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Magnetic Resonance Insights

Vikas Pareek, Vp Subramanyam Rallabandi, Prasun K Roy
We investigate the relationship between Gray matter's volume vis-a-vis White matter's integrity indices, such Axial diffusivity, Radial diffusivity, Mean diffusivity, and Fractional anisotropy, in individuals undergoing healthy aging. We investigated MRI scans of 177 adults across 20 to 85 years. We used Voxel-based morphometry, and FDT-FSL analysis for estimation of Gray matter volume and White matter's diffusion indices respectively. Across the life span, we observed an inter-relationship between the Gray matter and White matter, namely that both Axial diffusivity and Mean Diffusivity show strong correlation with Gray matter volume, along the aging process...
2018: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Runze Yang, Susobhan Sarkar, V Wee Yong, Jeff F Dunn
There is a complex interaction between cancer and the immune system. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can be subverted by the cancer to adopt a pro-tumor phenotype to aid tumor growth. These anti-inflammatory, pro-tumor TAMs have been shown to contribute to a worsened outcome in several different types of cancer. Various strategies aimed at combating the pro-tumor TAMs have been developed. Several therapies, such as oncolytic viral therapy and high-intensity focused ultrasound, have been shown to stimulate TAMs and suppress tumor growth...
2018: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Michael A Motes, Neena K Rao, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Hsueh-Sheng Chiang, Michael A Kraut, John Hart
Computer-based assessment of many cognitive processes (eg, anticipatory and response readiness processes) requires the use of invariant stimulus display times (SDT) and intertrial intervals (ITI). Although designs with invariant SDTs and ITIs have been used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research, such designs are problematic for fMRI studies because of collinearity issues. This study examined regressor modulation with trial-level reaction times (RT) as a method for improving signal detection in a go / no-go task with invariant SDTs and ITIs...
2017: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Jan Endrikat, Nicoletta Anzalone
Gadobutrol is a gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In India, gadobutrol is approved for MRI of the central nervous system (CNS), liver, kidneys, breast and for MR angiography for patients 2 years and older. The standard dose for all age groups is 0.1 mmol/kg body weight. The safety profile has been demonstrated in 42 clinical phase 2 to 4 studies (>6800 patients), 7 observational studies, and by assessing pharmacovigilance data of 29 million applications. Furthermore, studies in children, adults, and elderly and in patients with impaired liver or kidney function did not show any increased adverse event rate...
2017: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Alexandra Carvalho, M Clara Gonçalves, M Luísa Corvo, M Bárbara F Martins
Liposomes are interesting nanosystems with a wide range of medical application. One particular application is their ability to enhance contrast in magnetic resonance images; when properly loaded with magnetic/superparamagnetic nanoparticles, this means to act as contrast agents. The design of liposomes loaded with magnetic particles, magnetoliposomes, presents a large number of possibilities depending on the application from image function to metabolism. More interesting is its double function application as theranostics (diagnostics and therapy)...
2017: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Mariam Alaverdashvili, Valerie Lapointe, Ian Q Whishaw, Albert R Cross
Manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) has been suggested to be a useful tool to visualize and map behavior-relevant neural populations at large scale in freely behaving rodents. A primary concern in MEMRI applications is Mn(2+) toxicity. Although a few studies have specifically examined toxicity on gross motor behavior, Mn(2+) toxicity on skilled motor behavior was not explored. Thus, the objective of this study was to combine manganese as a functional contrast agent with comprehensive behavior evaluation...
2017: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Gregor Jost, Jan Endrikat, Hubertus Pietsch
OBJECTIVE: To compare injector-based contrast agent (CA) administration with hand injection in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). METHODS: Gadobutrol was administered in 6 minipigs with 3 protocols: (a) hand injection (one senior technician), (b) hand injection (6 less-experienced technicians), and (c) power injector administration. The arterial bolus shape was quantified by test bolus measurements. A head and neck MRA was performed for quantitative and qualitative comparison of signal enhancement...
2017: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Marcelo Batista Bonadio, Alipio Gomes Ormond Filho, Camilo Partezani Helito, Xavier Mgrg Stump, Marco Kawamura Demange
In this article, the cause, histology, imaging characteristics, clinical presentation, and treatment of these lesions are thoroughly discussed. Bone marrow edema is the generic term classically used to describe the high-signal-intensity alterations detected on magnetic resonance fluid-sensitive sequences. The significance of bone marrow edema for the patient's clinical condition and the prognosis of the affected joint is being increasingly investigated and discussed, and situations characterized by subchondral insufficiency are receiving increasing attention...
2017: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Ana Capati, Omkar B Ijare, Tedros Bezabeh
Metabolomics is a rapidly growing field with potential applications in various disciplines. In particular, metabolomics has received special attention in the discovery of biomarkers and diagnostics. This is largely due to the fact that metabolomics provides critical information related to the downstream products of many cellular and metabolic processes which could provide a snapshot of the health/disease status of a particular tissue or organ. Many of these cellular products eventually find their way to urine; hence, analysis of urine via metabolomics has the potential to yield useful diagnostic and prognostic information...
2017: Magnetic Resonance Insights
J Scott McNally, Seong-Eun Kim, Jason Mendes, J Rock Hadley, Akihiko Sakata, Adam H De Havenon, Gerald S Treiman, Dennis L Parker
Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a major cause of ischemic stroke. For more than 30 years, future stroke risk and carotid stroke etiology have been determined using percent diameter stenosis based on clinical trials in the 1990s. In the past 10 years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences have been developed to detect carotid intraplaque hemorrhage. By detecting carotid intraplaque hemorrhage, MRI identifies potential stroke sources that are often overlooked by lumen imaging. In addition, MRI can dramatically improve assessment of future stroke risk beyond lumen stenosis alone...
2017: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Naseer Ahmed, Tedros Bezabeh, Omkar B Ijare, Renelle Myers, Reem Alomran, Michel Aliani, Zoann Nugent, Shantanu Banerji, Julian Kim, Gefei Qing, Zoheir Bshouty
OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. Currently, there are no biomarkers for early detection, monitoring treatment response, and detecting recurrent lung cancer. We undertook this study to determine if (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of sputum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC), as a noninvasive tool, can identify metabolic biomarkers of lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sputum and EBC samples were collected from 20 patients, comprising patients with pathologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer (n = 10) and patients with benign respiratory conditions (n = 10)...
2016: Magnetic Resonance Insights
James Geller, Mureo Kasahara, Mercedes Martinez, Annarosa Soresina, Fran Kashanian, Jan Endrikat
PURPOSE: To assess the safety and efficacy of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MR imaging in pediatric patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective, multicenter study including pediatric patients aged >2 months to <18 years who underwent contrast-enhanced liver MRI due to focal liver lesions. A single intravenous bolus injection of 0.025 to 0.05 mmol/kg body weight of gadoxetate disodium was administered. Adverse events (AEs) up to 24 hours after injection were recorded and a one-year follow-up was conducted for all serious and unexpected AEs...
2016: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Rishu Rathee, V P Subramanyam Rallabandi, Prasun K Roy
The aim is to investigate the relationship between microstructural white matter (WM) diffusivity indices and macrostructural WM volume (WMV) among healthy individuals (20-85 years). Whole-brain diffusion measures were calculated from diffusion tensor imaging using FMRIB software library while WMV was estimated through voxel-based morphometry, and voxel-based analysis was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics. Our results revealed that mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity had shown good correlation with WMV but not for fractional anisotropy (FA)...
2016: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Scott Quadrelli, Carolyn Mountford, Saadallah Ramadan
Partial volume effects have the potential to cause inaccuracies when quantifying metabolites using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In order to correct for cerebrospinal fluid content, a spectroscopic voxel needs to be segmented according to different tissue contents. This article aims to detail how automated partial volume segmentation can be undertaken and provides a software framework for researchers to develop their own tools. While many studies have detailed the impact of partial volume correction on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy quantification, there is a paucity of literature explaining how voxel segmentation can be achieved using freely available neuroimaging packages...
2016: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Anwar S Shatil, Sohail Younas, Hossein Pourreza, Chase R Figley
With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed) the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1) inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2) highlight their main advantages; 3) discuss when it may (and may not) be advisable to use them; 4) review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5) give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources...
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Matthew S Fox, Jeffrey M Gaudet, Paula J Foster
Fluorine-19 ((19)F)-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging stand to revolutionize imaging-based research and clinical trials in several fields of medical intervention. First, their use in characterizing in vivo cell behavior may help bring cellular therapy closer to clinical acceptance. Second, their use in lung imaging provides novel noninvasive interrogation of the ventilated airspaces without the need for complicated, hard-to-distribute hardware. This article reviews the current state of (19)F-based cell tracking and lung imaging using magnetic resonance imaging and describes the link between the methods across these fields and how they may mutually benefit from solutions to mutual problems encountered when imaging (19)F-containing compounds, as well as hardware and software advancements...
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Melanie Martin, Benedict Albensi, Albert Cross, Rachel Katz-Brull, Jonathan Thiessen, Scott King, Alexander Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Marc Jupin, Ayelet Gamliel, Yonatan Hovav, Jacob Sosna, J Moshe Gomori, Rachel Katz-Brull
In the dissolution-dynamic nuclear polarization technique, molecular probes with long T 1s are preferred. 13C nuclei of small molecules with no directly bonded protons or sp(3 13)C nuclei with proton positions substituted by deuterons may fulfill this requirement. The T 1 determination of such new molecular probes is crucial for the success of the hyperpolarized observation. Although the inversion-recovery approach remained by and large the standard for T 1 measurements, we show here that the steady-state variable nutation angle approach is faster and may be better suited for the determination of relatively long T 1s in thermal equilibrium...
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Tiffany A Kolesar, Kirsten M Fiest, Stephen D Smith, Jennifer Kornelsen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of fMRI of the spinal cord in measuring noxious stimulation. METHODS: The Scopus, Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched, along with the reference lists of included articles. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts, full-text articles, and extracted data. Original research was included if fMRI of the human spinal cord was used to measure responses to noxious stimulation. RESULTS: Of the 192 abstracts screened, 19 met the search criteria and were divided according to their focus: investigating pain responses (n = 6), methodology (n = 6), spinal cord injury (n = 2), or cognition-pain interactions (n = 5)...
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
Daniel J Korchinski, May Taha, Runze Yang, Nabeela Nathoo, Jeff F Dunn
Iron oxide contrast agents have been combined with magnetic resonance imaging for cell tracking. In this review, we discuss coating properties and provide an overview of ex vivo and in vivo labeling of different cell types, including stem cells, red blood cells, and monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, we provide examples of applications of cell tracking with iron contrast agents in stroke, multiple sclerosis, cancer, arteriovenous malformations, and aortic and cerebral aneurysms. Attempts at quantifying iron oxide concentrations and other vascular properties are examined...
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
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