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Behavior Analysis in Practice

Timothy C Fuller, Erick M Dubuque
Creating phase change lines and their corresponding labels in Microsoft Excel® remains a difficulty for many behavior analysts who want these display features to be integrated into the graph itself. Previous methods designed to address this issue have had limited utility across the types of data sets commonly analyzed by behavior analysts. The purpose of this article is to provide a fully functional method for integrating phase change lines and labels into Microsoft Excel® line graphs. This method is a combination of previous recommendations and allows for easy integration of new data and exportation of graphical displays to other software programs (e...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
James T Chok
Practitioners in the field of applied behavior analysis rely on graphing software to display the data they collect during assessments. However, the graphing process can be cumbersome and procedures change as new versions of software programs are released. The current tutorial provides step-by-step instructions for graphing functional analysis data using Microsoft Excel 2016 for PCs. Instructions for creating functional analysis data depicted in reversal, latency, mulitielment, and trial-based functional analysis are provided...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Zoe R Lucock, Rebecca A Sharp, Robert S P Jones
Behavior analysis has made contributions in the development of evidence-based interventions for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), and there is a growing evidence base for behavior-analytic interventions for older adults with dementia. As there is an increased number of adults with IDD living to old age, and an increased prevalence of comorbid dementia in people with IDD, a review of the behavior-analytic contributions with this population is warranted. We searched Web of Science and PsycInfo and manually reviewed the last 20 years of five behavioral journals...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Abraham Graber, Matthew O'Brien
Clinical ethics, with its emphasis on the actions of clinicians, risks overlooking the ways in which broader health-care structures influence the behavior of health-care providers. Analysis of a factual case study demonstrates that status quo reimbursement practices may place behavior analysts in a position where, no matter how they act, they risk acting unethically. By contrast, the reimbursement model set by accountable care organizations (ACOs), part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (also known as Obamacare), may offer a solution...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Collin Shepley, Jennifer Grisham-Brown
In this manuscript we attempt to provide a narrative history of the relationship between applied behavior analysis and early childhood education by examining the policies and research that have collaboratively shaped both fields. In addition, given the rapid pace at which early childhood education has changed in the last 25 years, we provide an overview of a recommended model for delivering early childhood education services, to illustrate its congruence with the practices and principles of applied behavior analysis...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Shahla Ala'i-Rosales, Joseph H Cihon, Thomas D R Currier, Julia L Ferguson, Justin B Leaf, Ron Leaf, John McEachin, Sara M Weinkauf
Current practice guidelines suggest that the assessment and treatment of challenging behavior should consist of conducting a functional behavior assessment following the onset of problem behavior. This assessment process can include indirect and direct assessment, as well as manipulation of variables to determine function. The purpose of this article is to outline a proposal that would add prevention practices to early intervention guidelines for problem behavior. Based on decades of research, the suggestion is to proactively teach children at risk for problem behavior to navigate four of the most common conditions that have been demonstrated to occasion problem behavior...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Amelia M Fonger, Richard W Malott
The current study used a shaping procedure to teach three preschool-aged children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder to make eye contact with the instructor for a duration of 3 s. Then, eye contact was taught during breaks in instruction. Following the initial intervention, the frequency of reinforcement was decreased while training for generalization across instructors and locations. All three children acquired quick and sustained eye contact, which maintained after 1 month without the need for prompting...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Adam D Hahs, James Jarynowski
PEAK is a language curriculum dedicated to expanding language via the science of behavior analysis. The present study sought to evaluate the extent to which a behavioral skills training (BST) program impacted treatment integrity for six direct care staff implementing the Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge Relational Training System (PEAK) with six individuals with autism. We used a 2-h workshop-like Behavioral Skills Training (BST; instruction, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback) targeting PEAK treatment integrity...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Shelley Clarke, Michelle A Duda
During adolescence, peer behavior is a strong stimulus that influences how students initiate and respond to their physical and social environment. Yet, the majority of school-based behavioral studies (Dunlap, Clarke, & Steiner, 1999) do not include peers as intervention agents. This study demonstrated how to include peers as contributing members of a Positive Behavior Support (PBS) team. Findings indicated that peers were able to implement a behavior support plan with fidelity, resulting in decreased challenging behavior and increased activity engagement in a middle school peer with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Bethany Hansen, Andresa A DeSouza, Ashley L Stuart, M Alice Shillingsburg
The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of the high-probability (high- p ) instructional procedure involving motor imitation on the levels of compliance with vocal imitation in a 3-year-old boy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used a multiple-baseline design across three stimuli sets to demonstrate effects of the procedure over compliance with vocal imitation responses. Results demonstrated that the high- p procedural sequence was effective in increasing the levels of compliance with vocal imitation...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Mark R Dixon, Anne Blevins, Jordan Belisle, Bambie Bethel
The present study evaluated the efficacy of a discrete-trial-training procedure to bring extended verbal behavior under the convergent control of audience and contextual variables during a show-and-tell activity. Three children with autism were exposed initially to a baseline condition in which they were presented with a preferred item and asked to tell the class about it. Following low rates of responding, a differential reinforcement procedure was implemented that reinforced extending the verbal utterance word length beyond baseline levels allowing for an appropriate display of "show-and-tell" behavior...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Ashley M Lugo, Paige E McArdle, Melissa L King, John C Lamphere, Janelle A Peck, Hanna J Beck
The current study examined child preference for presession therapeutic conditions. A 4-year-old female diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was exposed to three conditions in a concurrent-chains arrangement: presession pairing (PSP) prior to the onset of discrete-trial instruction (DTI), free play (FP) prior to DTI, or immediate onset of DTI. Initial link selections in the concurrent-chains arrangement suggested a relative preference for the PSP condition across multiple therapists. Negative vocalizations decreased across all conditions following implementation of the concurrent-chains arrangement with no differentiation between therapeutic conditions...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Ashley Murphy, James W Moore, Evan H Dart, Robyn R Brewer, William B Ford, Marshall P Lundy, Meleah Ackley
The current study examined the effects of chain schedules of reinforcement and restricting access to reinforcement on increasing the number of words used in conversation for an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder. After access to a video game was restricted, the participant had to meet various chain-schedule requirements of responding to regain access. The results demonstrated that the combined procedures were successful in building multiword conversation between the young man, his mother, and/or a therapist...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Jennifer R Ledford, Erin E Barton, Monica N Rigor, Kristen C Stankiewicz, Kate T Chazin, Emilee R Harbin, Abby L Taylor
Appropriate use of function-based assessments and interventions is crucial for improving educational outcomes and ensuring the well-being of children who engage in dangerous problem behaviors such as pica. A function-based assessment was conducted for a child engaging in pica in an inclusive childcare setting. Results suggest pica was maintained by access to adult attention. Function-based interventions were developed, assessed, and shared with the child's teaching team. Follow-up data suggest that his teachers continued to use the intervention and that levels of pica remained low...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Becky F Barron, Leah Verkuylen, Jordan Belisle, Dana Paliliunas, Mark R Dixon
The present study demonstrates the utility of relational training for teaching Then-Later and Here-There deictic relations for two children with autism. Mutually entailed single-reversal relations, transfers of stimulus function, and transformations of stimulus function were also evaluated for each participant. The methods were adapted from the PEAK-T curriculum. Results for both participants support the utility of relational training for teaching children with autism basic perspective-taking skills. Both participants were able to generalize the perspective-taking skills to novel sets of stimuli, and demonstrate mutually entailed responding during single-reversal tasks...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Shira Melody Berkovits, Alicia M Alvero
Few attendance interventions have (a) addressed the issue of absenteeism as it applies to part-time adolescent employees, (b) distinguished between planned and unplanned absences, and (c) presented a cost-effectiveness analysis of the intervention. This study employed an A-B-A reversal design, including a small monetary bonus for attendance by part-time adolescent employees. Results indicate a 60% reduction in average group absences during the monetary contingency phase as compared to both baseline phases. The organization spent a total of $264 on monetary incentives during the intervention phase and reduced time spent on hiring and training substitute personnel by approximately 60%...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Michael E May
Problem behavior can be reduced through choice making and use of preferred instructional activities. However, the opportunity to choose does not imply students are more engaged with instructional activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of differential consequences on the on-task behavior of students within the context of teacher versus student selection of instructional activities. Students were exposed to two contingencies (i.e., escape + differential attention vs. escape + physical proximity) across two stimulus events (i...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Kathleen B Aspiranti, Alanna Bebech, Brittany Ruffo, Christopher H Skinner
The color wheel is an evidence-based classroom management system that has been used to decrease inappropriate behaviors and increase on-task behaviors in general education elementary classrooms but not in classrooms for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of the color wheel system (CWS) on disruptive behaviors (being out of seat for one classroom, inappropriate vocalizations for two classrooms) in three self-contained elementary classrooms for students with ASD...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Summer Bottini, Jennifer Vetter, Jennifer Gillis
Task interspersal is a teaching method frequently used with individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although many different procedural variations of task interspersal have been reported in the literature, it is unclear how providers serving individuals with ASD implement task interspersal. The present study surveyed direct care providers to examine which variations of task interspersal they use most frequently, as well as how they choose a particular variation. Results revealed that many different procedural variations are used across providers...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Bryant C Silbaugh, Terry S Falcomata
For some children with autism, mand training can produce highly repetitive manding unless the environment is arranged in a manner that promotes mand variability. Prior research demonstrated that mand training using a lag schedule and progressive time delay increased variability in vocal manding in children with autism. Whether lag schedules have similar effects on sign mand topographies is unknown. The current study evaluated the effects of mand training with a Lag 1 schedule of reinforcement and progressive time delay (TD) on topographical variability and the development of a sign mand response class hierarchy in a boy with autism...
March 2019: Behavior Analysis in Practice
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