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Virologica Sinica

Giovanni Di Guardo, Sandro Mazzariol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Chang Kong, Hao Xie, Zhenxing Gao, Ming Shao, Huan Li, Run Shi, Lili Cai, Shanshan Gao, Taolei Sun, Chaoyang Li
A plethora of evidence suggests that protein misfolding and aggregation are underlying mechanisms of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as prion diseases and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Like prion diseases, AD has been considered as an infectious disease in the past decades as it shows strain specificity and transmission potential. Although it remains elusive how protein aggregation leads to AD, it is becoming clear that cellular prion protein (PrPC ) plays an important role in AD pathogenesis. Here, we briefly reviewed AD pathogenesis and focused on recent progresses how PrPC contributed to AD development...
May 15, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Natalia Bagińska, Anna Pichlak, Andrzej Górski, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak
Acinetobacter baumannii causes serious infections especially in immunocompromised and/or hospitalized patients. Several A. baumannii strains are multidrug resistant and infect wounds, bones, and the respiratory tract. Current studies are focused on finding new effective agents against A. baumannii. Phage therapy is a promising means to fight this bacterium and many studies on procuring and applying new phages against A. baumannii are currently being conducted. As shown in animal models, phages against multidrug-resistant A...
May 15, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Yang Yang, Haolong Cong, Ning Du, Xiaodong Han, Lei Song, Wenliang Zhang, Chunrui Li, Po Tien
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is one of the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and it also causes severe neurologic complications in infected children. The interactions between some viruses and the host mitochondria are crucial for virus replication and pathogenicity. In this study, it was observed that EV-A71 infection resulted in a perinuclear redistribution of the mitochondria. The mitochondria rearrangement was found to require the microtubule network, the dynein complex and a low cytosolic calcium concentration...
May 8, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Qiang Zhang, Nishi R Sharma, Zhi-Ming Zheng, Mingzhou Chen
RNA granules are cytoplasmic, microscopically visible, non-membrane ribo-nucleoprotein structures and are important posttranscriptional regulators in gene expression by controlling RNA translation and stability. TIA/G3BP/PABP-specific stress granules (SG) and GW182/DCP-specific RNA processing bodies (PB) are two major distinguishable RNA granules in somatic cells and contain various ribosomal subunits, translation factors, scaffold proteins, RNA-binding proteins, RNA decay enzymes and helicases to exclude mRNAs from the cellular active translational pool...
April 29, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Huan Yu, Yi-Yi Ou-Yang, Ni Li, Madoka Nakai, Guo-Hua Huang
As specific pathogens of noctuid pests, including Spodoptera exigua, S. litura, Helicoverpa armigera, and Mythimna separata, ascoviruses are suitable for the development of bioinsecticides. In this study, the infectivity of Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3j (HvAV-3j) on insect and mammalian cells was evaluated. HvAV-3j infection induced drastic morphological changes in Sf9, HzAM1, SeFB, and HaFB cells, including swelling and detachment. Notably, the latter phenomena did not occur in HvAV-3j-inoculated mammalian cells (HEK293, 7402, HePG2, PK15, ST, and TM3)...
April 29, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Mariia Novikova, Yulan Zhang, Eric O Freed, Ke Peng
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 capsid (HIV-1 CA) is involved in different stages of the viral replication cycle. During virion assembly, CA drives the formation of the hexameric lattice in immature viral particles, while in mature virions CA monomers assemble in cone-shaped cores surrounding the viral RNA genome and associated proteins. In addition to its functions in late stages of the viral replication cycle, CA plays key roles in a number of processes during early phases of HIV-1 infection including trafficking, uncoating, recognition by host cellular proteins and nuclear import of the viral pre-integration complex...
April 26, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Lijun Yan, Vladimir Majerciak, Zhi-Ming Zheng, Ke Lan
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), is etiologically linked to the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. These malignancies often occur in immunosuppressed individuals, making KSHV infection-associated diseases an increasing global health concern with persistence of the AIDS epidemic. KSHV exhibits biphasic life cycles between latent and lytic infection and extensive transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression...
April 25, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Rongquan Huang, Xusha Zhou, Shuqi Ren, Xianjie Liu, Zhiyuan Han, Grace Guoying Zhou
To date, 29 distinct microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be expressed during herpes simplex virus infections. Sequence analysis of mature herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) miRNAs revealed five sets of miRNAs that are complementary to each other: miR-H6-5p/H1-3p, miR-H6-3p/H1-5p, H2-5p/H14-3p, miR-H2-3p/H14-5p, and miR-H7/H27. However, the roles of individual miRNAs and consequences of this complementarity remain unclear. Here, we focus on two of these complementary miRNAs, miR-H6-5p and miR-H1-3p, using loss-of-function experiments in vitro and in a mouse model of infection using an miRNA sponge approach, including tandem multiplex artificial miRNA-binding sequences that do not match perfectly to the target miRNA inserted downstream of a green fluorescent protein reporter gene...
April 24, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Chun-Yan Guo, Hai-Xiang Zhang, Jun-Jun Zhang, Li-Jun Sun, Hui-Jin Li, Dao-Yan Liang, Qing Feng, Yan Li, Yang-Meng Feng, Xin Xie, Jun Hu
Previous studies have indicated that two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; A1-10 and H1-84) of the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen on the H1N1 influenza virus cross-react with human brain tissue. It has been proposed that there are heterophilic epitopes between the HA protein and human brain tissue (Guo et al. in Immunobiology 220:941-946, 2015). However, characterisation of the two mAbs recognising the heterophilic epitope on HA has not yet been performed. In the present study, the common antigens of influenza virus HA were confirmed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and analysed with DNAMAN software...
April 24, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Chunpeng Yang, Rui Gong, Natalia de Val
As we know more about Zika virus (ZIKV), as well as its linkage to birth defects (microcephaly) and autoimmune neurological syndromes, we realize the importance of developing an efficient vaccine against it. Zika virus disease has affected many countries and is becoming a major public health concern. To deal with the infection of ZIKV, plenty of experiments have been done on selection of neutralizing antibodies that can target the envelope (E) protein on the surface of the virion. However, the existence of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) effect might limit the use of them as therapeutic candidates...
April 24, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Zhenxing Gao, Min Peng, Liang Chen, Xiaowen Yang, Huan Li, Run Shi, Guiru Wu, Lili Cai, Qibin Song, Chaoyang Li
Unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive reaction for cells to reduce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In many types of cancers, such as lung cancer and pancreatic cancer, cancer cells may harness ER stress to facilitate their survival and growth. Prion protein (PrP) is a glycosylated cell surface protein that has been shown to be up-regulated in many cancer cells. Since PrP is a protein prone to misfolding, ER stress can result in under-glycosylated PrP, which in turn may activate ER stress. To assess whether ER stress leads to the production of under-glycosylated PrP and whether under-glycosylated PrP may contribute to ER stress thus leading to cancer cell apoptosis, we treated different cancer cells with brefeldin A (BFA), thapsigargin (Thps), and tunicamycin (TM)...
April 24, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Xi Liu, Li Ding, Jing Yuan, Jian Liao, Lian Duan, Wenfei Wang, Weiguo Tan, Weiye Yu, Boping Zhou, Xinchun Chen, Zheng Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Yishi Xu, Carla Bianca Luena Victorio, Tao Meng, Qiang Jia, Yee-Joo Tan, Kaw Bing Chua
Our previous work has shown that Saffold virus (SAFV) induced several rodent and primate cell lines to undergo apoptosis (Xu et al. in Emerg Microb Infect 3:1-8, 2014), but the essential viral proteins of SAFV involved in apoptotic activity lack study. In this study, we individually transfected the viral proteins of SAFV into HEp-2 and Vero cells to assess their ability to induce apoptosis, and found that the 2B and 3C proteins are proapoptotic. Further investigation indicated the transmembrane domain of the 2B protein is essential for the apoptotic activity and tetramer formation of the 2B protein...
April 23, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Zhi-Ming Zheng, Ke Lan, Eric O Freed, Zheng-Li Shi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 23, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Lirong Liu, Wenhui Fan, He Zhang, Shuang Zhang, Liang Cui, Meng Wang, Xiaoyuan Bai, Wenxian Yang, Lei Sun, Limin Yang, Wenjun Liu, Jing Li
Interferon, a natural protein that is produced by a variety of cells during viral infection, activates the transcription of multiple functional genes in cells, regulates synergy among various signaling pathways, and mediates many biological functions such as antiviral activity, immune regulation, and cell growth. However, clinical research on interferon in livestock is lacking. In this study, recombinant porcine interferon (PoIFNα) was used as an adjuvant, in combination with inactivated influenza virus, to vaccinate 6-week-old pigs via nasal infusion...
April 15, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Shu-Wei Dong, Ling-Shuai Jiao, Ming Yang, Ying-Liang Duan, Yi-Bo Chen, Fei Zhao, A-Mei Zhang, Li Liu, Min-Hua Luo, Xue-Shan Xia
As a universal pathogen leading to neonatal defects and transplant failure, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has strict species specificity and this has prevented the development of a suitable animal model for the pathogenesis study. The mechanism of cross-species barrier remains elusive and there are so far no non-human cell culture models that support HCMV replication. The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a small laboratory animal and evolutionary closely related with primates. We investigated the susceptibility of primary tree shrew dermis fibroblasts (TSDF) to HCMV infection...
April 15, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Wanmeng Liu, Ming Kuang, Ze Zhang, Yuanan Lu, Xueqin Liu
Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins were shown to play an important role in innate antiviral immunity. FinTRIM (ftr) is a new subset of TRIM genes that do not possess obvious orthologs in higher vertebrates. However, little is known about its function. In this study, we used bioinformatic analysis to examine the phylogenetic relationships and conserved domains of zebrafish (Danio rerio) ftr01, ftr42, and ftr58, as well as qualitative real-time PCR to examine their expression patterns in zebrafish embryonic fibroblast (ZF4) cells and zebrafish tissues...
April 15, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Sarah L Londrigan, Gregor Ebert, Prasad N Paradkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Yang Zhao, Jingjing Yang, Yan Liu, Jianyong Fan, Huilan Yang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) encoded by latency-associated transcript are associated with both latent and acute stages of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection. In this study, miRNA-H4-5p and miRNA-H4-3p were ectopically expressed in HeLa cells to explore potential cellular targets of viral miRNAs and demonstrate their potential biological functions. The results showed that miRNA-H4-5p could reverse apoptosis induced by actinomycin D (Act-D) and promote cell cycle progression, but miRNA-H4-3p had no such obvious functions...
April 5, 2019: Virologica Sinica
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