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Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy

Olga Gruzdeva, Daria Borodkina, Evgenya Uchasova, Yulia Dyleva, Olga Barbarash
Leptin and its receptors have been identified as key regulators of body weight and energy homeostasis. A decrease in tissue sensitivity to leptin leads to the development of obesity and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Mechanisms underlying the development of leptin resistance include mutations in the genes encoding leptin and its receptors, as well as proteins involved in self-regulation of leptin synthesis and blood-brain barrier permeability. Leptin resistance encompasses a complex pathophysiological phenomenon with a number of potential research lines...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Ah Reum Khang, Hye Won Lee, Dongwon Yi, Yang Ho Kang, Seok Man Son
Purpose: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide, and it is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to estimate the prevalence of NAFLD defined by the fatty liver index (FLI), in order to investigate the association between FLI and metabolic disorders and to determine the cutoff value of FLI to screen for MetS. Subjects and methods: This study utilized a national representative sample of Korean adults (the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys) which was conducted in 2010-2011...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Naeti Suksomboon, Nalinee Poolsup, Wei Lin
Background: Kiwifruit seems to have beneficial effect on metabolic health because it contains abundant phytochemicals and antioxidants. This study aimed to assess the effect of kiwifruit on metabolic health in participants with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Literature was searched from PubMed, CENTRAL, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Scopus, Proquest, Latin American and Carib-bean Health Sciences Literature, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, https://clinicaltrials...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Karolina Dłużniak-Gołaska, Mariusz Panczyk, Dorota Szostak-Węgierek, Agnieszka Szypowska, Beata Sińska
Introduction: The dietary habits of patients with type 1 diabetes are key elements of treatment as they facilitate the normalization of glycemia and maintenance of normal body weight (BW), lipid concentration, and the level of blood pressure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze dietary habits and to verify the influence of the quality of diet on insulin dosage and selected clinical variables. Materials and methods: The study included 194 subjects (8-18 years old) suffering from type 1 diabetes and treated with the use of insulin pump...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Hsin-Hsien Yu, Mao-Chih Hsieh, Szu-Yuan Wu, Edgar D Sy, Yan-Shen Shan
Background: Duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) is an important component of many types of current bariatric surgery including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, mini-gastric bypass, biliopancreatic diversion, duodenal switch, and DJB plus sleeve gastrectomy. Surgery is often observed to ameliorate nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but without a clearly delineated mechanism. In this study, we investigated the effects of DJB in diet-induced obese rats with NASH. Materials and methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups and fed the following diets over 6 months: A) normal chow (NC group, n=6); B) methionine-choline-deficient (MCD)-high-fat (HF) diet (HF group, n=6); C) MCD-HF diet for 3 months followed by DJB and MCD-HF diet for subsequent 3 months (DJB group, n=6); and D) MCD-HF diet for 3 months followed by treatment with pioglitazone (PGZ) with MCD-HF diet for subsequent 3 months (PGZ group, n=6)...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Yanlu Xin, Yunyang Wang, Jingwei Chi, Xvhua Zhu, Hui Zhao, Shihua Zhao, Yangang Wang
Background: Free fatty acids (FFAs) are associated with insulin secretion and insulin resistance. However, the associations among FFAs, obesity, and progression from a normal to a prediabetic state are unclear. Methods: Nondiabetic subjects (5,952) were divided in two groups according to their body mass index (BMI): obese subjects (BMI ≥24 kg/m2 ) and nonobese subjects (BMI <24 kg/m2 ). Clinical and multiple glucolipid metabolism data were collected. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-β) was used...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Yu Hyeon Yi, Young Hye Cho, Yun Jin Kim, Sang Yeoup Lee, Jeong Gyu Lee, Eun Hee Kong, Byung Mann Cho, Young Jin Tak, Hye Rim Hwang, Seung Hun Lee, Eun Ju Park
Background: High intraocular pressure (IOP) is well established as the most significant risk factor for both the development and progression of primary open-angle glaucoma. Elevated IOP is more frequently seen in the presence of metabolic disturbances that are associated with the components of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ocular hypertension and MetS. Patients and methods: We examined the relationship between ocular hypertension and MetS in 17,160 Korean adults without glaucoma aged >19 years (7,368 men and 9,792 women) who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Shuangling Xiu, Zheng Zheng, Qiuju Liao, Piu Chan
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether elderly people with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or diabetes mellitus (DM) share the common risk factors for cognitive impairment as compared to normal blood glucose population. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed 10,039 community-dwelling participants aged ≥ 55 years in Beijing, China. According to the glycemic status, subjects were classified into three groups: normal fasting plasma glucose (NG, n=6399), impaired fasting glucose (IFG, n=873) and DM (n=2626)...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Alfonso M Durán, Lorena M Salto, Justin Câmara, Anamika Basu, Ivette Paquien, W Lawrence Beeson, Anthony Firek, Zaida Cordero-MacIntyre, Marino De León
Purpose: To determine whether dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduces neuropathic pain symptoms in Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Forty volunteers with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the "En Balance-PLUS" program, which provided weekly nutrition-diabetes education and daily supplementation with 1,000 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-200 mg eicosapentaenoic acid over 3 months. The study assessed self-reported neuropathic pain symptoms pre/postintervention using the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), monitored clinical laboratory values at baseline and 3 months, and performed baseline and 3-month metabolomic analysis of plasma samples...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
C Linda Campbell, Renqiang Yu, Fengzhi Li, Qin Zhou, Daozhen Chen, Ce Qi, Yongxiang Yin, Jin Sun
Purpose: The antioxidant resveratrol (RSV) has low bioavailability and can reach the colon to access the gut microbial ecosystem. RSV administration together with high-fat diet prevented abnormal changes of intestinal microbiota. However, whether or not RSV can reshape the intestinal microbiota of obese mice and alleviate obesity-related diseases remains to be studied. This study aimed to explore the role of RSV in alleviating high-fat-induced obesity and its relationship with oxidative stress and gut microbiota...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Abdul Basit, Asher Fawwad, Shaista Ali Siddiqui, Kulsoom Baqa
According to the recently published National Diabetes Survey of Pakistan (NDSP 2016-2017), the prevalence of diabetes is 26.3%. Hence, Pakistan has around 27.4 million people >20 years of age suffering with diabetes. Compared to previous estimation of having around 7 million diabetic patients based on a survey done in 1994-1998, the figures are disturbingly alarming. The four main strategies to tackle the rising incidence of diabetes in Pakistan are as follows: 1) creating multidisciplinary teams through capacity building of the health care professionals (HCPs), including doctors, dieticians, diabetes educators, diabetes foot assistants, and program managers in standardized evidence-based protocols, enhancing their knowledge and skills in managing diabetes and their related comorbidities; 2) promoting primary prevention and awareness all over Pakistan using screening methods such as Risk Assessment of Pakistani Individuals for Diabetes (RAPID); 3) defining strategies for the management and prevention of diabetes and its complication through forums such as the Pakistan Diabetes Leadership Forum (PDLF); and 4) implementing a nationwide diabetes care program including registration, treatment, and referral protocols...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Alebachew Fasil, Belete Biadgo, Molla Abebe
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to either insulin deficiency or resistance or both. Hyperglycemia induces tissue damage through mitochondrial superoxide production, affecting retina, glomerulus, and neurons. It requires continuing medical care and ongoing self-care management to prevent and delay acute and long-term complications. Therefore, our study was designed to assess glycemic control and diabetes complications among diabetes patients attending at University of Gondar Hospital...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Wisam Jamal, Mohammad M Zagzoog, Salma H Sait, Ahmed O Alamoudi, Shaza Abo'ouf, Ayman A Alghamdi, Ryan O Bamashmous, Ashraf A Maghrabi
Introduction: One anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) is an emerging bariatric procedure, which has been reported to be safe and effective. This study aims to evaluate the short-term outcome of OAGB and its midterm effects on weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and methods: A retrospective review of patients who had undergone OAGB between January 2013 and January 2017 in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, is presented here...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Mihiretu M Kebede, Manuela Peters, Thomas L Heise, Claudia R Pischke
Aims: Pooling the effect sizes of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from continuous outcomes, such as glycated hemoglobin level (HbA1c), is an important method in evidence syntheses. However, due to challenges related to baseline imbalances and pre/post correlations, simple analysis of change scores (SACS) and simple analysis of final values (SAFV) meta-analyses result in under- or overestimation of effect estimates. This study was aimed to compare pooled effect sizes estimated by Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), SACS, and SAFV meta-analyses, using the example of RCTs of digital interventions with HbA1c as the main outcome...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Beata Hornik, Jan Duława, Jan Szewieczek, Jacek Durmała
Background: Resistin (RES) concentration increases in end-stage renal disease patients. However, there have been no studies defining the role of physical activity in RES concentrations in hemodialyzed (HD) patients. This study was aimed to determine metabolic and inflammatory effects, including RES, of 4-week supervised rehabilitation program in HD patients, with or without metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods: The study was completed by 28 patients aged 56.9±13.3 years <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Anne Sophie Mathiesen, Ingrid Egerod, Tonny Jensen, Gudrun Kaldan, Henning Langberg, Thordis Thomsen
Diabetes distress (DD) disproportionately affects vulnerable people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and interventions targeting this population are therefore relevant. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the evidence for an effect of psychosocial interventions for reducing DD, and, secondly HbA1c, depression, and health-related quality of life in vulnerable people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Vulnerability encompasses poor glycemic control (HbA1c >7.5%) and at least one additional risk factor for poor diabetes outcomes such as low educational level, comorbidity, and risky lifestyle behavior...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Ehab Mudher Mikhael, Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Saad Abdulrahman Hussain, Nizar Shawky
Background and aim: Diabetes self-management behaviors are necessary to ensure optimum glycemic control. However, limited data were available regarding the practice of self-management by the Iraqi diabetic patients. This study aims to understand the knowledge, behaviors, and barriers of diabetes self-management among Iraqi type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in addition to their opinions and views toward the diabetes self-management educational program. Methods: A qualitative method approach was used to obtain the data from T2DM patients recruited from the National Diabetes Center, Baghdad, Iraq...
2019: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Kai-Chun Cheng, Yingxiao Li, Wei-Ting Chang, Feng Yu Kuo, Zhih-Cherng Chen, Juei-Tang Cheng
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is known to be associated with hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, and it raises the risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Telmisartan is used in clinic as an angiotensin II receptor blocker and it is also identified as activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ (PPARδ). Activation of PPARδ produced beneficial effects on fatty acid metabolism and glucose metabolism. This study aims to investigate the effects of telmisartan on the modulation of MS in rats fed a high-fat/high-sodium diet...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Min Zhang, Xiaohong Jiang, Meidi Qu, Hongliu Gu, Qi Sha, Fei Hua
Background: The prevalence of obesity is growing rapidly and has become a global problem that increases the risk for many diseases. It is influenced by many factors, including consumption of the Western-style diet, characterized as a high-fat diet. Within the central nervous system, the hypothalamus is a critical site in maintaining energy homeostasis and sensing nutrient status, including palmitate, the major component of high-fat-diet. Methods: In the present study, we conducted a variety of studies to investigate the specific role of salubrinal on palmitate-induced hypothalamic cell death, leptin signaling, and ER stress in an embryonic hypothalamic cell line...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Ahmed M Ahmed, Omar F Khabour, Akram H Awadalla, Hisham A Waggiallah
Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with imbalance in body trace elements. The aim of the current investigation was to compare the levels of trace elements (Zn, Mg, Mn, Cu, Na, K, Fe, Ca, Cr, and Se) in insulin dependent (IDDM) and non-insulin dependent (NIDDM) diabetes. Methods: A total of 100 patients with diabetes (40 IDDM and 60 NIDDM) and 50 healthy subjects were recruited in the study from both genders. Biochemical measures include glucose, lipids, and HbA1C...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
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