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Biomedical Informatics Insights

Sarah Poole, Nigam Shah
Bedside monitors are intended as a safety net in patient care, but their management in the inpatient setting is a significant patient safety concern. The low precision of vital sign alarm systems leads to clinical staff becoming desensitized to the sound of the alarm, a phenomenon known as alarm fatigue. Alarm fatigue has been shown to increase response time to alarms or result in alarms being ignored altogether and has negative consequences for patient safety. We present methods to establish personalized thresholds for heart rate and respiratory rate alarms...
2019: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Asmae Doukani, Xingjie Wei, Bibi Kader, Fabien Soazandry, Becky Inkser
Homeless people experience a unique set of challenges leading to pervasive health and social problems. An increasing number of researchers have harnessed photographic data to gain a unique perspective of marginalised groups. The aim of the study is to explore the feasibility of using photographs in research to understand the complex environment experienced by homeless people, with a special interest in mental health. Individuals who frequently attend homeless facilities in London were sensitively approached and asked if they would be interested in taking part in the 'Views From the Street' pilot study...
2018: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Arunima Srivastava, Chaitanya Kulkarni, Kun Huang, Anil Parwani, Parag Mallick, Raghu Machiraju
Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have gained steady popularity as a tool to perform automatic classification of whole slide histology images. While CNNs have proven to be powerful classifiers in this context, they fail to explain this classification, as the network engineered features used for modeling and classification are ONLY interpretable by the CNNs themselves. This work aims at enhancing a traditional neural network model to perform histology image modeling, patient classification, and interpretation of the distinctive features identified by the network within the histology whole slide images (WSIs)...
2018: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Alissa Knight, Geoff A Jarrad, Geoff D Schrader, Jorg Strobel, Dennis Horton, Niranjan Bidargaddi
Non-adherence with pharmacologic treatment is associated with increased rates of relapse and rehospitalisation among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To improve treatment response, remission, and recovery, research efforts are still needed to elucidate how to effectively map patient's response to medication treatment including both therapeutic and adverse effects, compliance, and satisfaction in the prodromal phase of illness (ie, the time period in between direct clinical consultation and relapse)...
2018: Biomedical Informatics Insights
William R Frey
As the lives of young people expand further into digital spaces, our understandings of their expressions and language on social media become more consequential for providing individualized and applicable mental health resources. This holds true for young people exposed to high rates of community violence who may also lack access to health resources offline. Social media may provide insights into the impacts of community violence exposure on mental health. However, much of what is shared on social media contains localized language and context, which poses challenges regarding interpretation...
2018: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Glen Coppersmith, Ryan Leary, Patrick Crutchley, Alex Fine
Suicide is among the 10 most common causes of death, as assessed by the World Health Organization. For every death by suicide, an estimated 138 people's lives are meaningfully affected, and almost any other statistic around suicide deaths is equally alarming. The pervasiveness of social media-and the near-ubiquity of mobile devices used to access social media networks-offers new types of data for understanding the behavior of those who (attempt to) take their own lives and suggests new possibilities for preventive intervention...
2018: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Joanna Sleigh
Technological developments, such as the advent of social networking sites, apps, and tracking 'cookies', enable the generation and collection of unprecedented quantities of rich personal and behavioural data, opening up a vast new resource for mental health research. Despite these non-traditional health-related data already forming a vital foundation of many new research avenues, little analysis has been done focusing on the experiences, motivations, and concerns of the individuals already engaged in data sharing and donation practices...
2018: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Telixia Inico
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Kavishwar B Wagholikar, Michael Mendis, Pralav Dessai, Javier Sanz, Sindy Law, Micheal Gilson, Stephan Sanders, Mahesh Vangala, Douglas S Bell, Shawn N Murphy
Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) is an open source clinical data analytics platform used at more than 150 institutions for querying patient data. An i2b2 installation (called hive) comprises several i2b2 cells that provide different functionalities. Given the complex architecture of i2b2 installation, creating a working installation of the platform is challenging for new users. This is despite the availability of extensive documentation for i2b2 and access to a large and active mailing list community of i2b2 users...
2018: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Satoshi Irino, Yukio Kurihara
We evaluated quasi-healthy cohorts (model cohorts), derived from clinical data, to determine how well they simulated control cohorts. Control cohorts comprised individuals extracted from a public checkup database in Japan, under the condition that their values for 3 basic laboratory tests fall within specific reference ranges (3Ts condition). Model cohorts comprised outpatients, extracted from a clinical database at a hospital, under the 3Ts condition or under the condition that their values for 4 laboratory tests fall within specific reference ranges (4Ts condition)...
2018: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Desmond Upton Patton, Jamie MacBeth, Sarita Schoenebeck, Katherine Shear, Kathleen McKeown
There is a dearth of research investigating youths' experience of grief and mourning after the death of close friends or family. Even less research has explored the question of how youth use social media sites to engage in the grieving process. This study employs qualitative analysis and natural language processing to examine tweets that follow 2 deaths. First, we conducted a close textual read on a sample of tweets by Gakirah Barnes, a gang-involved teenaged girl in Chicago, and members of her Twitter network, over a 19-day period in 2014 during which 2 significant deaths occurred: that of Raason "Lil B" Shaw and Gakirah's own death...
2018: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Becky Inkster
Aims and Scope: The conference aims were two-fold: (1) to explore how digital technology is implemented into personalized and/or group mental health interventions and (2) to promote digital equality through developing culturally sensitive ways of bringing technological innovation to disadvantaged groups. A broad scope of perspectives were welcomed and encouraged, from lived experience, academic, clinical, media, the arts, policy-making, tech innovation, and other perspectives.
2018: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Paola Pierleoni, Lorenzo Maurizi, Lorenzo Palma, Alberto Belli, Simone Valenti, Alessandro Marroni
The use of precordial Doppler monitoring to prevent decompression sickness (DS) is well known by the scientific community as an important instrument for early diagnosis of DS. However, the timely and correct diagnosis of DS without assistance from diving medical specialists is unreliable. Thus, a common protocol for the manual annotation of echo Doppler signals and a tool for their automated recording and annotation are necessary. We have implemented original software for efficient bubble appearance annotation and proposed a unified annotation protocol...
2017: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Thomas Desautels, Jacob Calvert, Jana Hoffman, Qingqing Mao, Melissa Jay, Grant Fletcher, Chris Barton, Uli Chettipally, Yaniv Kerem, Ritankar Das
Algorithm-based clinical decision support (CDS) systems associate patient-derived health data with outcomes of interest, such as in-hospital mortality. However, the quality of such associations often depends on the availability of site-specific training data. Without sufficient quantities of data, the underlying statistical apparatus cannot differentiate useful patterns from noise and, as a result, may underperform. This initial training data burden limits the widespread, out-of-the-box, use of machine learning-based risk scoring systems...
2017: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Huaxiu Tang, Imre Solti, Eric Kirkendall, Haijun Zhai, Todd Lingren, Jaroslaw Meller, Yizhao Ni
The objective of this study was to determine whether the Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) data set could serve as the basis of automated electronic health record (EHR) monitoring for the adverse drug reaction (ADR) subset of adverse drug events. We retrospectively collected EHR entries for 71 909 pediatric inpatient visits at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Natural language processing (NLP) techniques were used to identify positive diseases/disorders and signs/symptoms (DDSSs) from the patients' clinical narratives...
2017: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Jingcheng Du, Yi Cai, Yong Chen, Yongqun He, Cui Tao
Personalized and precision vaccination requires consideration of an individual's sex and age. This article proposed systematic methods to study individual differences in adverse reactions following vaccination and chose trivalent influenza vaccine as a use case. Data were extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System from years 1990 to 2014. We first grouped symptoms into the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities System Organ Classes (SOCs). We then applied zero-truncated Poisson regression and logistic regression to identify reporting differences among different individual groups over the SOCs...
2017: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Moises E Maravi, Lauren E Snyder, L Dean McEwen, Kathryn DeYoung, Arthur J Davidson
INTRODUCTION: Recent pertussis outbreaks in the United States suggest our response to local disease outbreaks (eg, vaccine-preventable Bordetella pertussis) may benefit from understanding and applying spatial analytical methods that use data from immunization information systems at a subcounty level. METHODS: A 2012 study on Denver, CO, residents less than 19 years of age confirmed pertussis cases and immunization information system records were geocoded and aggregated to the census tract (CT) level...
2017: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Brittany L Melton
This systematic review sought to assess the applications and implications of current medical informatics-based decision support systems related to medication prescribing and use. Studies published between January 2006 and July 2016 which were indexed in PubMed and written in English were reviewed, and 39 studies were ultimately included. Most of the studies looked at computerized provider order entry or clinical decision support systems. Most studies examined decision support systems as a means of reducing errors or risk, particularly associated with medication prescribing, whereas a few studies evaluated the impact medical informatics-based decision support systems have on workflow or operations efficiency...
2017: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Jessica Y Islam, Joann F Gruber, Alexandre Lockhart, Manju Kunwar, Spencer Wilson, Sara B Smith, Noel T Brewer, Jennifer S Smith
Pharmacies have been endorsed as alternative vaccine delivery sites to improve vaccination rates through increased access to services. Our objective was to identify challenges and facilitators to adolescent and adult vaccination provision in pharmacy settings in the United States. We recruited 40 licensed pharmacists in states with different pharmacy vaccination laws. Eligible pharmacists previously administered or were currently administering human papillomavirus (HPV); tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (TDAP); or meningitis (meningococcal conjugate vaccine [MCV4]) vaccines to adolescents aged 9 to 17 years...
2017: Biomedical Informatics Insights
Miriam Halstead Muscoplat, Sripriya Rajamani
The vision for management of immunization information is availability of real-time consolidated data and services for all ages, to clinical, public health, and other stakeholders. This is being executed through Immunization Information Systems (IISs), which are population-based and confidential computerized systems present in most US states and territories. Immunization Information Systems offer many functionalities, such as immunization assessment reports, client follow-up, reminder/recall feature, vaccine management tools, state-supplied vaccine ordering, comprehensive immunization history, clinical decision support/vaccine forecasting and recommendations, data processing, and data exchange...
2017: Biomedical Informatics Insights
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