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Psychology Research and Behavior Management

Mohammed AlKhars, Nicholas Evangelopoulos, Robert Pavur, Shailesh Kulkarni
Purpose: Operations managers are subjected to various cognitive biases, which may lead them to make less optimal decisions as suggested by the normative models. In their seminal work, Tversky and Kahneman introduced three heuristics based on which people make decisions: representativeness, availability, and anchoring. This paper aims to investigate the six cognitive biases resulting from the use of the representativeness heuristic, namely, insensitivity to prior probability of outcomes, insensitivity to sample size, misconception of chance, insensitivity to predictability, the illusion of validity, and misconception of regression...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Asia Rafiq, Sharjeel Saleem, Mohsin Bashir, Arfan Ali
Background: The purpose of this study is to present a broad-brush picture based on empirical evidence on the role of hindrance stressors, motivation, and cultural novelty in expatriate adjustment. Drawing on trait activation theory, this study examines the moderating role of extraversion in enhancing cultural adjustment to achieve positive work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) by expatriates. Methods: We gathered data using a sample of 458 eastern expatriates with current international assignments in different countries around the world...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Chunli Liu, Lie Wang, Ruiqun Qi, Weiqiu Wang, Shanshan Jia, Deshu Shang, Yangguang Shao, Min Yu, Xinwang Zhu, Shengnan Yan, Qing Chang, Yuhong Zhao
Purpose: Although the mental health status of doctoral students deserves attention, few scholars have paid attention to factors related to their mental health problems. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression and anxiety in doctoral students and examine possible associated factors. We further aimed to assess whether mentoring relationships mediate the association between research self-efficacy and depression/anxiety. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 325 doctoral students in a medical university...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Paul A Brown, Morgan Slater, Aisha Lofters
Purpose: Burnout is a syndrome comprised of three major dimensions, namely, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Its etiology appears to be multifactorial, involving work-related and personal factors including personality traits. Personality has been associated with burnout among various physician groups; however, this has not been studied well amongst primary care physicians. This study therefore aimed to investigate the association between personality type and burnout in primary care physicians in Canada and Jamaica...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Hajer Aouani, Maamer Slimani, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Sabeur Hamrouni, Mohamed Elloumi
Background: Emotional intelligence refers to how individuals deal with intrapersonal or interpersonal emotional information and how a subject identifies, expresses, understands, regulates, and uses his/her own emotions or those of others. The purpose of the present study was to validate the Arabic version of the "Profile of Emotional Competence" (PEC) questionnaire. Methods: A sample of 285 Tunisian participants (153 men and 132 women) was recruited, age range: 12-18 years (15...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Mohammad Adawi, Riccardo Zerbetto, Tania Simona Re, Bishara Bisharat, Mahmud Mahamid, Howard Amital, Giovanni Del Puente, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
Background: The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), developed by Derogatis in 1975, represents an important standardized screening instrument that enables one to quantitatively assess psychological distress and psychiatric disorders. The BSI is a 53-item self-report scale, measuring nine dimensions that can be summed up to reflect three global indices, including the General Severity Index (GSI). In the era of new information and communication technologies, nomophobia ("no mobile phobia") is an emerging disorder, characterized by the fear of being out of mobile phone contact...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Radhouane Achour, Marianne Koch, Yosra Zgueb, Uta Ouali, Rim Ben Hmid
Background: Vaginismus affects up to 1% of the female population and often represents a physical manifestation of an underlying psychological problem. Our objective was to investigate the psychosomatic impact of vaginismus in pregnant women and evaluate the quality of their therapeutic care in Tunisia. Methods: We included pregnant patients with vaginismus who presented at our obstetric emergency department between October 2016 and March 2017. All patients were interviewed by one expert psychiatrist and gynecologist using a standardized questionnaire...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Nada Azzouzi, Samir Ahid, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Nabil Berhili, Chadya Aarab, Rachid Aalouane, Said Boujraf, Ismail Rammouz
Introduction and aim: Eating disorders (EDs) are complex, multifactorial diseases linked to biological, developmental, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Medical students are among subjects at high risk of EDs. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate EDs among 710 Moroccan medical students with a focus on cognition and behavior related to EDs. Methods: Sociodemographic, economic, and clinical data were collected. Validated questionnaires, such as the SCOFF (Sick, Control, One Stone, Fat, Food) questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI2), were administered...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Carmen M Galvez-Sánchez, Stefan Duschek, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread and persistent musculoskeletal pain and other frequent symptoms such as fatigue, insomnia, morning stiffness, cognitive impairment, depression, and anxiety. FMS is also accompanied by different comorbidities like irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome. Although some factors like negative events, stressful environments, or physical/emotional traumas may act as predisposing conditions, the etiology of FMS remains unknown...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Adel F Almutairi, Mahmoud Salam, Abdallah A Adlan, Abdullah S Alturki
Background: Moral distress is a serious problem in healthcare environments that requires urgent attention and management. It occurs when healthcare providers are unable to provide the care that they feel is right or take, what they believe to be, ethically appropriate actions for their patients. Thus, this study aims to examine moral distress among nurses and physicians working in tertiary teaching hospitals in Saudi Arabia, as well as to evaluate the level of association between moral distress and turnover...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Yi Xiao, Xingyu Zhang, Dan Luo, Yehong Kuang, Wu Zhu, Xiang Chen, Minxue Shen
Background: Previous observational studies have shown comorbidity between psoriasis and psychological disorders. However, the evidence of the efficacy of psychological interventions, including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and other treatments, on psoriasis is still debated. Objectives: The aim of this study was to systematically review the psychological interventions used in the treatment of psoriasis and to meta-analyze the efficacy of psychological interventions on psoriasis with respect to area and severity reduction...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Michaela Holubova, Jan Prasko, Marie Ociskova, Kryštof Kantor, Jakub Vanek, Milos Slepecky, Kristyna Vrbova
Background: Modern psychiatry focuses on self-stigma, coping strategies, and quality of life (QoL). This study looked at relationships among severity of symptoms, self-stigma, demographics, coping strategies, and QoL in patients with neurotic spectrum disorders. Methods: A total of 153 clinically stable participants who met criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, adjustment disorders, somatoform disorders, or obsessive-compulsive disorder were included in a cross-sectional study...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Xinjun Jiang, Jingpin Wang, Yanhui Lu, Hua Jiang, Mingzi Li
Aims: The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of self-efficacy-focused education on health outcomes in persons with diabetes and review the strategies employed in the interventions. Background: The traditional educational interventions for persons with diabetes were insufficient to achieve the desired outcomes. Self-efficacy-focused education has been used to regulate the blood sugar level, behaviors, and psychosocial indicators for persons with diabetes...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Guei-Jhen Yan, Wen-Fu Wang, Kai-Ming Jhang, Che-Wei Lin, Hsin-Hung Wu
Background: Based on a person-centered care, the relationships between people with dementia and caregivers should be interconnected. There is a need to study what attributes would contribute a higher caregiving burden from a comprehensive viewpoint of care recipients and caregivers. Methods: Apriori algorithm is performed with 12 variables for antecedents and caregiving burden for the consequent from the self-built database of a medical center in Taiwan. The minimum support, minimum confidence, and lift of Apriori algorithm are set to 5%, 90%, and > 1, respectively...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Mostafa A Abolfotouh, Adel F Almutairi, Zainab Almutairi, Mahmoud Salam, Anwar Alhashem, Abdallah A Adlan, Omar Modayfer
Background: It has been reported that the majority of individuals with mental illnesses (MIs) do not seek help. Few studies have focused on correlates of a positive attitude toward professional help-seeking for MI. This study aimed to determine levels of knowledge, perception, and attitudes toward MI, determine attitudes toward mental health help-seeking, and identify sociodemographic predictors of correct knowledge and favorable attitudes among the Saudi public. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 650 Saudi adults aged >18 years who attended the Saudi Jenadriyah annual cultural and heritage festival during February 2016...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Emilia Solomon, Dumitru Brănișteanu, Andrei Dumbravă, Radu Gheorghe Solomon, Lorànt Kiss, Mihai Glod, Cristina Preda
Introduction: Active acromegaly is a rare chronic endocrine disorder caused by excessive growth hormone (GH). Clinical studies suggest that cognitive performance is impaired in acromegaly - particularly executive function as well as short- and long-term memory. This study compared the quality of life (QoL) and executive functioning in acromegaly patients vs healthy controls. Materials and methods: This was an observational case-control study on 38 subjects divided into 19 acromegaly patients and 19 matched controls...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Waśkiewicz Zbigniew, T Nikolaidis Pantelis, Chalabaev Aïna, Rosemann Thomas, Knechtle Beat
Background: In ultra-marathon running the proper motivation of the athlete is one of the milestones, not only during the races, but also during the practice sessions, which are long and very exhausting. Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of sport experience (expressed as number of finishes in ultra-marathons) with motivation characteristics of ultra-marathon runners. Subjects and methods: The Motivation of Marathoners Scale examined the motivation of ultra-marathon runners compared to endurance runners of shorter distances (control group)...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Jana Marie Havigerová, Jaroslava Dosedlová, Iva Burešová
Objective: Of the many existing health models, models of health behavior are considered optimal for research and application as they focus on concrete forms of behavior that support, maintain, or undermine one's health, and they accentuate the individual as the initiator of this behavior. Research in this area follows a broad range of concrete partial manifestations of health behavior. Is it necessary to differentiate between various types of health behavior or could these partial manifestations be combined under one common scale? Methods: Data acquisition tool: Health-Related Behavior Scale (HRBS, 42 items)...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Jian-Hong Chen, Po-Hsin Tsai, Yin-Chou Lin, Chih-Ken Chen, Ching-Yen Chen
Objective: To examine the effect of mindfulness-based training on performance and mental health among a group of elite athletes. Methods: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE) on mental health, flow state, and competitive state anxiety using a 4-week workshop. We recruited an amateur baseball team (N=21) in Taiwan, and collected information by self-reported questionnaires administered before, immediately after, and at a 4-week follow-up...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Yu Yu, Wei Zhou, Zi-Wei Liu, Mi Hu, Zhi-Hui Tan, Shui-Yuan Xiao
Background: The present study aimed to investigate differences in family burden and caregiver distress in a population of caregivers for schizophrenia, by separating patient gender and caregiver gender. Methods: A sample of 327 primary family caregivers was recruited from a Chinese rural community through a one-stage cluster-sampling method. A cross-sectional design was employed, using validated measures to assess both family burden and primary caregivers' depression and anxiety...
2019: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
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