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Masataka Tsuge, Takuro Uchida, Kevin Walsh, Yuji Ishida, Chise Tateno, Upendra Kumar, Jeffrey S Glenn, Christopher Koh, Theo Heller, Susan L Uprichard, Harel Dahari, Kazuaki Chayama
Backgrounds and Aims: We previously demonstrated that serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in HBV infected humanized mice exhibited a highly dynamic multiphasic kinetic pattern from infection initiation to steady-state. Here, we investigated whether this pattern is consistent across different HBV clones or in the presence of hepatitis D virus (HDV) co-infection. Methods: We analyzed early serum viral kinetics using 26 HBV genotype C (GtC) mono-infected mice [clones: PXB, Hiroshima GtC CL4 (CL4) and Hiroshima GtC CL5 (CL5)] and four HBV CL4/HDV genotype one co-infected mice...
March 15, 2019: Viruses
Gang Li, Guanliu Yu, Yujuan Niu, Yumei Cai, Sidang Liu
Serotype 4 fowl adenovirus (FAdV-4) is the main pathogen for hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) in chickens. It has caused major economic losses in the global poultry industry. Currently, FAdV-4's transmission routes in chickens remain unclear. Here we investigate the airborne transmission routes of FAdV-4 in chickens. A total of 45 ten-day-old chickens were equally divided into three groups (infected group/isolator A, airborne group/isolator B, and control group/isolator C). Of note, isolators A and B were connected by a leak-free pipe...
March 14, 2019: Viruses
Carlo Scialò, Elena De Cecco, Paolo Manganotti, Giuseppe Legname
Increasing evidence suggests that neurodegenerative disorders share a common pathogenic feature: the presence of deposits of misfolded proteins with altered physicochemical properties in the Central Nervous System. Despite a lack of infectivity, experimental data show that the replication and propagation of neurodegenerative disease-related proteins including amyloid-β (Aβ), tau, α-synuclein and the transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) share a similar pathological mechanism with prions...
March 14, 2019: Viruses
Eric D Laing, Spencer L Sterling, Dawn L Weir, Chelsi R Beauregard, Ina L Smith, Sasha E Larsen, Lin-Fa Wang, Andrew L Snow, Brian C Schaefer, Christopher C Broder
Bats are increasingly implicated as hosts of highly pathogenic viruses. The underlying virus⁻host interactions and cellular mechanisms that promote co-existence remain ill-defined, but physiological traits such as flight and longevity are proposed to drive these adaptations. Autophagy is a cellular homeostatic process that regulates ageing, metabolism, and intrinsic immune defense. We quantified basal and stimulated autophagic responses in black flying fox cells, and demonstrated that although black flying fox cells are susceptible to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infection, viral replication is dampened in these bat cells...
March 14, 2019: Viruses
Md Niaz Rahim, Min Wang, Tong Wang, Shihua He, Bryan D Griffin, Darwyn Kobasa, Ruifu Yang, Zongmin Du, Xiangguo Qiu
Filoviruses cause lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. The filovirus nucleoprotein (NP) is expressed in high abundance in infected cells and is essential for virus replication. To generate anti-filovirus monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the NP, mice were immunized with peptides known as B-cell epitopes corresponding to different filovirus NPs, and hybridomas were screened using FLAG-tagged filovirus NP constructs. Numerous mAbs were identified, isotyped, and characterized. The anti-NP mAbs demonstrated different ranges of binding affinities to various filovirus NPs...
March 14, 2019: Viruses
Luis Martinez-Sobrido, Fernando Almazán
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne member of the Flaviviridae family that has historically been known to cause sporadic outbreaks, associated with a mild febrile illness, in Africa and Southeast Asia [...].
March 14, 2019: Viruses
E Meng, Baozhen Tang, Francisco Javier Sanchez-Garcia, Ting Qiao, Lang Fu, Yu Wang, You-Ming Hou, Jiang-Lin Wu, Zhi-Ming Chen
The complete sequence of a novel RNA virus isolated from Tetrastichus brontispae (TbRV-1) was determined to be 12,239 nucleotides in length with five non-overlapping, linearly arranged coding sequences (CDS), potentially encoding nucleoproteins, hypothetical proteins, matrix proteins, glycoproteins, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Sequence analysis indicated that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of TbRV-1 shares a 65% nucleotide and 67% amino acid sequence identity with Hubei dimarhabdovirus 2, suggesting that TbRV-1 is a member of the dimarhabdovirus supergroup...
March 13, 2019: Viruses
Ekaterina Maidji, Mary E Moreno, Jose M Rivera, Pheroze Joshi, Sofiya A Galkina, Galina Kosikova, Ma Somsouk, Cheryl A Stoddart
Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) greatly suppresses HIV replication, lymphoid tissues remain a sanctuary site where the virus may replicate. Tracking the earliest steps of HIV spread from these cellular reservoirs after drug cessation is pivotal for elucidating how infection can be prevented. In this study, we developed an in vivo model of HIV persistence in which viral replication in the lymphoid compartments of humanized mice was inhibited by the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) to very low levels, which recapitulated ART-suppression in HIV-infected individuals...
March 13, 2019: Viruses
Gilles Darcis, Caroline S Binda, Bep Klaver, Elena Herrera-Carrillo, Ben Berkhout, Atze T Das
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system is widely explored for sequence-specific attack on HIV-1 proviral DNA. We recently identified dual-guide RNA (dual-gRNA) combinations that can block HIV-1 replication permanently in infected cell cultures and prevent viral escape. Although the gRNAs were designed to target highly conserved viral sequences, their efficacy may be challenged by high genetic variation in the HIV-1 genome. We therefore evaluated the breadth of these dual-gRNA combinations against distinct HIV-1 isolates, including several subtypes...
March 13, 2019: Viruses
Xuan Wu, Xiwen Zhai, Yan Lai, Lei Zuo, Yu Zhang, Xueran Mei, Rong Xiang, Zhuangzhuang Kang, Long Zhou, Hongning Wang
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two poultry pathogens seriously affecting the poultry industry. Here, IBV S1 and the ectodomain of NDV F proteins were separately linked with the trans-membrane and carboxy-terminal domain of IBV S protein (STMCT ), composing rS and rF; thus, a novel chimeric infectious bronchitis-Newcastle disease (IB-ND) virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccine containing the rS, rF, and IBV M protein was constructed. Under the transmission electron microscope (TEM), VLPs possessing similar morphology to natural IBV were observed...
March 13, 2019: Viruses
Mauricio Comas-Garcia
The packaging of genomic RNA in positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses is a key part of the viral infectious cycle, yet this step is not fully understood. Unlike double-stranded DNA and RNA viruses, this process is coupled with nucleocapsid assembly. The specificity of RNA packaging depends on multiple factors: (i) one or more packaging signals, (ii) RNA replication, (iii) translation, (iv) viral factories, and (v) the physical properties of the RNA. The relative contribution of each of these factors to packaging specificity is different for every virus...
March 13, 2019: Viruses
Vinodhini Krishnakumar, Siva Sundara Kumar Durairajan, Kalichamy Alagarasu, Min Li, Aditya Prasad Dash
Well-developed mouse models are important for understanding the pathogenesis and progression of immunological response to viral infections in humans. Moreover, to test vaccines, anti-viral drugs and therapeutic agents, mouse models are fundamental for preclinical investigations. Human viruses, however, seldom infect mice due to differences in the cellular receptors used by the viruses for entry, as well as in the innate immune responses in mice and humans. In other words, a species barrier exists when using mouse models for investigating human viral infections...
March 13, 2019: Viruses
Joachim Denner
Hepatitis (HEV) is widely distributed in pigs and is transmitted with increasing numbers to humans by contact with pigs, contaminated food and blood transfusion. The virus is mostly apathogenic in pigs but may enhance the pathogenicity of other pig viruses. In humans, infection can lead to acute and chronic hepatitis and extrahepatic manifestations. In order to stop the emerging infection, effective counter-measures are required. First of all, transmission by blood products can be prevented by screening all blood donations...
March 13, 2019: Viruses
Ian H Mendenhall, Dolyce Low Hong Wen, Jayanthi Jayakumar, Vithiagaran Gunalan, Linfa Wang, Sebastian Mauer-Stroh, Yvonne C F Su, Gavin J D Smith
Bats are unique mammals, exhibit distinctive life history traits and have unique immunological approaches to suppression of viral diseases upon infection. High-throughput next-generation sequencing has been used in characterizing the virome of different bat species. The cave nectar bat, Eonycteris spelaea , has a broad geographical range across Southeast Asia, India and southern China, however, little is known about their involvement in virus transmission. Here we investigate the diversity and abundance of viral communities from a colony of Eonycteris spelaea residing in Singapore...
March 12, 2019: Viruses
Satya Parida, M Selvaraj, S Gubbins, R Pope, A Banyard, Mana Mahapatra
Following the successful eradication of rinderpest, the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) have set a goal to globally eradicate Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) by 2030. To support the eradication programme we have quantified the levels of PPR virus (PPRV) nucleic acid excreted in body fluids (blood, feces, saliva, nasal and eye swabs) of PPRV-infected goats to ascertain which days post-infection animals are potentially infectious, and hence direct quarantine activities...
March 12, 2019: Viruses
Jong-Min Lee, Eun Jung Choi, Juyun Park, Vasanthan Devaraj, ChunTae Kim, Jiye Han, Won-Geun Kim, Kyujung Kim, Yong-Cheol Kang, Kwang Ho Kim, Jin-Woo Oh
The genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage (M13 phage), developed via directed evolutionary screening process, can improve the sensitivity of sensors because of its selective binding to a target material. Herein, we propose a screening method to develop a selective and sensitive bioreporter for toxic material based on genetically engineered M13 phage. The paraquat (PQ)-binding M13 phage, developed by directed evolution, was used. The binding affinities of the PQ-binding M13 phage to PQ and similar molecules were analyzed using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC)...
March 12, 2019: Viruses
Naresh Chandra, Yan Liu, Jing-Xia Liu, Lars Frängsmyr, Nian Wu, Lisete M Silva, Mona Lindström, Wengang Chai, Fatima Pedrosa Domellöf, Ten Feizi, Niklas Arnberg
Glycans on plasma membranes and in secretions play important roles in infection by many viruses. Species D human adenovirus type 37 (HAdV-D37) is a major cause of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) and infects target cells by interacting with sialic acid (SA)-containing glycans via the fiber knob domain of the viral fiber protein. HAdV-D37 also interacts with sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), but the outcome of this interaction remains unknown. Here, we investigated the molecular requirements of HAdV-D37 fiber knob:GAG interactions using a GAG microarray and demonstrated that fiber knob interacts with a broad range of sulfated GAGs...
March 12, 2019: Viruses
Caroline L Ashley, Allison Abendroth, Brian P McSharry, Barry Slobedman
The antiviral activity of type I interferons (IFNs) is primarily mediated by interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Induction of ISG transcription is achieved when type I IFNs bind to their cognate receptor and activate the Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathways. Recently it has become clear that a number of viruses are capable of directly upregulating a subset of ISGs in the absence of type I IFN production. Using cells engineered to block either the response to, or production of type I IFN, the regulation of IFN-independent ISGs was examined in the context of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection...
March 12, 2019: Viruses
Núria Duran-Vila
Since the early 1970s when "virus-like" agents were considered as the cause of two diseases (potato spindle tuber and citrus exocortis), their study and further characterization have been linked to the development and use of molecular biology tools. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) played a critical role in the pioneering studies of PSTVd and citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd). This was later modified by using other PAGEs (sequential PAGE, return PAGE, two-dimensional PAGE), and/or different staining methods (ethidium bromide, silver nitrate, etc...
March 12, 2019: Viruses
Kevin Furlong, Seungmin Hwang
Autophagy is an essential cellular process by which a cell degrades materials within its cytoplasm. Intracellular pathogens like viruses must deal with autophagy, either positively or negatively, for their own survival and replication. For some viruses, autophagy can even play proviral roles, helping their replication or dissemination. For other viruses, including noroviruses, the exact role of autophagy is more complex. This short review seeks to summarize the known interactions between autophagy, autophagy proteins and norovirus, and to address remaining questions relevant to these interactions...
March 12, 2019: Viruses
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