hussen Mohammed, Nega Assefa, Bezatu Mengistie
Background: The double burden of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB) and HIV disproportionately affects Africa. Our objective was to summarize the prevalence of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods: We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for studies done on the prevalence of EPTB among PLWHA which published in English from 1990 to 2017. We also searched bibliographic indices and browsed through reference lists of articles and journals...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Ellen Dowers, Francis Zamora, Lydia Aoun Barakat, Onyema Ogbuagu
Much progress has been made in the development of antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) for HIV-1 infection. Beginning a little over a decade ago, single tablet combination regimens (STRs) became available, and subsequently, newer STR formulations with improved safety profiles have emerged. Recently, there is a growing interest in regimen simplification with the primary goal of further reducing long-term toxicities of ART and improving medication adherence. Dolutegravir/rilpivirine (DTG/RPV) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first dual antiretroviral STR for the maintenance therapy of HIV-1 infection...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Lucas Hill, Shawn R Smith, Maile Young Karris
Modern pharmacologic management of people living with HIV involves the use of fixed dose combinations of antiretrovirals that are simple to take, well tolerated, and highly effective. Specific recent pharmacologic advancements include 1) the second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitors (dolutegravir and bictegravir) that consistently show less side effects, high tolerability, minimal drug interactions, and rapid rates of HIV viral load decline and 2) tenofovir alafenamide, a prodrug of tenofovir that concentrates in lymphoid tissue and minimizes off target effects...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
José Angelo Lauletta Lindoso, Carlos Henrique Valente Moreira, Mirella Alves Cunha, Igor Thiago Queiroz
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum . The burden of VL is concentrated in tropical and subtropical areas; however, HIV infection has spread VL over a hyperendemic area. Several outcomes are observed as a result of VL-HIV coinfection. Impacts are observed in immunopathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and therapeutic response. Concerning clinical manifestation, typical and unusual manifestation has been observed during active VL in HIV-infected patient, as well as alteration in immunoresponse, inducing greater immunosuppression by low CD4 T-lymphocyte count or even by induction of immunoactivation, with cell senescence...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Zerihun Ataro, Wondimye Ashenafi, Jiregna Fayera, Tekabe Abdosh
Background: People with HIV infection are at increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension are recognized as the major NCDs. Except few findings in general population, there is no well-documented evidence on the magnitude of NCDs and associated factors among HIV-positive patients. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and associated factors of DM and hypertension among adult HIV-positive subjects receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Kenneth Soyemi, Teddy Muisyo, Yaa KariKari, Kun-Uk David Lee, Peter Nguyen, Karen E Simpson, Kevin Regis, Lisa Henry Reid
HIV testing in the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) is a novel concept as adolescents, and young adults, use the PED as point of care or first point of contact with the health care system. Our objective was to study the HIV nontesting data and factors that influenced testing decision among patients receiving care in our PED. We designed a survey that inquired about testing acceptance, reasons for rejection, satisfaction with testing conditions, and understanding of the consequence of HIV test results. We approached 500 patients across all shifts in the PED; for analysis, categorical variables were created using demographic data (race, age, ethnicity, marital status, level of education)...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Mengliang Ye, Mohan Giri
Objective: This study aims to assess the prevalence and correlates of HIV Infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two major provinces in southwest of China. Method: We adopted the method of anonymous survey and HIV blood test on 1,245 MSM >18 years of age from Chongqing and Sichuan Province, China. Results: The prevalence of HIV infection among MSM was 21.20%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significant independent predictors of HIV infection among MSM as follows: lower level of education, preference to be receptive, lower frequency of condom use, drug usage, higher number of sexual partners in the past 1 month, and people suffering from sexually transmitted diseases...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Sampurna Kakchapati, Nirmal Gautam, Khagendra Prakash Kc, Bir Bahadhur Rawal
Purpose: Knowledge on HIV and safe sex practices are the main determinants for the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS transmission. The aim of this study was to assess HIV awareness and safe sexual behavior among the female sex workers (FSWs) in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal. Methods: The study was based on data secondary to Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance surveys of 2093 FSWs in Kathmandu valley from 2006 to 2015. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the factors associated with knowledge and misconceptions about HIV (BCDEF) and safe sexual practices (consistent condom use with regular clients and nonpaying partners)...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Amy L Slogrove, Jacqueline Sas, John Lengwe Kunda, Frederick Morfaw, Jackson K Mukonzo, Wei Cao, Gisele Ngomba-Kadima, Moleen Zunza, Pierre Ongolo-Zogo, Philip N Nana, Anne Cockcroft, Neil Andersson, Nelson Sewankambo, Mark F Cotton, Taisheng Li, Taryn Young, Joel Singer, Jean-Pierre Routy, Colin Jd Ross, Kyaw Thin, Lehana Thabane, Aslam H Anis
As a response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and part of Canadian Institutes for Health Research's mandate to support international health research capacity building, the Canadian Institutes for Health Research Canadian HIV Trial Network (CTN) developed an international postdoctoral fellowship award under the CTN's Postdoctoral Fellowship Awards Program to support and train young HIV researchers in resource-limited settings. Since 2010, the fellowship has been awarded to eight fellows in Cameroon, China, Lesotho, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Sri Masyeni, Erly Sintya, Dewi Megawati, Ni Made Hegard Sukmawati, Dewa Ga Budiyasa, Sri Agung Aryastuti, Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Igkn Arijana, N Nasronudin
Background: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the cornerstone of highly active antiretroviral therapy combination regimens for HIV infection. Unfortunately, NRTIs have been noticeably associated with many adverse effects related to mitochondrial toxicity leading to mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) depletion. However, similar mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been found even in antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients, suggesting HIV itself could contribute to this abnormality...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Andrea K Daniels, Rudolph L Van Niekerk
Introduction: Attitudes, responses, and reactions of HIV-positive women in three sub-Saharan African regions toward a therapeutic exercise intervention, aimed to determine the presence of depression and low body self-image, were captured. This provided insight into body satisfaction and desire to exercise (Stage 1, n=60), body self-image and depression (Stage 2, n=60), and overall concerns around the often adverse side effects of antiretroviral treatment (ART). A program of therapeutic (specialty) exercise was developed for the experimental design (Stage 2), to quantify the psychological side effects of these variables...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Getu Mosisa, Kifle Woldemichael, Fantahun Ayalew
Background: HIV/AIDS remains a major public health problem. Practice of risky sexual behaviors is the major effective driver of the HIV epidemic among HIV-positive individuals. This behavior exposes their partners to HIV, and for those that are already positive it exposes them to a risk of suprainfection by other strains. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and associated factors among people living with HIV attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic at Nekemte Referral Hospital...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Olivia Sánchez-Cabral, Dina Martínez-Mendoza, Ángel Paul Flores-Bello, José Arturo Martínez-Orozco, Rosa María Rivera-Rosales, César Luna-Rivero, Patricio Santillán-Doherty, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
Background: The key diagnostic method for the evaluation of lung diseases associated with HIV infection is bronchoscopy, with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) being the most commonly used sampling technique. Transbronchial biopsy (TBB) is often complementary. Setting: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study to determine the diagnostic usefulness of bronchoscopy with simultaneous samples obtained through BAL and TBB in HIV-infected patients with pneumonia at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases Ismael Cosío Villegas...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Syokau Ilovi, Richard Ngethe, Immaculate Mutisya, Evelyn W Ngugi, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo
Background: Understanding trends in patient profiles and identifying predictors for adverse outcomes are key to improving the effectiveness of HIV care and treatment programs. Previous work in Kenya has documented findings from a rural setting. This paper describes trends in demographic and clinical characteristics of antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment cohorts at a large urban, referral HIV clinic and explores treatment outcomes and factors associated with attrition during 12 years of follow-up...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Gueorgui Dubrocq, Natella Rakhmanina
Introduction: Successful management of pediatric and adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease includes lifelong administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The need for the continuous use of antiretroviral drugs throughout the life course poses a challenge to children, adolescents, and adults living with HIV and their caregivers. Historically, treatment interruptions have been viewed as a negative therapeutic strategy. Recently, however, treatment interruptions or treatment reduction strategies have become a focus of investigations as innovative approaches to the long-term management of HIV disease...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Ana Lucia L Munhoz Lima, Priscila Rosalba Oliveira, Vladimir C Carvalho, Alexandre Leme Godoy-Santos, Leandro Ejnisman, Claudia R Oliveira, David E Uip, Maria Irma S Duarte
Objective: To examine the presence of HIV in bone tissue of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) with osteonecrosis of femoral head and describe clinical and anatomopathological findings. Design: This is a case series which included 44 PLWHIV with osteonecrosis of femoral head who underwent total hip arthroplasty. Methods: Clinical data were obtained through analysis of the patients' medical records. Bone tissue obtained during total hip arthroplasty was retrieved and sent for conventional and immunohistochemical analysis...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
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